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A practical and inspirational workbook for professionals who want to work towards improving the cohesion within organisations. ...

A practical and inspirational workbook for professionals who want to work towards improving the cohesion within organisations.

Analysing complex problems through reduction has become the basis of many management approaches. Reduction creates the belief that everything can be objectified and is therefore tangible, predictable and repairable. Reduction eradicates the feeling for the “human dimension” and creates a distance between reason and emotion, between thinking and doing.

Perhaps we should try to look differently at complexity and approach problems from the larger whole, rather than nonlinear and asynchronous. A first step would be to see the whole and try to understand this by entering into a dialogue with our environment.

This free downloadable workbook will help you and your colleagues with this. The workbook contains several practical models and methodologies based on the INK/EFQM body of thought and Systems thinking that can support you in your quest for the essence and strength of the composition of your organisation.

If you wish to receive the free PDF version or buy a hard copy of the workbook, you can go to: www.liefting-consulting.com

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Free Ebook: Cohesion and Dialogue, the keys to excellence Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cohesion and Dialogue, the keys to excellence A practical and inspirational workbook for professionals who want to work towards improving the cohesion within organisations. Written and designed by Remco Liefting
  • 2. 2 The$ workbook$ “Cohesion$and$ Dialogue,$ the$ keys$to$ excellence”$with$ its$corresponding$ models,$ diagrams$and$ images$ is$by$ Lie>ing$ Consul?ng$ and$is$licensed$ under$ the$ Crea?ve$ Commons$ ABribu?onCNonCommercialCNoDerivs$3.0$Unported$License.$See$crea?vecommons.org$for$more$informa?on$about$the$content$of$this$license.$ Please$ contact$the$ publisher$if$you$wish$to$use$ any$por?on$of$this$publica?on$for$ commercial$purposes.$The$ Management$ Challenge®$is$a$registered$trademark$of$Vanderveldt$BIC.$Copyrights$for$“The$ model$ of$connec?ons”,$ alias$the$ “INK/EFQM$ Naviga?on$Map”,$ “The$ storyboards”,$ “The$ four$ perspec?ves”,$ “The$ Dynamic$Plan”$and$the$ “Ques?onnaire$ Organising$ Efficiency”$belong$ to$the$ author.$Copyright$for$ the$ “Eye$ of$the$ Master”$ belongs$ to$ Vanderveldt$BIC.$All$rights$are$reserved. Although$this$publica?on$was$created$with$the$ greatest$care,$ the$ presence$ of$ possible$(prin?ng)$errors$and$omissions$cannot$ be$ vouched$for,$ and$the$ author(s),$ editor(s)$and$publisher$ therefore$do$not$accept$liability$for$ the$ consequences$of$possible$mistakes$and$omissions. Title:$ $ Cohesion$and$Dialogue,$ $ $ the$keys$to$excellence Author:$ $ Remco$M.$Lie>ing Publisher:$ $ Lie>ing$Consul?ng Printer:$ $ Books4you$BV$C$PrijsPrinter Photographs:$ ShuBerstock.com ISBN:$ $ 978C90C819219C4C7$(Ebook) NUR:$ $ 801 First$prin?ng,$September$2013. This$workbook$(in$ English$ or$ in$ Dutch)$ is$ free$ to$ download$as$a$ pdf$document$ from:$ book.lie>ingC consul?ng.com.$Through$this$website$you$can$also$ order$a$hard$copy. lie>ingCconsul?ng.com info@lie>ingCconsul?ng.nl remcolie>ing nl.linkedin.com/in/remcolie>ing/ @remcolie>ing +31$(0)$35$887$22$24 Beukenlaan$43,$1231$BW$Loosdrecht,$The$Netherlands Hardcopy or free download: book.liefting-consulting.com
  • 3. 3 Cohesion and Dialogue,the keys to excellence A practical and inspirational workbook for professionals who want to work towards improving the cohesion within organisations.
  • 4. 4 Perhaps,we,should,try,to,look, differently,at,complexity,and, approach,problems,from,the, larger,whole. Every,organisa1on,has,its,own, "flow".,It,is,this,"flow",that,runs, through,all,connec1ons,and,gives, character,to,the,composi1on,of,the, organisa1on. Synergy,is,what,we’re, looking,for.,By,properly,designing, the,system,,it,can,contribute,to,the, development,of,the,organisa1on, and,its,people. The,strength,of,life, preserva1on,ensures,that,you,are, s1ll,working,with,outdated,and/or, ineffec1ve,tools., In,order,to, operate,in,a,dynamic,market,,it, is,important,that,more,op1ons,are, available,to,create,value,for,all, stakeholders. An,excellent,organisa1on,not, only,performs,well,,it,also,knows, why,it,performs,well,and,it,knows, how,to,con1nue,to,perform,well,in, the,future., ReThink(driven,organisa1ons,or, departments,more,frequently, ques1on,the,exis1ng,structure,and, applied,methods., If,Rethinking,is,the,ambi1on,, then,you,will,have,to,work,on, increasing,the,capacity,for,self( reflec1on,at,the,individual,,team, and,organisa1onal,levels. The,effect,of,making,a, management,system,transparent, is,that,it,creates,an,environment, which,provides,more,opportuni1es, for,reflec1on.
  • 5. 5 We$find$ourselves$in$an$era$where$we$ques?on$the$way$we,$as$a$society,$deal$ with$ complex$ problems.$ The$ influence$ of$ major$ economic$ and$ social$ developments$ and$ the$ increasing$ use$ of$ ICT$ applica?ons,$ including$ social$ media,$ generate$ a$ new$ vision$ on$ organising$ work.$ If$ one$ follows$ the$ developments$in$ the$ media,$ or$ recently$ visited$ a$ conference,$ one$ cannot$ escape$ the$ numerous$ 2.0$ and$ 3.0$ movements$ that$ try$ to$ answer$ the$ challenges$of$tomorrow.$Many$of$these$movements$look$at$the$split$between$ the$ individual$ on$ the$ one$ hand,$ who$ needs$ space$ to$ work$ on$ a$ socialC interac?ve$rela?onship$with$himself$ and$his$or$her$environment,$and$on$the$ other$hand$the$oppressive$control$and$coordina?on$principles$of$the$exis?ng$ organisa?on$styles.$These$movements$stand$for,$among$ others,$empowering$ individuals$ and$ socialising$ the$organisa?on.$ The$underlying$ issues$focus$ on$ themes$such$as$u?lity$ and$necessity,$holding$ on$ and$lejng$ go,$ having$ and$ gaining$ confidence,$ taking$ or$ assigning$ responsibility,$ control$ and$ chaos,$ crea?ng$(new)$connec?ons$and$the$role$of$leadership.$ Our$era$shows$that$the$world$is$complex,$that$an$organisa?on$is$complex.$An$ organisa?on$is$no$longer$a$dis?nct$en?ty,$but$a$system$of$ people,$resources$ and$ working$ methods,$ with$ proper?es$ that$ cannot$ be$ deduced$ from$ the$ proper?es$of$ each$ component.$I$have$encountered$ many$ metaphors$in$the$ form$of$business$models$that$aBempt$to$simplify$this$complexity.$This$is$called$ framing.$Framing$is$a$methodology$in$which$a$number$of$aspects$of$complexity$ are$ highlighted$ explicitly$ and$ implicitly.$ These$ highlighted$ aspects$ help$ to$ propagate$a$certain$reading$or$opinion$of$the$descrip?on.$This$certainly$does$ not$have$to$ be$ nega?ve,$ but$ the$effect$of$ framing,$ or$ simplifica?on$ of$ the$ complexity,$ can$ lead$ to$ a$ oneCsided$ approach$of$ the$ truth.$ Our$search$for$ simple$solu?ons$to$complex$problems$is$due$to$our$inability$to$deal$effec?vely$ with$ complexity.$ It$ is$ a$ property$ of$ the$ human$ mind$ to$ create$ generally$ applicable$ concepts$ and$ these$ are$ by$ defini?on$ always$ imperfect$ and$ incomplete.$Analysing$complex$problems$through$reduc?on$has$become$the$ basis$ of$ many$ management$ approaches.$ Reduc?on$ creates$ the$ belief$ that$ everything$ can$ be$ objec?fied$ and$ is$ therefore$ tangible,$ predictable$ and$ repairable.$Reduc?on$eradicates$the$feeling$for$the$“human$dimension”$and$ creates$a$distance$between$reason$and$emo?on,$between$thinking$and$doing. Perhaps$ we$ should$ try$ to$ look$ differently$ at$ complexity$ and$ approach$ problems$from$the$larger$whole.$Try$to$approach$situa?ons$in$a$nonlinear$and$ asynchronous$ fashion.$ A$ first$ step$ would$ be$ to$ see$ the$ whole$ and$ try$ to$ understand$this$by$entering$into$a$dialogue$with$our$environment.$ This$workbook$will$help$you$and$your$colleagues$to$discover$the$strength$of$ the$cohesion$of$organising$elements$within$your$organisa?on$and$how$mutual$ rela?onships$have$evolved$over$?me.$It$will$provide$you$with$new$insights$into$ the$workings$of$your$organisa?on$and$will$help$you$to$determine$what$is$right$ and/or$(un)necessary$ for$the$next$step$ towards$your$organisa?on$in$ a$new$ tomorrow.$What$this$future$will$look$like,$no$one$knows,$but$it$is$closer$than$ you$ think.$ In$ the$ next$ chapter$ of$ this$ workbook$ you$ will$ encounter$ a$ perspec?ve$on$the$organisa?on$of$the$future.$This$perspec?ve$is$in$fact$a$point$ of$view$and$serves$as$a$star?ng$point$for$explora?on.$ The$remainder$of$ the$workbook$is$of$ a$more$prac?cal$nature$and$ contains$ tools$ and$ models$ to$ help$ you$ understand$ the$ current$ complexity$ of$ the$ organising$elements$within$your$organisa?on.
