Sketching User Experience
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Sketching User Experience

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Slides presenting the idea of Bill Buxton on designing for the wild and experience design.

Slides presenting the idea of Bill Buxton on designing for the wild and experience design.

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  • This is a nice picture of a bike, nice looking rendering design, etc.
  • This is what we sell, it is the experience
  • This is what we sell, it is the experience.It is not instead of the artifact, the artifact obviously are huge part of shaping experience, I cannot experience “m’éclatercomme un malade a dévalerunemontagne” without my bike. It is not about the bike right, it is completely dependent upon the bike. It is the adrenaline in that case, so there is obviously a tied relation ship between the artifact and the experience but there is much than that.
  • design teams should be composed of people with different backgrounds and histories because all can bring valuable, complimentary skills to bear in the creation of new products
  • design teams should be composed of people with different backgrounds and histories because all can bring valuable, complimentary skills to bear in the creation of new products
  • Getting the right design is about starting with a single design idea – usually the first idea you generate -…
  • … and iteratively developing it until it is as good as it can get. If you are really good, it will be the optimal design for that idea.But is it the best idea possible? Unlikely.
  • The problem is that the design can only be as good as that particular idea. If the idea is not a good one, the best solution will only be so.In Computer Science, this is known as local hill climbing, where the local maxima is potentially much less than the optimal or global maxima.The point is that if you look at many ideas rather than a single one, you may find a better overall solution.
  • This is called Getting the Right Design vs. Getting the Design Right , that is:Getting the right designgenerate many ideas, e.g., inspired by brainstorming, discussions, lateral thinking, client discussions, observations, etc.reflect on all your ideas; choose the ones that look promisingthen Getting the design rightiterate and develop your choicescontinually refine your choices as the better solutions become apparentof course, add in new ideas as they come up
  • This is called Getting the Right Design vs. Getting the Design Right , that is:Getting the right designgenerate many ideas, e.g., inspired by brainstorming, discussions, lateral thinking, client discussions, observations, etc.reflect on all your ideas; choose the ones that look promisingthen Getting the design rightiterate and develop your choicescontinually refine your choices as the better solutions become apparentof course, add in new ideas as they come up
  • As an example, consider the many design variations of the traditional keypad cell phone. The iPhone design was a radical shift, as it was based on a different idea for input: touch
  • Here’s another way to look at it. The design process is a symbiotic relationship between idea elaboration and reduction.Elaboration: generate solutions. These are the opportunitiesReduction: decide on the ones worth pursuing, and then elaborate on those solutions
  • Bill Buxton’s quote about design as choice stresses creativity in both generating meaningful ideas, and in choosing between these idea.
  • This is yet another variation on representing the design funnel, by S. Pugh. Of importance, is that the generation of ideas and the convergence of ideas alternate, with the process gradually converging to the final concept
  • Lets now consider the importance of design in software product lifecycle.The ‘status quo’ is that projects get a green light right at the start, and go directly to engineering where they are built. The next phase is when they ship – usually late, with bugs, over budget, and missing functionality.
  • By inserting an explicit design process prior to the green light, many designs can be considered before any commitment is made.The design funnel generates and develops ideas in parallel, where it filters, and eliminates designs until convergence. At that point one or more designs can be considered for green light.
  • This is perhaps a more accurate picture, as it shows the interplay between design, engineering, management, marketing and sales throughout the entire product cycle.
  • When I look design as I think about it, there is this archetypal activity, overreaching all design discipline, architectural design, industrial design, graphical design, where I cannot come up with an example where sketching is not involved. I do not say sketching is design, but when I see design I see sketching.These are the first known examples of using sketching as a tool of thought.
  • These are the first known examples of using sketching as a tool of thought.
  • So lets review the attributes of what makes a sketch work in the design funnel, particularly in generating ideas and choosing between them.
  • The idea of the vocabulary, resolution and concept state really talks about where you are in the design funnel. Initial sketches will be very open ended, with course resolution so that the basic concept is suggested. Later refinements and variations of a chosen sketch may have a more concrete vocabulary and more resolution, but will still show its speculative nature.
  • Critically, a sketch should never close off design. Rather, it should constantly suggest what could be, and leave room for growth and variation. Indeed, that is what separates a sketch from a prototype.
