learning and experience
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  • 1. Learning & ExperienceJ A A RumeserPrepared by Yohannes RamianoHR EXPO III – Nov 2008
  • 2. What is Learning ?…a sense that an individual is not merely aproperty nature, set in place according to ascheme independent of him… but that he addsomething, that he makes contribution. (John Dewey,1938,1958)Page 2
  • 3. What is Learning ? Human being are unique among all living organism in that their primary adaptive specialization lies not in some particular physical form or skill or fits in ecological niche, but rather in identification with the process of adaptation itself-in the process of learning. (Kolb, 1984)Page 3
  • 4. What is Learning ? Learning is any permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice (Ciccareli & Meyer, 2006)Page 4
  • 5. What is Learning ? Learning is any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience (Weiten, 2008)Page 5
  • 6. What is Learning ? Leaning is generally define as all relatively permanent changes in potential for behaviors that result from experience but are not caused by fatigue, maturation, drugs, injury or disease (Lefranqois, 2006)Page 6
  • 7. What is Learning ? Learning is a social process based on carefully cultivated experience which challenges every precept and concept of what nowadays passes for “teaching” (Bennis, 1984)Page 7
  • 8. The future learning society represents a personal challenge for millions of adults who find learning is no longer ‘for kids” but a central lifelong task essential for personal development and career success (Kolb, 1984)Page 8
  • 9. What is Learning ? Memory is an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage (Ciccarelli & Meyer, 2006)Page 9
  • 10. Memory encoding storage retrievalPage 10
  • 11. 3 Phase Memory Process Short LongSensory selective encoding Term TermMemory attention retrieval Memory MemoryPage 11
  • 12. Short Term Memory Maintenance rehearsal, practice of saying some information to be remembered over an over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short term memory (Ciccarelli & Meyer, 2006)Page 12
  • 13. The magical number : 7 plus-minus 2 (Welten, 2008)Page 13
  • 14. Long Term Memory Elaborative rehearsal, a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in someway (Ciccarelli & Meyer, 2008)Page 14
  • 15. Kolb’sLearningStyle Concrete Experience [1] Testing in New Observation and Situation [3] Reflection [2] Forming Abstract Concept [3]Page 15
  • 16. Kolb’s ConcreteLearning ExperienceStyle Feeling Accommodating Diverging (feel and do) (feel and watch) AC/AE CE/RO Perce ption Conti Active Reflective Processing nuum ContinuumExperimentation Observation How we How Do things Doing Watching we think about Converging Assimilating things (think and do) (think and watch) AC/AE AC/RO Abstract Page 16 Conceptualization Thinking
  • 17. Learning Style Learning Description CharacteristicConverger Abstract strong in practical Conceptualization + application of ideas Active Experimentation can focus on hypo- deductive reasoning on specific problems Unemotional has narrow interestDiverger Concrete Experience + strong in imaginative Reflective Observation ability good at generating ideas and seeing things from different perspectives interested in people broad cultural interestPage 17
  • 18. Learning Style Learning Description Characteristic Assimilator Abstract strong ability to create Conceptualization + theoretical models Reflective Observation excels in inductive reasoning concerned with abstract concepts rather than people Accommodator Concrete Experience + greatest strength is doing Active Experimentation things more of risk taker performs well when required to react to immediate circumstances solves problems intuitivelyPage 18
  • 19. Thank U ☺Page 19