  • 6. 6 Sustainable & Values- based Organising It$ is$ clear$ that$ current$ economic$ thinking$has$ reached$ a$ dead$ end.$ The$ old$ economic$ paradigm,$ focused$ on$ profit$ maximisa?on,$ growth,$ focus$ on$ shareholder$ interest$ and$ compe??on,$has$ brought$ us$into$a$deep$crisis.$As$has$now$become$clear,$holding$on$ to$ these$paradigms$doesn’t$ really$help$to$get$ us$ out$ of$this$crisis,$even$ though$ we$have$a$ structurally$sound$and$highly$developed$economy. Holding$on$to$the$old$economic$paradigms$also$doesn’t$do$jus?ce$to$the$developments$in$ technology,$ the$ rapid$ development$ in$ communica?on$ technology,$ the$ development$ towards$a$knowledge$economy,$the$needs$of$the$new$genera?ons$in$the$labour$market,$the$ demand$ for$ and$ need$ for$ more$ sustainable$ forms$ of$ economic$ development$ and$ the$ increasing$global$ interdependence$ of$socioCeconomic$and$ social$ developments.$All$ these$ developments$lead$to$an$economic$model$where$op?misa?on$is$the$objec?ve,$coopera?on$ within$standard$network$connec?ons$is$the$norm,$ac?vi?es$are$carried$out$independent$of$ ?me$and$place,$and$value$is$the$target. Within$organisa?ons$the$aim$should$therefore$not$be$to$get$the$old$mechanisms$back$on$ track,$but$ to$think$about$a$fundamentally$different$ way$of$dealing$with$clients,$partners,$ employees,$the$produc?on$process$and$the$ul?mate$objec?ves$of$all$these$efforts.$Within$ the$ new$ economy,$ the$ focus$ should$ no$ longer$ be$ on$ organisa?ons$ with$ their$ s?fling$ hierarchies$and$on$powerCbased$ins?tu?ons.$ The$founda?on$lies$in$a$different$ way$of$organising,$where$meaning$is$the$basis$for$value$ and$where$the$client$is$ in$charge.$Where$organising$is$ based$on$ a$sustainable,$effec?ve,$ innova?ve$ and$ flexible$ partnership$ which$ is$ based$ on$ the$ selfCorganising$ ability$ of$ professionals$ in$ collabora?on$ with$ all$ stakeholders.$ Where$ people$ work$together$ on$ a$ shared$interest$(value),$based$on$an$equal,$open,$learning$and$innova?ve$ajtude. More$and$more$organising$connec?ons$manage$to$interpret$this$with$a$successful$strategy.$ The$Perspec?ve$below$provides$a$context$of$opinions,$beliefs$and$experiences$that$ could$ help$us$to$understand$this$strategy.$Beware,$The$Perspec?ve$is$not$a$model$or$framework,$ but$rather$a$"point$of$view".$A$point$from$which$we$can$understand,$learn$and$develop.$The$ star?ng$point$of$an$explora?on. Professionals+ Customers+ Alliances+Resources+ ©"Lie&ing"Consul.ng"|"Perspec.ve"Sustainable"&"Values;based"Organising" Strategy+ Leadership+ Processes+&+ Networks+ Enable+People+to+Create+Shared+Values+ Organising+Sustainable+&+ValuesBbased+
  • 7. 7 The Perspective Model,designed,by,Remco,LieMing,and,Jos,Kok In$order$to$operate$in$a$dynamic$market,$it$is$important$that$more$op?ons$are$available$to$ create$value$for$ all$ stakeholders.$Not$ a$single$organisa?on$will$be$ successful$in$ the$new$ economy$if$the$organisa?on$doesn’t$have$a$considerable$degree$of$manoeuvrability.$Agility$ determines$ success.$Agility$or$ flexibility$is$a$basic$requirement$to$enable$rapid$switching$ from$one$winning$strategy$to$another$and$to$implement$it.$$ Strategic Transparency Determining$ a$ strategy$ is$ a$ con?nuous$ process$ that$ will$ require$ close$ involvement$ of$ internal$and$external$stakeholders.$The$degree$of$this$strategic$transparency$influences$the$ focus$of$all$components$of$the$system$in$order$to$work$towards$a$common$goal.$Important$ themes$ in$this$process$are$ the$direc?on$from$which$the$strategy$process$is$ constructed$ (horizontal$ vs.$ver?cal),$the$ topicality$and$quality$of$ the$underlying$data,$the$manner$ in$ which$responsibili?es$and$decisions$are$taken$(in$a$?mely$manner)$and$the$ability$to$learn$ and$react$rapidly. The$strategy$process$also$encourages$a$culture$where$innova?ve$ideas$are$transformed$into$ new$ ways$of$ thinking$and$ working$ to$ promote$ learning,$ innova?on$ and$ organisa?onal$ development.$It$links$the$development$of$people,$products$and$services$to$the$mission$of$ the$organising$connec?on. From having to using An$ increasing$ number$ of$ (casual)$ coali?ons$ will$ be$ created$ that$ manage$ to$ realise$ a$ specifically$defined$goal,$a>er$which$they$will$have$liBle$or$no$right$to$exist.$In$other$words,$ with$this$philosophy$it$is$no$longer$a$maBer$of$“having”$resources,$but$of$“using”$resources.$ This$means$that$in$the$new$economy,$the$outsourcing$trend$will$ con?nue$and$is$likely$to$ increase. Professionals$will$have$the$freedom$to$determine$how$many$resources$are$needed$to$meet$ (market)$demands$and$they$will$decide$how$many$and$what$(suppor?ng)$services$they$will$ procure.$Resources$ are$allocated$to$where$ they$are$needed$ (demandCdriven$ alloca?on).$ Informa?on$C$focused$on$value,$effec?veness$and$efficiency$C$is$available$everywhere$and$ accessible.$ Technologies$ that$ offer$ flexible$ collabora?on,$ informa?on$ sharing$ and$ integra?on$opportuni?es$will$increasingly$be$used$to$facilitate$the$capacity$to$absorb$and$to$ share$power$with$respect$to$knowledge. The Client directs Virtualisa?on$of$economic$life$leads$to$clients$being$increasingly$in$the$lead$of$the$design$of$ the$produc?on$process.$The$client$organises,$directs$and$formulates$his$own$opinion$about$ the$quality$of$the$rela?onship,$the$added$value,$the$product$and/or$service.$The$client$looks$ for$transparency,$speed,$convenience$and,$where$possible$and$necessary,$demands$(early)$ par?cipa?on$(coCcrea?on)$in$the$realisa?on$of$the$solu?on$to$his$needs. The$ structure$ and$ organisa?on$ of$ ac?vi?es,$ processes,$ systems$ and$ networks$ are$ determined$ on$ the$basis$of$ ques?ons$ and$ needs$of$ these$(poten?al)$ clients.$The$ client$ ul?mately$dictates$ the$process,$and$ procedures$ are$at$ the$ service$ of$ the$ client.