  • What do Bill mean by ambiguity? Next slides is for that
  • If you closed all in, and specify everything, you will not let enough room for the imagination to play.There is no ambiguity, you are telling me something, you are not asking me something.And the most fundamental thing about sketching, it is about asking it is not about telling.You have to leave big enough holes for your imagination to fit in.Timing comes later with the prototype, when you know what you want.
  • This is why the these things about resolution and rendering style are so critical.If somebody comes in, early in the project when you are doing the user interface for a mobile phone for instance, with nice looking screenshot of the interface, of any photoshop like rendering, you should give him 1 warning instead of a bonus if you are generous. I (Bill Buxton) will get a new designer. It is an insult, at this stage, you are not there to give answer, you are here to ask questions, not answer them. You don’t higher designer to answer question but to ask questions. The can find the answer later but not at the beginning.
  • Software developers often use sketches and prototypes as synonyms. They are not the same.
  • Sketches dominate the early part of the design funnel. They have to be cheap and plentiful.Prototypes appear at the latter part (or even during engineering). They are more refined and perhaps appropriate for initial user testing. There are also fewer of them, as they are more expensive.
  • How do I recognize non traditional sketching if it is not in the traditional form?
  • How do I recognize non traditional sketching if it is not in the traditional form?
  • How do I recognize non traditional sketching if it is not in the traditional form?
  • The response is simple, we have the criteria, I can apply the same matrix.And if it shares the same criteria, blablabla, even if it does not look nothing to call it a sketch, or micro sketches, it is a sketch !
  • All of us can draw this phone, and all of us can recognize which is which.We are drawing the product, right.
  • Here is the challenge, draw the interface of this phone.I’ve no problem drawing that phone, I can extend my skills to what I’ve seen people do.But even if you are good at drawing the phone, it will be much much harder to design the interface of this phone.This thing must be design, but how do we design the interface if we cannot draw it?
  • But this is the third question, draw the experience of using this phone.And now, even the best of view are as much handicap as those without “pencil skill” for the first two.The problem is that I use draw instead of sketching, because I wanted to explain this without having to introduce a lot of term, but understand that each of this have to be design.And therefore, sketching is the fundamental aspect of the process of doing the design for each of the three level of the design.
  • But this is the third question, draw the experience of using this phone.And now, even the best of view are as much handicap as those without “pencil skill” for the first two.The problem is that I use draw instead of sketching, because I wanted to explain this without having to introduce a lot of term, but understand that each of this have to be design.And therefore, sketching is the fundamental aspect of the process of doing the design for each of the three level of the design.
  • To set the scene, remember the design funnel.First, each stage is iterative, where one constantly generates and reduces ideas until resolutionSecond, the granularity of exploration and development is finer as these iterations progress.Fundamentally, the sketchbook is a tool that supports this design funnel process, by cheaply and quickly collecting a multitude of ideas and their variations, and recording them for later choice.
  • To set the scene, remember the design funnel.First, each stage is iterative, where one constantly generates and reduces ideas until resolutionSecond, the granularity of exploration and development is finer as these iterations progress.Fundamentally, the sketchbook is a tool that supports this design funnel process, by cheaply and quickly collecting a multitude of ideas and their variations, and recording them for later choice.
  • Sketchbooks are of little use if you don’t have it with you and you don’t use it. A sketchbook is really about getting into the idea of design, into the habit of sketching regularly and frequently.
  • Sketchbooks vary considerably. Some things you need to consider are:Durability – covers, page bindings (so they last)Page count (so you can fill them)Size (for carrying convenience)Whether you can fold them over (for ease of use in tight spaces)Physical and visual aesthetics (you should be proud to carry it; a badge of your professionWhile you can sketch on almost anything, the sketch doesn’t make a sketchbook.Avoid cheap scrap books and exercise books, and bits of paper.But of course, you can sketch on these and then paste it into your sketchbook.
  • The most basic instrument you need is a pencil, maybe an eraser. The key is to carry it with you always, maybe by inserting into the coil binding of your sketchobook.
  • The most basic instrument you need is a pencil, maybe an eraser. The key is to carry it with you always, maybe by inserting into the coil binding of your sketchobook.
  • Later, we will talk about how you can use a sketchbook to collect found objects, like magazine clippings. Scissors, glue, and tape will let you easily add these to your sketchbook.