$In$ this$ context,$organising$means$giving$control$back$to$the$client,$so$that$the$client$can$decide$for$ himself$what$is$right$for$him/her.$ There$is$s?ll$ room$for$ a$good$ process$design,$except$that$ it$is$no$longer$confined$to$the$ physical$ boundaries$ of$ an$ organisa?on.$ Processes$ will$ intersect$ with$ organisa?onal$ connec?ons$ and$ will$ increasingly$ acquire$ the$ character$ of$ network$ connec?ons.$ The$ underlying$processes$ are$ (fully)$ integrated$ and$ connected$ in$ the$ environment.$It$ is$ an$ organic$rela?onship$ of$ force$fields,$where$ there$is$ a$permanent$ interac?on$ between$ all$ stakeholders.$People$create$value$together,$permanently$or$incidentally,$taking$advantage$ of$value$networks.$Par?cipa?on$is$realised$in$a$fully$open$process$in$real$?me. As$a$tool$for$this,$work$flow$management$will$be$experiencing$strong$growth.$On$the$one$ hand$this$facilitates$rela?vely$easy$connec?ng$with$partners$in$a$process,$and$it$also$makes$ an$important$contribu?on$to$selfCdirec?on$of$employees.$
  • 8. 8 Change is a constant Processes$are$evaluated$on$the$basis$of$the$contribu?on$they$make$to$the$whole$and$one$is$ able$ to$ fundamentally$ and$ radically$ modify$ processes$ in$ order$ to$ generate$ significant$ improvements.$Learning$and$ developing$is$no$longer$a$requirement,$but$an$effect$ of$the$ manner$in$which$the$network$is$successful.$Through$coClearning$and$coCcrea?on$one$learns$ quickly$and$effec?vely$from,$with$and$in$prac?ce.$The$validity$of$assump?ons$and$methods$ becomes$a$subject$of$discussion$because$of$con?nuous$experimenta?on,$which$also$places$ the$focus$on$developing$things$that$work$and$contribute$to$the$desired$effect.$ Together with others Innova?ons$are$the$result$of$collabora?on$ with$others.$Internal$ and$external$ sources$are$ combined$ for$ both$ the$ development$ and$ the$ market$ launch$ of$ new$ technologies$ and$ products. New leadership Leadership$ inspires$ and$ creates$ a$ culture$ of$ ownership,$ par?cipa?on,$ accountability,$ professionalism$ and$ it$ ac?vates$ selfCdirec?on,$ either$ among$ professionals,$ or$ by$ professionals$ in$ collabora?on$ with$ clients,$ alliances$ and$ other$ stakeholders.$ Leadership$ does$not$ refer$ to$ a$posi?on$or$ a$ role,$but$ to$ how$ behaviour$ is$tuned$ (collec?vely)$and$ focused$on$crea?ng$an$effec?ve$and$sustainable$capacity$to$organise. We$will$have$to$realise$that$leadership$is$increasingly$interpreted$in$virtual$space,$and$that’s$ not$ easy.$Many$ leaders$ have$ developed$ during$ a$ ?me$ when$ leadership$ was$ based$ on$ physical$ presence.$ In$ the$ new$ economy,$ where$ ac?vi?es$ are$ becoming$ less$ and$ less$ aBached$to$?me$and$place,$leadership$will$also$become$decreasingly$?ed$to$?me$and$place.$ In$ addi?on,$work$will$ increasingly$be$carried$ out$in$temporary$(net)working$groups.$This$ means$that$ leaders$will$ need$ to$ become$proficient$ in$ the$ use$of$ advanced$ informa?on$ technology$in$order$to$effec?vely$guide$work$processes. The Client directs The, “Broodfonds”, (Bread$ Fund)$ is$ a$ disability$ insurance$ provision$ for$ independent$ entrepreneurs.$ The$ “Broodfonds”$ acts$ like$ a$ “gi>$ circle”.$If$ someone$is$ ill,$an$ amount$ is$ donated$ by$ all$ par?cipants.$This$ amount$ is$ intended$to$cover$basic$living$expenses,$a$basic$provision.$$The$par?cipants$ are$responsible$for$its$implementa?on.$Number$of$groups:$35$Forma?on$in$ progress:$ 20$ Total$ number$ of$ par?cipants:$ 999$ Average$ number$ of$ par?cipants$per$ group:$28.5$Number$ of$loca?ons:$19$Sick:$In$the$month$of$ April$2013$there$were$14$sick$par?cipants$in$14$groups.$$ [source:$www.broodfonds.nl] “Noordenwind”,(North$wind)$is$an$associa?on$for$the$collec?ve$ownership$ of$wind$turbines$in$the$northern$Netherlands.$Its$objec?ve$is$to$ place$and$ operate$wind$turbines$and$other$devices$to$generate$renewable$energy$and$ to$promote$and$s?mulate$renewable$energy,$where$possible.$Noordenwind$ combines$the$strengths$of$ac?ve$people$who$ want$ to$contribute$to$clean$ energy,$ but$ who$ do$ not$ have$ the$ opportunity$ to$ own$ their$ own$ wind$ turbine.$$ [source:$www.noordenwind.org] “Buurtzorg,Nederland”,(Neighbourhood$Care$Netherlands)$is$an$innova?ve$ concept$ for$ nursing$care$at$ home.$The$capacity$to$resolve$issues$and$the$ professionalism$ of$ employees$ is$ fully$ exploited$ by$ allowing$ small$ autonomous$ Neighbourhood$ Care$ Teams$ of$ nurses$ and$ caregivers$ to$ provide$health$care.$These$Neighbourhood$Care$Teams$are$supported$by$a$ na?onal$ organisa?on.$The$ teams$use$modern$ ICT$applica?ons$that$ allow$ administra?ve,$management$and$overhead$costs$to$be$kept$to$a$minimum.$ [source:$www.buurtzorgnederland.com]
  • 9. 9 Without$physically$control,$it$becomes$even$more$important$to$focus$on$values,$beliefs$and$ the$ability$to$lead$staff,$however$they$may$be$organised,$in$order$to$achieve$the$objec?ves,$ and$to$connect$individual$mo?ves$to$collec?ve$mo?ves. Focus on impact Profit$maximisa?on$is$no$longer$the$ul?mate$goal.$It$ will$be$a$truly$balanced$approach$by$ the$different$stakeholders,$where$op?misa?on,$transparency$and$social$accountability$will$ be$ key$ words.$ Achieved$ results$ (output)$ of$ partCschemes$ will$ therefore$ be$ of$ minor$ importance.$Some$degree$of$control$will$con?nue$to$be$necessary,$but$too$much$will$lead$ to$unnecessary$and$undesirable$overreac?ons.$Ul?mately$it’s$about$the$impact$(outcome)$ created$ collec?vely.$ The$ major$ challenge$ in$ the$ near$ future$ will$ be$ how$ to$ work$ con?nuously$ to$ obtain$ a$ dynamic$ balance$ between$ the$ financial$ capital,$ social$ capital$ (available$ resources$to$ connect$ with$ each$ other),$mental$ capital$ (the$ ability$to$ act)$and$ collec?ve$capital$(the$collec?ve$intelligence$of$the$system).
  • 10. 10 Professionals+ Customers+ Alliances+Resources+ ©"Lie&ing"Consul.ng"|"Perspec.ve"Sustainable"&"Values;based"Organising" Strategy+ Leadership+ Processes+&+ Networks+ Enable+People+to+Create+Shared+Values+ Organising+Sustainable+&+ValuesBbased+ Flexibility$is$a$basic$ requirement$to$enable$rapid$ switching$from$one$winning$strategy$ to$another$and$to$implement$it. Determining$this$strategy$is$ a$con?nuous$process$that$will$ require$close$involvement$of$internal$ and$external$stakeholders.$ The$strategy$process$also$ encourages$a$culture$where$ innova?ve$ideas$are$transformed$into$ new$ways$of$thinking$and$ working.$ (Casual)$coali?ons$will$be$created$ that$manage$to$realise$a$specifically$ defined$goal.$In$other$words,$we$no$ longer$talk$of$“having”$resources,$but$ of$“using”$resources.$ Professionals$will$have$the$ freedom$to$determine$how$many$ resources$are$needed$to$meet$ (market)$demands$and$they$will$decide$ how$many$and$what$(suppor?ng)$ services$they$will$procure.$ The$structure$and$ organisa?on$of$ac?vi?es,$ processes,$systems$and$networks$ are$determined$on$the$basis$of$ ques?ons$and$needs$of$ (poten?al)$clients.$ Processes$intersect$ with$organisa?onal$ connec?ons$and$have$the$ character$of$network$ connec?ons.$ The$client$ ul?mately$dictates$the$ process,$and$procedures$ are$at$the$service$of$ the$client.$ Processes$are$evaluated$on$ the$basis$of$the$contribu?on$they$ make$to$the$whole$and$one$is$able$to$ fundamentally$and$radically$modify$ processes$in$order$to$generate$ significant$improvements.$ Leadership$inspires$and$ creates$a$culture$of$ownership,$ par?cipa?on,$accountability,$ professionalism$and$it$ac?vates$selfC direc?on,$either$among$professionals,$ or$by$professionals$in$collabora?on$ with$clients,$alliances$and$other$ stakeholders.$ That’s how we see it!
  • 11. 11 Professionals+ Customers+ Alliances+Resources+ ©"Lie&ing"Consul.ng"|"Perspec.ve"Sustainable"&"Values;based"Organising" Strategy+ Leadership+ Processes+&+ Networks+ Enable+People+to+Create+Shared+Values+ Organising+Sustainable+&+ValuesBbased+ $ What are your thoughts about this?
  • 12. 12 There is another way The$world$is$moving$fast$and$everything$can$be$different$tomorrow,$that’s$a$ fact.$Therefore$it’s$important$to$start$designing$a$form$of$organisa?on$that$ can$ deal$ with$ this.$ Old$ methods,$ encased$ in$ tradi?onal$ management$ systems$ with$ procedures$ and$ instruc?ons,$ o>en$ prevent$ this.$ Yet$ some?mes$ we$ simply$ cannot$ change$ this.$ Laws$ and$ regula?ons$ are,$ for$ example,$an$important$ driver$ to$ describe$things$to$ten$decimal$places$and$ to$inspect$and,$if$necessary,$punish$devia?ons.$ The$ strength$ of$ a$ management$ system$ is$ the$ desire$ for$ con?nuity$ and$ perfec?on;$to$ work$towards$ quality$in$a$thoughtul$way.$However,$this$ is$ also$ its$ biggest$ pitall.$ If$ it$ tries$ too$ hard,$ it$ may$ be$ genera?ng$ mostly$ bureaucracy$and$ frustra?on.$One$ thing$that$ a$ system$ does$ not$ allow,$ is$ reframing.$Each$ system$is$based$ on$fundamental$principles,$rules$of$play,$ which$ are$ not$ nego?able.$ Lejng$ go$ of$ old$ systems$ begins$ with$ the$ admission$ of$ new$ energy:$ energy$ from$ outside,$ energy$ from$ forward,$ energy$from$valua?on,$energy$from$passion.$This$can$be$organised,$but$not$ by$means$of$processes$and$instruc?ons. We$must$ teach$ the$organisa?on$ to$ once$again$ become$aware:$to$learn$to$ look$at$ its$own$ac?ons$and$to$learn$to$ make$them$discussable.$As$a$result$ we$improve$the$quality$of$organisa?onal$and$ development$capacity$of$the$ organisa?on$ and$ we$ create$ an$ environment$ where$ we$can$ be$ flexible$ in$ dealing$with$the$challenges$of$tomorrow. The$following$pages$in$this$workbook$will$help$you$on$your$way.$Let’s$play. Focus Consistency Connection Reflection Challenge
  • 13. 13 The Eye of the Master© p. 31 turnover( orders( produc-on(adver-sement( R1( new( staff( share(trained(( personnel( quality( workload( ou:low( professionals( B1( B2( Limit:(-me(and( capacity(to(work( complaints( B3( Limit:(-me(for( structural(solu-ons( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( o( o( Systems thinking & doing p. 41 INK-EFQM Navigationmap p. 19 synergy' Patchwork Unravelled p. 15 Dynamic Planning p. 59 The$doCitCyourself$pages,$star?ng$at$page$73,$can$be$used$to$visualise$your$brain$work.$The$ workbook$also$contains$a$number$of$Internet$references$for$downloading$other$items. Copyright*2012,*Liefting*Consulting Approach Dimension Reacting Anticipation Reframing Redesigning Central1Triad Fragile Fragile Robust Antifragile Focus Activity Process Structure System Characterisation PlanADoACheckACorrect PlanADoACheckAAct PlanADoAStudy PlanADoAStudyAAdapt Tone1of1Voice React*on*the*basis*of*existing* routines,*standards*and* guidelines. Identifying*and*extrapolating* patterns*and*trends*from*the* past*to*the*future Investigate*whether*the* assumptions*underlying*the* methods*are*still*valid Watching*the*system*that* the*problems*and*solutions* are*part*of Tone1of1Attitude Ignore,*flight*or*fight Intervention*to*prevent* recurrence Reflecting*on*mental*models Continuously*redesigning* work*structures,*processes* and*organisational*culture Learning1level Conditioning SingleAloop*learning DoubleAloop*learning Deutero*Learning Errors? Error*=*bad Error*=*information Error*=*opportunity Error*=*correct Central1Learning1Question Who*and*What? Where*and*When? Why*and*When? How*else? What1is1our1basic1attitude? Rigid Planned Flexible Dynamic How1do1we1work? Routine Mechanistic Systemic Organic What1do1we1think1is1important? Frugal Suitability Effectiveness Relevance Where1is1our1focus? SupplyAoriented QuestionAorientated ClientAorientated ValueAorientated Where1are1we1headed? Objectives Indicators Results Dynamic*objectives How1do1we1regulate1work? Rules Standards Principles Virtues How1are1we1organised? Department Team Network Mesh How1do1we1relate1to1others? Subcontractor Supply*Chain Partner Alliance What1do1we1vallue? Effort Result Outcome Effect What’s1guiding1us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfAdirection What1are1our1responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop How1do1we1deal1with1information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoAcreate How1do1we1view1development? Training Training Learning Grow How1do1we1reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect Instruments Activity*Based*Costing ValueABased*Management Rolling*forecast Beyond*budgeting Time*Management Process*Management Operational*Excellence Business*ReAengineering Management*By*Objectives Balanced*Scorecard OneAPageAStrategy Continuous*Strategy* Development Control Audit Appreciative*Assessments Open*Dialoque Decision*Rules Root*cause*analysis Risk*Management Scenario*Planning Quality*Control Quality*Management Business*Excellence Social*Excellence Performance*Benchmarking Process*Benchmarking Strategic*Benchmarking Open*Innovation Performance*Appraisal Performance*Management Competence*Management Talent*Management Marketing Satisfaction*Management Loyalty*Management Relationship*Management Bossing Managing Coaching*&*Intervision Leading*&*SelfAManagement Typical*instruments Levels1of1action Characterization*of*actions ReActing ReThinking Theory*A*Results*Driven Heuristics*A*EffectADriven De 4 compositions p. 52 Organising Efficiency p. 57 Copyright*2012,*Liefting*Consulting It#is#clear#to#us#where#the#organisation#is#headed. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#confidence#in#the#chosen#direction. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree It#is#clear#to#us#how#we#can#contribute#to#this. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree Our#proposed#actions#constitute#a#logical#and#understandable#whole. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#tailor#our#activities#to#our#expectations,#and#vice#versa. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#are#able#to#respond#to#(new)#developments#quickly#and#adequately. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#receive#good#support#from#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#provide#good#support#to#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#an#equivalent#(cooperative)#relationship#with#all#our#stakeholders. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#request#and#receive#continuous#feedback#on#our#performance. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#give#each#other#highAquality#feedback. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#use#feedback#to#reflect#on#our#assumptions. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#create#sufficient#challenges#to#help#our#(personal)#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#take#enough#freedom#and#time#to#learn#and#develop. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree There#is#a#clear#balance#between#appreciation,#performance#and#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree What#is#our#basic#attitude? Rigid Planned Flexible Dynamic How#do#we#work? Routine Mechanistic Systemic Organic What#do#we#think#is#important? Frugal Suitability Effectiveness Relevance Where#is#our#focus? SupplyHoriented QuestionHorientated ClientHorientated ValueHorientated Where#are#we#headed? Objectives Indicators Results Dynamic*objectives How#do#we#position#ourselves? Department Team Network Mesh How#do#we#relate#to#others? Subcontractor Supply*Chain Partner Alliance What#do#we#vallue? Effort Result Outcome Effect What’s#guiding#us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfHdirection What#are#our#responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop How#do#we#deal#with#information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoHcreate How#do#we#view#development? Training Training Learning Grow How#do#we#reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect How#conscious#are#my#actions? I*make*quick* decisions*based*on*my* current*experiences*and* insights. I*am*able*to*set*aside* my*primary*reaction*and* to*delve*into*the* information. I*am*able*to* empathetically*listen*to* others*and,*in*dialogue,* to*consider*the*situation* from*the*perspective*of* others. I*have*the*capacity*to* let*go*of*the*past*and*to* act*in*the*here*and*now. How#conscious#are#the#actions#of#my#team/department? We*are*tenacious*and* therefore*not*open*to* new*insights. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*debate*with*each* other*in*order*to*openly* discuss*everyone's* viewpoint. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*dialogue*with*each* other*in*order*to* consider*the*situation*in* its*entirety. We*are*able*to*make* room*for*each*other*in* order*to*let*go*of*the*past* and*to*connect*with* things*to*come. How#conscious#can#we#act#within#our#organisation? The*organisation* holds*on*to*its*current* way*of*working. The*organisation*is* capable*of*allowing* decisionHmaking*at*the* appropriate*level. The*organisation*is* able*to*take*on*the* challenge*with*internal* and*external* stakeholders. The*organisation*is* able*to*let*go*of* hierarchical*thinking*and* to*allow*room*for*selfH management*and*selfH organisation. How#do#managers#encourage#us? ☐*Management* reinforces*the* hierarchical*style*of* control*and* accountability. ☐*Management*allows* room*for*using*regulation* and*competition*as*a* coordination*mechanism. ☐ Management* encourages*directional* control*to*take*on*the* challenge*together*with* the*stakeholders. ☐*Management* stimulates*the*release*of* vertical*coordination*and* allows*room*for*the* development*of* equivalent*relations*with* all*stakeholders. Questionnaire#Organising#Efficiency Evaluation#of#our#actions Characterization#of#our#actions Awareness#of#our#actions Examples#of#our#actions In$ the$ first$ chapter,$ “Discovery$ and$ Deepening”,$you$ will$ be$introduced$ to$ four$ paradigms.$ These$ models$ can$ be$ used,$ alone$ or$ combined,$ in$ strategic$ team$ mee?ngs$ where$ a$ wide$ view$ of$ the$ organising$ capacity$ of$ the$ organisa?on$is$desired. They$ help$ to$ indicate$ the$ degree$ of$ cohesion$ and$ you$ will$ discover$ the$ "flow"$ that$ runs$ through$ all$ connecC ?ons.$ In$ the$ second$ chapter,$“Understanding$ and$ Posi?oning”,$ a>er$ a$ brief$ explana?on$ you$ will$ find$ a$ fi>h$ paradigm$ that$ gives$ more$ insight$ into$ the$ reasons$ for$ the$ imbalance$ within$ your$organisa?on.$ In$ the$ third$ chapter,$ “Let’s$ Get$ To$ Work”,$I’m$providing$more$detail$about$ dynamic$planning$and$introduce$you$to$ “Rhizoming”:$the$discovery$and$dissemiC na?on$ of$ new$ and$ renewed$ forms$ of$ organising$within$your$organisa?on. Rhizoming p. 67
  • 14. 14 D I S C O V E R I N G D E E P E N I N G
  • 15. 15 THE PATCHWORK UNRAVELLED A$special$trait Step%1: Discovering%quirks
  • 16. 16 Symbiosis:,Management$tools$maintain$each$other$because$they$need$each$other$ to$survive. Collusion:,The$secret,$decep?ve$understanding.$Management$tools$work$with$each$ other$in$such$an$obscure$fashion,$that$they$impercep?bly$work$to$the$disadvantage$ of$other$tools. Muta1on:,Changing$the$original$character$of$a$system$or$a$tool. Stacking:,The$use$of$a$variety$of$management$tools$leads$to$divergent,$separated$ effects. Wear, and, tear:, The$ effect$ of$ a$management$ tool$ decreases$ because$ it$ doesn’t$ receive$aBen?on$(anymore)$for$its$maintenance. Contradic1ons:,The$approaches$in$the$management$system$work$in$such$opposite$ direc?ons,$that$they$cause$substan?al$contradic?ons. Façade:,Outward$appearance.$A$management$tool$or$even$a$complete$management$ system$is$used$for$the$benefit$of$improper$purposes.$ Synergy$can$be$caused$by$a$form$of$symbiosis$in$which$all$tools$benefit$and$s?mulate$one$ another.$This$is$viewed$from$a$biological$perspec?ve$on$mutualism.$Developments$merge$ and$reinforce$each$ other.$An$ example$of$this$is$ a$ suppor?ve$ MD$ programme$that$is$designed$around$an$organisa?onal$development$ project.