  • Every now and then you will come across something that inspires an idea. Take a photo of it, print it, and paste it into your sketchbook.
  • Of course, there are myriads of media. Feel free to use them, but be careful. Remember, sketches should be cheap, fast, easy to do, and often of low fidelity. If media gets in the way of this, go back to a pencil.
  • So, now that you have a sketchbook and some instruments, what should be in your sketchbook?The following illustrate some samples. We will get into these and others in considerably more detail in later talks.
  • Sketching is about generating and collecting ideas. If you can draw, great. But an ugly, crude drawing can capture an idea as well as a beautiful one.
  • Lets look at a few examples of sketchbooks from various fields, where we see how they support idea generation, variation, and ultimately choice.In this example, we see various sketches, where the artist is exploring and varying posture and form. Note how incomplete some of them are, where they let the mind’s eye fill in possible details
  • Industrial designers make fairly similar uses of sketches, in this case in exploring various ideas and details of a form factor. Note that sketches such as these can include textual annotations, which themselves suggest possibilities
  • While this one shows how an idea flows over time, and the relationships between different parts of the idea
  • Sketches can also be storyboards, where key scenes are shown (much like a comic book)
  • Sketches can also depict how an idea (or product) is used via visual scenarios, or stories
  • Sketches can be used for collecting materials seen or found in other places; these can inspire you as well. Indeed, much creativity is about finding, varying, and remixing ideas that already exist
  • Sketches serve many purposes. This one collects four different versions of an idea
  • This example – in this case a photo – shows of 4 different remote control designs, where the sketches are made from paper taped on top of the lower part of a remote control.
  • The key idea is to have many ideas, and many variations. Paper and pen is cheap and quick. Explore.
  • The key idea is to have many ideas, and many variations. Paper and pen is cheap and quick. Explore.
  • Sketches can show storyboard transitions, where a different action can result in a different flow of activities
  • Sketches can also depict how an idea (or product) is used via visual scenarios, or stories

Sketching User Experience Sketching User Experience Presentation Transcript

  • Designing User Experiences« Getting the design right and the right design »Rémi BARRAQUANDhttp://www.slideshare.net/remibarraquandSketchingRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG
  • Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 2Important. These slides are not yet finished,many references are missing.Main References:•  Bill Buxton – Books, Blog, Lectures•  Saul Greenberg – Lectures CPSC 581
  • What is this lecture about?"   It is not a lecture on design, but how designers (should) work…"   It is about the design process itself…the design process seen as the process of sketching.Sketching User Experience is, nominally, a bookabout product design. But it would be just as accurateto say that its a book about software development, or,more generally, about the often broken process ofbringing new products to market, with examplesranging from the iPod to an orange juicer.“When I see design I see sketching” − Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 3
  • The MasterBill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 4
  • The Master’s BookRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAGBill Buxton5
  • The Master’s Lecture @StanfordBill Buxtonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xx1WveKV7aERémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 6
  • Objectives of this course"   Better understand, distinguish and use"   Sketching, sketches, prototyping, prototypes, sketching vs.prototyping, sketches vs. prototypes"   Incorporate the “best practices” of experience design intoyour everyday skills"   Critical analysis of interface designs"   Creativity via applied exercises"   Idea brainstorming via sketching"   Sketches and prototypes development"   Implementation of a final product (TPI)"   Portfolio summariesRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 7
  • IHM vs. TPIThis CourseIHMTPIRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 8
  • About the Organisation"   2 classes of 3 hours each"   5 TAs sessions of 3 hours each"   Experience important aspects of the design process"   Generative"   Reductive"   Create a real product from scratch and experience each step"   Problem statement, state of the art, analysis of the users needs, etc."   Explore: sketching, sketching user experience"   Challenge: brainstorming, presentation"   Converge to a prototype and a final product (TPI)Are you experienced ? – Jimi HendrixIf not, get experienced, or get a new job – Bill BuxtonDesign FunnelRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 9
  • About the Evaluation"   Final Project"   Sketchbook"   Progressive description of visual ideas"   Habitual use – clever quantity!"   Portfolio"   Summary of accomplishment (synopsis of your work and progression)"   Organization, methods, archives of supporting documents"   Prototype(s) & Final Application"   IHM, Task Model, Ergonomic Criteria, Conception, etc."   Participation"   Class discussions and critics"   Presentation of your own workRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 10