$ Commensalism$ and$ parasi?sm$ also$ occur$ as$ symbio?c$ effects$in$a$management$system,$but$in$prac?ce$they$have$a$rather$ neutral$ or$ even$ a$ nega?ve$ effect.$ Commensalism$ is$ a$ type$ of$ symbiosis$where$ one$tool$ benefits$ from$ another,$while$ the$ other$ experiences$no$advantage$or$disadvantage.$ A colourful patchwork Can$you$recall$why$things$are$done$the$way$they$are$done$within$your$organisa?on?$ Can$you$s?ll$see$the$cohesion?$ In$ prac?ce,$the$lack$of$cohesion$ within$organisa?ons$can$ create$strange$and$ some?mes$ frustra?ng$situa?ons.$We$talk$about$developing$competencies$of$employees$and$then$only$ evaluate$on$the$basis$of$sales$figures.$We$create$annual$plans$and$ac?vity$plans,$but$they$ are$not$?ed$to$budgets.$We’re$passionate$about$interes?ng$improvement$projects,$but$we$ have$forgoBen$what$they$were$supposed$to$contribute$to$the$ambi?on$of$the$organisa?on.$ In$my$role$as$Lead$Assessor$for$the$EFQM$I$rarely$encounter$an$integral$and$coherent$story,$ but$ usually$a$colourful$ patchwork$of$ approaches,$tools,$(unwriBen)$rules,$processes$and$ documents.$This$quilt$of$“management$tools”$does$not$always$provide$the$required$energy$ that$we$need$for$purposeful$development.$ Synergy$is$what$we’re$looking$for.$By$properly$designing$the$system$of$management$tools,$ it$ can$ contribute$to$ the$development$ of$ the$organisa?on$ and$ its$people.$With$synergy$I$ mean$the$degree$of$cohesion$leading$to$emergent$effects$that$are$greater$than$the$sum$of$ the$effects$that$each$of$the$individual$tools$could$achieve$on$its$own.$To$clarify,$I$don’t$see$ synergy$as$the$crea?on$of$unity$and$uniformity.$It$ is$especially$the$apparent$imperfec?on$ that$ leads$ to$ development.$ Some$ systems$ may$ in$ fact$ benefit$ from$ randomness$ and$ disorder,$allowing$ us$to$ deal$ with$the$unknown.$They$may$even$ benefit$ (unexpectedly)$ from$this.$Or,$as$my$esteemed$colleague$and$academy$builder$Cees$Hoogendijk$remarked:$ “A$disjointed$management$system$is$a$pleonasm$that$we$should$especially$cherish.” In$the$course$of$?me$I$was$able$to$discern$several$nega?ve$effects$that$occur$in$a$disjointed$ management$ system.$ Perhaps$ you$ recognise$ some$ of$ these$ oddi?es$ within$ your$ own$ organisa?on. symbiosis'
  • 17. 17 With$parasi?sm,$one$tool$takes$advantage$at$the$expense$of$the$other.$A$good$example$of$ parasi?sm$is$the$effect$of$external$accountability$on$the$internal$planning$and$control$cycle. The$effect$of$collusion$ is$usually$recognisable$in$ the$long$ term.$As$ tools$ evolve,$ ques?ons$ emerge$ that$ were$ not$ foreseen$ or$ preventable$ beforehand.$ For$ example,$ the$ impact$ of$further$ regula?on$ and$ increasing$ pressure$on$ accountability,$in$conjunc?on$with$the$introduc?on$of$e.g.$ Alterna?ve$ Working$ Prac?ces$ or$ selfCmanagement,$ will$ create$unprecedented$tension$on$many$fronts. Change$can$ turn$out$to$be$posi?ve$or$nega?ve.$A$posi?ve$change$is,$for$ example,$ the$ transforma?on$ of$ the$ tradi?onal$ sejng$ of$ learning$ processes$ to$ a$ more$ academically$ orientated$ approach.$ A$ nega?ve$ change,$ which$ is$ o>en$ based$ on$ wear$ and$ tear,$ is$ more$ common.$ A$ compelling$example$is$performance$management$that$can$ul?mately$lead$ to$an$undesirable$bonus$culture. An$ organisa?on$will$begin$to$stack$as$soon$as$the$various$ management$ tools$are$no$longer$ interconnected.$A$good$ example$is$the$use$of$client$surveys,$employee$surveys$and$ (internal)$ audits,$ each$ with$ its$ own$ improvement$ programme.$On$the$work$floor,$?me$and$?me$again$one$is$ confronted$ with$ “loose”$ improvement$ ac?ons$ that$ are$ unrelated$to$each$other. Wear$ and$ tear$ occurs$ when$ compa?ble$ tools$ are$ not$ being$ connected$and$do$not$par?cipate$in$each$other's$development$and/ or$they$are$poorly$maintained.$Organisa?ons$which$work$with,$for$ example,$ a$ separated$ system$ of$ performance$ appraisals$ and$ Personal$ Development$ Consulta?ons,$ no?ce$ that$ both$ tools$ lose$ their$effect.$A>er$all,$entering$into$agreements$with$each$other$ cannot$ be$separated$from$ discussing$ development.$ Another$ example$ is$ the$ wellCknown$ (internal)$ audit.$ What$ ques?ons$does$the$auditor$ask$you?$Are$they$(s?ll)$relevant$to$you? The$ crea?on$ of$ contradic?ons$ is$ the$ most$ frustra?ng$ effect$ that$ employees$ experience$ when$two$management$approaches$intersect.$A$ good$ example$ is$ the$ use$ of$ selfCmanagement$ (selfCorganisa?on)$as$a$management$principle$in$ addi?on$to$the$principle$of$?mekeeping.$On$the$one$hand,$the$organisa?on$gives$the$signal$ that$ employees$ are$mature$and$ responsible$enough$ to$organise$their$ work$as$they$like,$ while$on$the$other$hand$they$control$?me$management$and$don’t$or$hardly$focus$on$output.$ Let$alone$the$outcome. Façades$ can$ occur$ anywhere.$ This$ is$ when$ tools$ or$ systems$ are$ (consciously$ or$ unconsciously)$ used$ inappropriately$ for$ other$ purposes.$ $ For$ example,$ if$ an$ organisa?on$ controls$ budgets$ and$ performance,$unwanted$ forces$will$ arise.$If$budgets$ are$determined$ on$the$basis$of$expected$input$and$output,$then$performance$will$not$ exceed$ the$ established$ expecta?ons.$A>er$ all,$managers$know$that$ this$ has$an$ impact$ on$next$ year’s$ budget.$Façades$are$ also$ evident,$for$ example,$when$ making$annual$ plans.$The$way$in$which$ this$happens$in$ many$organisa?ons,$is$more$ like$ performing$a$ritual,$ceremonial$dance.$Indeed,$it$is$the$o>en$separately$designed$round$of$ budget$talks$that$determines$the$con?nuity$of$a$department. façade& collusion( muta%on( stacking) wear%and%tear% contradic)ons+
  • 18. 18 Examples from my organisation: façade& synergy' symbiosis' muta%on( stacking) collusion( wear%and%tear% contradic)ons+
  • 19. 19 INK-EFQM Management Framework Framework$for$connections Step%2: Identifying%the%relationships
  • 20. 20 INK/EFQM$is$not$a$model.$It’s$a$way$of$thinking$and$working.$The$winners$of$the$awards$and$prizes$will$tell$you$ that$they$have$been$dealing$intensively$with$understanding$and$developing$the$quality$of$the$connec?ons$within$ the$organisa?on,$with$other$organisa?ons$and$with$their$clients,$and$that$this$trip,$because$that’s$what$it$is,$is$a$ unique$learning$experience$for$the$organisa?on$as$well$as$for$the$people$who$have$been$closely$involved$with$it.$ It’s$a$road$of$trial$and$error,$of$understanding$and$(re)considera?on.$It$o>en$starts$innocently$enough$with$a$selfC evalua?on$or$posi?onCfinding.$And$then$the$ideas$grab$you.$They$ask$ques?ons$that$maBer.$They$reflect$on$the$ assump?ons$you$make$and$force$you$to$think$about$the$essence$of$organising.$ The$INK/EFQM$body$of$thought$is$as$wide$and$deep$as$you$will$allow.$The$wellCknown$framework,$the$model,$is$the$representa?on$of$the$body$of$thought$and$everyone$takes$whatever$they$ see$in$it.$The$INK/EFQM$model$is$composed$of$ten$areas$of$interest,$related$to$five$organisa?onal$areas$and$four$result$areas.$Rela?ve$to$each$other$they$provide$a$picture$of$the$current$or$ desired$state$of$affairs$of$an$organisa?on$(or$department).$The$result$areas$serve$to$systema?cally$map$the$performance$of$an$organisa?on.$The$organisa?onal$areas$illustrate$the$desired$ results$and$how$the$organisa?on$will$and$can$achieve$them.$The$tenth$area$of$interest$is$about$improvement$and$innova?on.$This$especially$clarifies$what$the$development$capacity$is.$The$ lines$between$the$areas$indicate$the$connec?ons$and$the$dynamics$between$the$areas$and$are$central$in$this$workbook. What$is$the$true$added$value$of$the$organisa?on$for$the$ client$and$how$do$you$expect$to$achieve$this?$ How$successful$is$your$organisa?on$actually,$in$crea?ng$ a$balance$between$the$strategic$objec?ves$of$the$ organisa?on$and$the$personal$expecta?ons$and$ ambi?ons$of$the$employees?$ Do$your$leaders,$managers,$employees$and$partners$ have$the$ability$to$respond$to$the$environment$and$do$ they$know$how$to$recognise$and$hold$on$to$success?$ How$do$you$improve$and$work$with$your$rela?onships?$ Do$you$develop$networks$of$stakeholders$and$involve$ them$as$a$poten?al$source$of$crea?vity$and$innova?on?$ Do$you$take$responsibility$for$a$sustainable$future?$ And$how$do$you$conduct$and$maintain$a$dialogue$with$ all$stakeholders? Leadership People Partnerships & Resources Strategy Processes, Products & Services People Results Customer Results Society Results Learning and Innovation Key Business Results
  • 21. 21 How$does$the$organisa?on$ manage$the$dialogue$with$all$ stakeholders$in$order$to$ translate$the$external$and$ internal$opportuni?es$and$ challenges$into$a$shared$and$ inspiring$vision$and$mission$ statement?$ How$does$the$organisa?on$ develop$an$appropriate$ management$system$that$is$ aligned$with$the$vision,$ mission,$values$and$ambi?ons? How$does$the$leadership$stay$ personally$involved$and$know$ how$to$inspire$and$mo?vate$ staff,$(chain)$partners$and$ suppliers? How$does$the$organisa?on$ manage$and$respect$staff$in$ line$with$the$strategic$and$ policy$objec?ves? How$does$the$organisa?on$ translate,$based$on$internal$ and$external$informa?on,$the$ mission$statement$into$a$clear$ strategy$and$policy$with$clear$ plans? How$does$the$organisa?on$ ensure$that$the$necessary$ resources$are$available$for$ business$opera?ons? How$does$the$organisa?on$ iden?fy$and$develop$effec?ve$ primary,$suppor?ng$and$ management$processes$in$ order$to$realise$the$set$ objec?ves? How$does$the$organisa?on$ ensure$that$the$processes$are$ carried$out$effec?vely$and$that$ staff$are$deployed$on$their$ competencies? How$does$the$organisa?on$ ensure$that$the$effec?veness$of$ all$processes$are$con?nuously$ evaluated$and$improved? Who$do$you$consider$your$ employees$and$what$do$they$ actually$think?$When$are$we$ successful$for$each$other? Who$are$the$clients$and$ (chain)$partners$and$what$do$ they$expect?$Where$should$ we$be$headed$in$order$to$ realise$these$expecta?ons$and$ when$are$we$successful? How$does$the$organisa?on$see$ the$society?$What$is$the$ organisa?on's$responsibility$ and$to$whom$or$what$is$it$ accountable? Who$are$the$directors$and$ financiers?$What$do$they$ consider$to$be$cri?cal$to$the$ con?nuity$of$the$organisa?on?$ In$what$areas$should$the$ organisa?on$be$accountable? The INK/EFQM Model How$does$the$organisa?on$con?nuously$and$integrally$ design$improvements,$renewal$and$innova?ons?$ The offical name of the EFQM model in Dutch is the INK Model. Promoted by the Instituut Nederlandse Kwaliteit (INK).
  • 22. 22 Plan,(,Do,(,Learn,(,Adapt Three,Axis Where$do$your$thinking$and$ ac?ons$begin? Is$achieving$results$central$to$your$ ac?ons$and$is$everything$derived$ from$this,$or$do$you$believe$that$if$ you$are$good$for$the$organisa?on,$ the$results$will$follow$naturally. Enablers,versus,Results The$feedback$loop$in$the$ model$invites$you$to$examine$how$ the$achieved$results$can$be$ improved$by$taking$measures$in$one$ or$more$organisa?onal$areas. The$human$axis,$the$business$ axis$and$the$resources$axis.$These$axes$ will$help$you$to$find$links$between$ investments$you$can$make$and$the$ possible$effects$for$the$various$ stakeholders. The,‘flow’ The$flow$starts$with$the$Leadership$element,$where$the$basis$for$the$ organisa?on$is$formulated$and$where$the$energy$is$focused,$which$is$then$translated,$ using$Strategy$and$Policy,$to$Staff,$Resources$and$Processes.$These$are$the$processes$ that$ul?mately$convert$words$into$ac?on$and$whose$intended$effect$must$be$evident$ to$the$Clients,$Employees,$Partners$and/or$the$Company$and$of$course$ul?mately$to$ the$Directors$and$the$Financiers. 4 perspectives people(axis business(axis resources(axis
  • 23. 23 The connections model Every$organisa?on$has$its$own$"flow".$It$is$this$"flow"$that$runs$through$all$connec?ons$and$ gives$ character$ to$ the$ composi?on$ of$ the$ organisa?on.$ What, is, actually, making, your, organisa1on,so,unique?,Where,are,the,connec1ons,within,your,organisa1on?,What,is,the, nature,of,these,connec1ons,and,what,do,they,currently,deliver? Our$ first$step$in$this$expedi?on$will$ be$the$discovery$and$interpreta?on$of$the$connec?ons$ according$ to$ the$ four$ perspec?ves$ from$ the$ INK/EFQM$ philosophy.$ The$ “Model$ of$ connec?ons”$will$help$you$with$this.$This$model,$complemen?ng$the$wellCknown$INK/EFQM$ model,$visually$places$the$connec?ons$between$the$ten$main$ areas$central.$The$“model$of$ connec?ons”$proved$to$be$a$valuable$tool$in$prac?ce,$to$hold$dialogue$with$colleagues$about$ the$quality$of$cohesion$within$the$organisa?on. Before$you$can$work$with$this,$it$is$important$to$know$a$bit$more$about$the$different$focus$ areas$and$how$they$relate$to$each$other.$The$“Direc?on$Ques?ons”$for$each$area$of$interest$ will$help$you$to$discover$the$flow$within$your$organisa?on$(or$department).$ Leadership Leadership$is$about$the$way$leaders$keep$the$organisa?on$on$course$and$how$they$inspire$ development$ with$ a$ vision$ of$ the$future$which$ is$ formed$ in$ dialogue$with$ stakeholders.$ Leaders$align$business$opera?ons$to$this$and$can$be$seen$to$be$involved$in$the$development$ of$the$organisa?on.$Leadership$ is$not$just$ about$management,$but$ concerns$all$ levels$of$ leadership$ within$ the$ organisa?on.$ This$ makes$ it$ a$ lot$ easier$ to$ make$ the$ connec?on$ between$ Employees,$ Strategy$ and$ Policy,$ and$ Resources.$ The$ following$ five$ “direc?on$ ques?ons”$will$help$you$to$iden?fy$these$connec?ons$in$your$organisa?on: How,does,the,organisa1on, manage,the,dialogue,with,all, stakeholders,about,the, external,and,internal,opportuni1es,and,challenges? How,is,the,vision,and,mission,statement,developed,and,shared? How, does,the, organisa1on, develop, an,appropriate,structure, and, culture, that,is, aligned,with,the,vision,,mission,,values,and,ambi1ons? How,is,the,leadership,(personally),involved,at,all,levels,within,the,organisa1on? How, does,the,leadership, manage,to, inspire,and, mo1vate,staff,,(chain),partners, and,suppliers? The$‘connec)ons$model’$|$INK3EFQM$Naviga)onmap