  • About You"   Personal work…"   Sketching anywhere, anytime… carry onyour sketchbook wherever you go."   See what is out there, collect, generate,develop… your media choice affectswhat you create…"   Challenge the design of others constantly,understand the work of others, present yours…"   Think about your Portfolio, collect your works, be proud…“It take as much creativity to understand a good idea than to have it in the first place”“We are very good at judging each others work and skills”“Your better ideas are not kept in the process, be open to critics”“If you are not failing it means you are not trying hard enough”– Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 11
  • Design for the WildA shift from object-centered to experience-centered designRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 12
  • Plan"   What it is all about?"   Design For The Wild"   What is the object of design?"   Designing for the wild"   The role of design"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 13
  • What do we sell?Is it the object?What do wedesign? Is it theobject?What is the trueobject of design?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 14
  • Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 15
  • What we sell and design, is the experiencethat comes out of the box, engenders,advocates, supports… – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 16
  • Plan"   What it is all about"   Design For The Wild"   What is the object of design?"   Designing for the wild"   The role of design"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 17
  • Design for the Wild"   Kayaking along the coast of Greenland…"   How do you find your way:"   Paper map?"   Digital map on PC?"   On an internet PDA?"   Other ideas?Where am I?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 18
  • Design for the Wild" Tactile 3D wooden maps"   You can use them wearing gloves"   They have infinite battery life"   Can be read during night"   They float in the waterRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 19
  • “It is not the physical entity or what is inthe box (the material product) that is thetrue outcome of design. Rather, it is thebehavioral, experiential, and emotionalresponses that come about as a result ofits existence and its use in the realworld” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 20
  • From a Materialist to ExperientialPerspective of Design| a shift from “object-centered to experience-centered” design“We are deluding ourselves if we think that theproducts that we design are the “things” that wesell, rather than individual, social and culturalexperience that they engender, and the value andimpact and they have.” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG
  • Design for the Wild"   Requires us to think of technologies as “social entities”which have the flexibility to respond in multiple ways,depending on how people appropriate them."   To design a technology, we must make our best efforts tounderstand the larger social and physical context withinwhich it is intended to function."   We must be able to experience our designs in the wild(i.e. the use-context in all its richness) during the earlystages of the process.“The only way to engineer the future tomorrow is to havelived in it yesterday” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 22
  • Plan"   What it is all about"   Design For The Wild"   What is the object of design?"   Designing for the wild"   The role of design"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 23
  • The Role of Design"   Design teams should be composed of people with differentbackgrounds and histories because all can bring valuable,complimentary skills to bear in the creation of new products. Itis a social thing."   Design must also include design of the engineering process,marketing plan and business plan."   Design is a professional discipline and requires methods notonly skills"   Every one is a designer – Don Norman"   Every one is not a designer – Bill Buxton“We need holistic approach to experience-baseddesign” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 24
  • The Role of Design"   Explicit Design Process"   Reproduction in film making"   Development of a new automobile"   Need to insert a design process at the front end ofproduct development"   The cost and time lost due to this additional stage will besignificantly less than the cost and time lost due to the poorplanning and overruns that will result if it is not included."   Dangerous Assumptions"   We know what we want at the start of a project"   We know enough to start building itRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 25
  • The Role of Design"   Problem setting"   What is the right thing to build?"   Problem solving"   How do we build this?“You must get the right design as well as thedesign right” – Bill Buxton“The role of design is to get the right design. Therole of usability engineering is to get the designright” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 26
  • Sketching & PrototypingSketching is a quintessential activity of DesignRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 27
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 28
  • Design Right vs. Right Design"   Getting the Design Right"   Generate an ideaIdeaideaideaRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 29
  • But is it the best idea?Design Right vs. Right Design"   Getting the Design Right"   Generate an idea"   Iterate and develop it Ideaideaidea ideaideaideaideaideaRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 30
  • But is it the best idea?Design Right vs. Right Design"   Getting the Design Right"   Generate an idea"   Iterate and develop it⇒  The problem"   Other better solutions may be available in different ideas"   Local vs. global maxima (local hill climbing)"   Often results from fixating on a single ideaIdeaideaidea ideaideaideaideaideaother idea?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 31
  • idea4idea1idea2idea4idea5idea7Design Right vs. Right Design"   Getting the Design Right"   Generate an idea"   Iterate and develop it"   Getting the Right Design"   Generate many idea and variation (Generation)"   Reflect and choose (Reduction)"   Then iterate and develop your choiceIdeaideaidea ideaideaideaideaidea1idea2idea3idea4idea5idea6idea7idea5idea5Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 32
  • Design Right vs. Right Design"   Getting the right design"   Generate many ideas, e.g. inspired by brainstorming, discussions,lateral thinking, client discussions, observations, etc."   Reflect on all your ideas."   Choose the ones that look promising"   then Getting the design right"   Iterate and develop your choices"   Continually refine your choices as the better solutions becomeapparent"   Of course, add in new ideas as they come upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 33
  • The Ceramic ClassThe ceramics teacher announced on opening day that he was dividing theclass into two groups. All those on the left side of the studio, he said, wouldbe graded solely on the quantity of work they produced, all those on the rightsolely on its quality. His procedure was simple: on the final day of class hewould bring in his bathroom scales and weigh the work of the “quantity”group: fifty pounds of pots rated an “A”, forty pounds a “B”, and so on. Thosebeing graded on “quality,” however, needed to produce only one pot—albeit aperfect one—to get an “A.”Well, came grading time and a curious fact emerged: the works of highestquality were all produced by the group being graded for quantity. It seemsthat while the “quantity” group was busily churning out piles of work—andlearning from their mistakes—the “quality” group had sat theorizing aboutperfection, and in the end had little more to show for their efforts thangrandiose theories and a pile of dead clay. (Bayles & Orland 2001; p. 29)Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 34
  • Getting the Right Design"   Think it, sketch it, read it, make it quick, timely,disposable, plentiful… more than ever hour after ourwork is never over – Daft SketchRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 35
  • Keypads TouchDifferent Design Ideas For CellphonesRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 36
  • Design FunnelReductiondecision-makingElaborationopportunity seekingDesign processRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 37
  • Design Is CreativityDesign is choice. There are twoplaces where there is room forcreativity1.  the creativity that you bring to enumeratingmeaningfully distinct options from which to choose2.  the creativity that you bring to defining the criteria, orheuristics, according to which you make your choices.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 38
  • Another Design FunnelRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 39
  • Product View: The Status QuoSalesEngineeringRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 40
  • Product View: Integrating DesignSalesEngineeringDesignRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 41
  • Product View: No SiloSalesEngineeringDesignDesignEngineeringManagement& MarketingSalesRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 42
  • Design Process: Wrap up"   The design process is about"   getting the right design, and then getting the designright"   The design funnel is about iteratively"   generating and elaborating designs"   choosing and reducing between designs"   Design in product development is about"   using the design funnel to develop ideas for green/redlight appraisalRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 43
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 44
  • PART I: Design As DreamcatcherFigure 34: Details from Taccola’s Notebook (from first half of C15)Several sketches of ships are shown exhibiting different types of protectiveshields, and one with a “grappler.” These are the first known examples ofusing sketching as a tool of thought.Source: McGee (2004); Detail of Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.Codex Latinus Monacensis 197 Part 2, fol. 52’Details from Taccola’s Notebook (from first half of C15)Several sketches of ships are shown exhibiting different types of protective shields,and one with a “grappler.” (Source: McGee (2004); Detail of Munich, BayerischeStaatsbibliothek. Latinus Monacensis 197 Part 2, fol. 52’)Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 45
  • PART I: Design As DreamcatcherFigure 34: Details from Taccola’s Notebook (from first half of C15)Several sketches of ships are shown exhibiting different types of protectiveshields, and one with a “grappler.” These are the first known examples ofusing sketching as a tool of thought.Source: McGee (2004); Detail of Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.Codex Latinus Monacensis 197 Part 2, fol. 52’Details from Taccola’s Notebook (from first half of C15)Several sketches of ships are shown exhibiting different types of protective shields,and one with a “grappler.” (Source: McGee (2004); Detail of Munich, BayerischeStaatsbibliothek. Latinus Monacensis 197 Part 2, fol. 52’)Sketching is a tool of thoughtRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 46
  • Sketching is not (crappy) drawingRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 47
  • Sketching is not (crappy) drawingre 42: A Contrast in Skill: Two Drawings of a Housetop drawing was done by a 6-year old child and the one below by a professional designer. But I didn’t have to tell you that. Drawing skill is obvioushe resulting artifact. However, skill in reading sketches is far less obvious. The artifact, such as it is, is in the mind and is not tangible. Yet, skill inding is just as important as skill in rendering.res: Keegan Reid & Michael SaganRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 48
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   To makeRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 49
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   To make"   Timely"   Provided when neededRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 50
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   To make"   Timely"   Provided when needed"   Disposable"   Investment in the concept,not the execution"   InexpensiveRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 51
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   To make"   Timely"   Provided when needed"   Disposable"   Investment in the concept,not the execution"   Inexpensive"   Plentiful"   They make sense in aa collection or seriesof ideas.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 52
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   Timely"   Disposable"   Plentiful"   Clear Vocabulary"   Rendering & styleindicates it’s a sketch,not an implementation"   Constrained Resolution"   No higher than requiredto capture its concept"   Consistency with State"   Refinement of renderingmatches the state of conceptdevelopmentRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 53
  • 108This is a refinement of thesketch seen in Figure 35.Through the use of shading,the sketch communicatesmore about the 3D form ofthe concept. Notice that de-spite this refinement linesstill extend through the “hardpoints.”Credit: Michael Sagan, TrekBicyclesRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 54
  • PART I: Design As DreamcatcherFigure 39: Thumbnail Sketches, Scanned from SketchbookIn what century were these made? Yesterday? During the renaissance?You can’t tell from the form, only from the content.Credit: Michael Sagan, Trek BicyclesPART I: Design As DreamcatcherRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 55
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick"   Timely"   Disposable"   Plentiful"   Clear Vocabulary"   Constrained Resolution"   Consistency with State"   Suggest & explore rather than confirm"   Value lies in suggesting and provoking what could bei.e. they are the catalyst to conversation and interaction"   A catalyst"   Evokes conversations and discussionRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 56
  • The Attribute of Sketches"   Quick / Timely"   Inexpensive / Disposable"   Plentiful"   Clear vocabularyYou know that it is a sketch (lines extend through endpoints, …)"   No higher resolution than required to communicate the intendedpurpose/concept"   Resolution of the rendering does not suggest a degree ofrefinement of the concept exceeds its actual state"   AmbiguousRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 57
  • The Larger Family of RenderingSketch: This is mainly what we have been talking about. They are some-times referred to as Thinking Drawings, and are described as DesignDrawings by Lawson (1997). They are generally made by designers mainlyfor designers, and are central to the process of ideation.Memory Drawing: These are one of the oldest styles of drawing. These arerenderings made to record or capture ideas. Think of them as extensionsof one’s memory—like a hand-rendered photograph recording a thoughtor something seen.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 58
  • The Larger Family of RenderingPresentation Drawing: These are drawings made for the customer, client,or patron. As stated by Powell (2002, p.6), these people “usually lackedthe skill needed to read these drawings [sketches] and therefore under-stand what the product would be like before it was actually made.” Hence,just as the value of a sketch is in its ambiguity, and the “holes” that it con-tains, the value of a presentation drawing is in its ability to communicateand represent what is being presented to the untrained eye.122Technical Drawing: Technical drawings are a class of drawing that areprimarily intended for those who actually are going to build what is drawn.They are typically accurate and are at the drafting and blueprint end ofthe scale, rather than that of sketching.Description Drawing: This class of drawing is intended to explain some-thing, such as a how something works, or is constructed. It would includethings like cut-away or exploded-view drawings, or it could be broken upinto frames, like a cartoon, as with the emergency cards that one findsin the seat-back pocket on airplanes.Technical Drawing: Technical drawings are a class of drawing that areprimarily intended for those who actually are going to build what is drawn.They are typically accurate and are at the drafting and blueprint end ofthe scale, rather than that of sketching.Description Drawing: This class of drawing is intended to explain some-thing, such as a how something works, or is constructed. It would includethings like cut-away or exploded-view drawings, or it could be broken upinto frames, like a cartoon, as with the emergency cards that one findsin the seat-back pocket on airplanes.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 59
  • The Anatomy of Sketching"   To get the most out of a sketch, we need to leave bigenough holes"   Ambiguity creates the holes"   It enables a sketch to be interpreted in different ways,even by the person who created it.“The fundamental thing about sketching is that it isabout asking not telling” – Bill Buxton“A Sketch is more about feel than look” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 60
  • “If you want toget the most outof a sketch, youneed to leave bigenough holes forthe imaginationto fit in.” – BillBuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 61
  • “If you want toget the most outof a sketch, youneed to leave bigenough holes forthe imaginationto fit in.” – BillBuxtonThere has to beenough room forthe imagination.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 62
  • Figure 41: A Sketch of a Dialogue with a SketchThe “conversation” between the sketch (right bubble) and the mind (leftbubble). A sketch is created from current knowledge (top arrow). Reading,or interpreting the resulting representation (bottom arrow), creates newknowledge. The creation results from what Goldschmidt calls “seeingthat” reasoning, and the extraction of new knowledge results from whatshe calls “seeing as.”sketchrepresentationmind(new) knowledgeCreate(seeing that)Read(seeing as)Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 63
  • Figure 41: A Sketch of a Dialogue with a SketchThe “conversation” between the sketch (right bubble) and the mind (leftbubble). A sketch is created from current knowledge (top arrow). Reading,or interpreting the resulting representation (bottom arrow), creates newknowledge. The creation results from what Goldschmidt calls “seeingthat” reasoning, and the extraction of new knowledge results from whatshe calls “seeing as.”sketchrepresentationmind(new) knowledgeCreate(seeing that)Read(seeing as)“Sketching is about the activitynot the result” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 64
  • Sketching as a Tool of Thought"   Conversation between the designer and its sketches."   Sketching is more related to an activity or process ratherthan to a physical object (the sketch). The sketch is thevehicle, not the destination. Ambiguity help us find ourway."   Conversation with a sketch involves skills in both readingand writing (distinguishing designers from non-designers).“I take as much creativity to understand(read) a good idea (sketch) than to have(draw) it at the first place” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 65
  • Sketching is a quintessentialactivity of DesignRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 67
  • A Sketch is not a Prototype"   Difference is"   A contrast of purpose/intent (always)"   A contrast in form (usually but not always)Sketch ≠ Low Fidelity Prototype"   Rather it is"   A continuumSketch PrototypeLow investmentMore opportunities to exploreFail early… learnRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 68
  • From Sketch to Prototype"   Sketches"   Early iteration stage of design"   Prototypes"   Capturing/detailing the actual designFigure 51: The Dynamics of the Design FunnelRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 69
  • Figure 52: The Sketch to Prototype ContinuumThe difference between the two is as much a contrast of purpose, or intent,as it is a contrast in form. The arrows emphasize that this is a continuum,not an either/or proposition.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 70
  • Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 71
  • Early designLate designBrainstorm different ideas andrepresentationsChoose a representationRough out interface styleMultitude of sketchesSketch variations and detailsSketch or low fidelity prototypesTask centered walkthrough andredesignFine tune interface, screen designHeuristic evaluation and redesignUsability testing and redesignLow to medium fidelity prototypesLimited field testingAlpha/Beta testsHigh fidelity prototypesWorking systemsFrom Sketch to PrototypeRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 72
  • Sketch vs. Prototype: Wrap Up"   Attributes of a sketch"   Quick , timely, disposable, plentiful, clear vocabulary, constrainedresolution, consistent with design state"   A sketch is not a prototype"   Difference is a contrast of purpose/intent (always), and form (mostly)"   Sketch properties"   Evocative, suggest, explore, question, propose, provoke, t"   Prototype properties"   Didactic, describe, refine, answer, test, resolve, specific, depiction"   Don’t forget it is a continuum !Sketch PrototypeRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 73
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 74
  • What is Sketching ata Meta Level?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 75
  • How do we recognizea sketch if it is not inits traditional form ?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 76
  • Anything that sharethe property of asketch is a sketch…We now have criteria that describe a sketchWe just have to apply these metrics: is it fast,inexpensive, timely, etc.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 77
  • Sketching in Interaction Design"   Analogous to traditional sketching"   Shares all the same key attributes"   More feel than look"   Must accommodate time and dynamics"   Phrasing“When we have this description, of what a sketch is, itsattributes, we can then start inventing new things thatshare those attributes, and therefore improve our currenttechnics by inventing new and better tools that help ussketch.” – Bill BuxtonRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 78
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 79
  • What do wedesign today?What do we haveto deal with?How do (should)we design today?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 80
  • Draw this phoneWhat kind of skill do you need toRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 81
  • Draw this phoneDraw this phone’sinterfaceWhat kind of skill do you need toRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 82
  • Draw this phoneDraw this phone’sinterfaceDraw the experience ofusing this phoneWhat kind of skill do you need toWhich is the true object of design?Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 83
  • Draw this phoneDraw this phone’sinterfaceDraw the experience ofusing this phoneWhat kind of skill do you need toWhich is the true object of design?SKETCHINGRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 84
  • Plan"   Introduction"   Design For The Wild"   Sketching & Prototyping"   Design Process"   What Is a Sketch? What Is Sketching?"   Sketches vs. Prototypes"   About Meta-Sketching"   Experience Design"   Sketching the Interaction"   Sketch’s Social Life"   The Sketchbook"   Wrap upRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 85
  • The Sketchbook"   Why a sketchbook?"   supports the design funnel processRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 86
  • The Sketchbook"   Why a sketchbook?"   Brainstorm many initial ideas – both good and bad"   Explore & refine ideas both in the large and in the small"   Develop variations, alternatives, details"   Archive your ideas for later review"   Reflect on changing thought processes over time"   Communicate ideas to others by showing"   Choose ones worth developing"   Record good ideas you see elsewhere"   Clip inspiring images from sources like magazines"   Shoot, print and collect inspiring photosRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 87
  • Best Practice"   Use your sketchbook regularly"   Sketch anywhere, anytime, frequently"   Only works if you carry it with youRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 88
  • Choose Your SketchbookTo considerDurability X X Ppage count P X Psize P P Pfold over X X Paesthetics X X PArchival X X PRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 89
  • Sketchbook Instruments"   The pencil"   Cheap, flexible"   Easy to carryRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 90
  • Sketchbook Instruments"   The pencil"   The eraser and sharpener"   Handy, but optionalRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 91
  • Sketchbook Instruments"   The pencil"   The eraser and sharpener"   Tape, scissors and glue"   For cutting and pasting in found objects"   Don’t have to carry it with youRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 92
  • Sketchbook Instruments"   The pencil"   The eraser and sharpener"   Tape, scissors and glue"   Small camera"   For taking photos of interesting ideas"   Select, print and tape photos into your sketchbookRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 93
  • Sketchbook Instruments"   The pencil"   The eraser and sharpener"   Tape, scissors and glue"   Small camera"   Other media & toolsRemember, sketches should be cheap, fast, easy to do, and often of low fidelity.Rémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 94
  • Filling Your SketchbookRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 95
  • You are not an ArtistIdeaRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 96
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variationRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 97
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variation,annotationRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 98
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variation, annotation,flow over time,relationshipsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 99
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variation, annotation,flow over time,relationshipsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 100
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variation, annotation,flow over time, relationships,ScenarioRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 101
  • You are not an ArtistIdea, variation, annotation,flow over time, relationships,Scenario, CollectingRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 102
  • Sketch Examples – Idea variationsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 103
  • Sketch Examples – Design variationsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 104
  • Sketch Examples – VariationsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 105
  • Sketch Examples – StoryboardRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 106
  • Sketch Examples – Storyboard transitionsRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 107
  • Sketch Examples – ScenarioRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 108
  • Sketchbook: Wrap Up"   Sketchbooks are for:"   Brainstorming, exploring, refining varying, archiving, reflecting,communicating and choosing ideas"   Recording good ideas you see elsewhere"   Sketchbooks are:"   Convenient (pages, size, fold over), durable archive, aesthetic"   Sketchbook instruments are:"   Pencil, optional eraser, sharpener, glue, tape, scissors, camera, and othermedia"   Sketchbooks can be filled with:"   Your sketches (many different kinds) and found objects"   Sketchbooks are used regularly"   Sketch anywhere, anytimeRémi Barraquand, Cours IHM 2011, Année spéciale ENSIMAG 109