  • 24. 24 Strategy Strategy$ is$ about$ the$ way$ the$ organisa?on$ translates$ its$ mission$ statement$ into$ daily$ prac?ce,$into$the$results$to$be$achieved$for$all$stakeholders$and$into$the$processes$that$are$ needed$for$this.$In$other$words,$the$realisa?on$of$policies,$plans,$processes$and$budgets.$In$ addi?on,$Strategy$and$Policy$are$also$about$the$way$of$communica?ng$about$this,$inside$ and$outside$the$organisa?on.$Strategy$and$Policy$take$central$stage$on$the$“enablers”$side$ and$thus$directly$affect$all$other$condi?ons$creators.$The$following$“direc?on$ques?ons”$will$ help$you$to$iden?fy$these$connec?ons: How,and, with, whom,does,the,organisa1on,translate,the,mission, statement, into, dis1nct,strategies,,policies,,processes,and,specific,plans? What,is,the,flow,of,communica1on,about,strategy,and,policy? People People$is$par?cularly$about$how$the$organisa?on$u?lises$the$knowledge,$skills$and$energy$of$ its$ employees$ (in$ line$ with$ the$ mission$ statement).$ How$ are$ the$ employees$ given$ the$ opportunity$to$develop$and$use$their$abili?es?$How$do$employees$gain$recogni?on,$respect$ and$apprecia?on$for$ their$ contribu?on?$Besides$ the$link$to$Leadership$and$ Strategy$and$ Policy,$there$is$also$a$clear$line$to$ Processes,$which$ is$where$the$energy,$knowledge$and$ skills$of$employees$are$converted$to$products$and$services$for$the$various$stakeholders.$The$ following$“direc?on$ques?on”$will$help$you$to$iden?fy$these$connec?ons:$ How, does, the, organisa1on, manage,, invest, and, respect, staff, in, line, with, the, strategic,and,policy,objec1ves,and,how,does,it,know,how,to,op1mise,these? Partnerships & Resources Partnerships$and$Resources$is$ about$ how$the$organisa?on$ensures$the$ availability$of$the$ resources$needed$to$keep$the$business$running.$It's$about$the$way$resources$are$allocated$ to$ carry$out$the$ac?vi?es.$Resources$ mean$money,$knowledge$and$technology,$materials$ and$services.$The$manner$ of$coopera?on$with$suppliers$and$partners$also$falls$within$this$ element.$The$following$“direc?on$ques?ons”$will$help$you$to$iden?fy$these$connec?ons:$ How, does, the, organisa1on, ensure, that, the, necessary, (financial), resources,, knowledge,,ICT,,materials,,etc.,are,available,for,business,opera1ons? How,are,partners,and,suppliers,involved? Processes, Products & Services The$ way$ in$ which$ the$ organisa?on$ iden?fies,$ designs,$ controls,$ enhances$ and$ renews$ (innovates)$its$ processes,$rela?ve$to$ strategy$and$policy,$is$central$ here.$Management$ of$ processes$requires$a$balance$between$standardisa?on$and$regula?on$on$the$one$hand,$and$ space$and$freedom$for$the$professional$employee$to$func?on$adequately$in$prac?ce$on$the$ other$hand.$This$area$is$the$heart$of$the$INK/EFQM$model,$which$is$not$surprising.$It$is$the$ collabora?on$between$people$in$the$implementa?on$that$is$decisive$for$the$success$of$the$ organisa?on.$The$following$“direc?on$ques?on”$will$help$you$to$iden?fy$these$connec?ons:$ How, does, the, organisa1on, ensure, that, work, ac1vi1es, (processes),, from, the, perspec1ve,of,the,stakeholders,,are,carried,out,effec1vely,and,efficiently,,and,that, staff,and,partners,are,deployed,on,their,competencies?
  • 25. 25 Customer & Partner Results Customers,$partners$and$suppliers$are$of$paramount$importance$for$the$performance$of$the$ organisa?on.$ Partners$ are$ external$ organisa?ons$ who$ are$ involved$ in$ longCterm$ collabora?ons:$they$may$be$suppliers$and/or$clients,$some?mes$in$varying$roles. People Results This$area$of$interest$reflects$the$extent$to$which$employees$actually$feel$that$they$are$able$ to$employ$their$own$competencies. Society Results The$organisa?on$is$part$of$society.$It$is$society$that$ is$capable$of$influencing,$directly$and$ indirectly,$the$organisa?on$and$all$stakeholders.$In$addi?on$it$is$also$its$responsibility$to$be$ accountable.$For$example,$efforts$in$the$field$of$Corporate$Social$Responsibility$(CSR)$are$at$ the$forefront$in$this$area$of$interest. Business Results Directors$and$financiers$ul?mately$formulate$and$ issue$an$opinion$on$ the$performance$of$ the$ organisa?on.$ It$ is$their$ responsibility$ to$ influence$ the$ direc?on$ of$ the$organisa?on,$ which$makes$them$an$important$party. The Stakeholders Tradi?onally,$ result$ areas$ (Employees,$ Clients$ and$ Partners,$ Society,$ Directors$ and$ Financiers)$ within$ the$ INK/EFQM$ model$ indicate$ the$ extent$ to$ which$ stakeholders$ appreciate$the$organisa?on.$In$other$words,$to$what$extent$the$efficiency$of$the$efforts$on$ the$organisa?on$side$is$visible$and$usable.$The$model$also$poses$the$ques?on,$exactly$who$ are$the$stakeholders$and$what$ are$their$ expecta?ons.$The$ques?ons$that$ can$ be$asked$ from$this$perspec?ve$are$relevant$ in$discovering$the$rela?onships$with$ the$help$ of$the$ naviga?on$map.$ However,$in$ the$search$ for$ rela?onships$ it$ is$ not$ important$ to$ explicitly$focus$ on$ the$ quan?ta?ve$side$of$the$result$areas.$It’s$not$the$Key$Performance$Indicators,$but$the$Key$ Performance$ Ques?ons$ that$ are$ central$ in$ the$ model$ of$ connec?ons.$ The$ relevant$ “direc?on$ques?ons”$that$you$can$use$for$all$four$areas$are:$$ Who,exactly,are,the,stakeholders?, What’s,their,objec1ve?, What,do,we,give,them?, What's,in,it,(for,us)? What's,in,it,for,them? What,do,they,do,towards,the,organisa1on?, How,are,they,involved,in,the,various,ac1vi1es? And,how,do,they,relate,to,each,other? “The$work$of$organisations$is$not$judged$on$output,$but$on$outcome.$The$fact$is$that$it’s$not$ about$the$infrastructure,$but$about$flowing$through;$not$about$DTCs$(Diagnosis$Treatment$ Combinations),$but$ about$ healing;$not$ about$teaching$ contact$ hours,$but$ about$ learning.$ Although$less$feasible,$the$organisation$and$its$directors$are$ultimately$responsible$for$this.$ Outcome$has$more$to$do$with$what$it$does,$than$what$it$is.$Focusing$on$outcome$demands$a$ culture$that$could$choke$on$output$control”$ [Maarten$de$Winter,$author$of$the$sjoelbaksyndroom).
  • 26. 26 The connections model The$‘connec)ons$model’$|$INK3EFQM$Naviga)onmap
  • 27. 27 How to use it - a roadmap 1. Form,a,team,with,colleagues. Invite$up$to$ eight$colleagues,$preferably$people$with$an$open$and$cri?cal$ ajtude,$ and$ who$ are$ willing$ to$ par?cipate.$ It$ helps$ if$ they$ have$ been$ employed$within$other$departments$for$a$while$and$that$they$understand$ the$rela?onships$between$departments.$ 2. Place,all,departments,on,the,INK/EFQM,Naviga1on,Map. Iden?fy$ and$ include$ all$ departments$ within$ the$ organisa?on.$ Pay$ close$ aBen?on$to$the$place$that$you$choose$for$a$par?cular$department$and$how$ this$place$relates$to$ other$ departments.$This$step$focusses$on$processes$ that$are$ not$ directly$ visible$ and$ creates$ a$spa?al$representa?on$ for$the$ par?cipants$of$the$organisa?on$in$which$they$work.$ 3. Iden1fy,a,recent,topic,that,affects,everyone. A$ wellCchosen$topic$helps$when$ star?ng$ a$first$explora?on.$ This$could$be$ the$design$and$implementa?on$of$a$new$project$or$how$the$organisa?on$ handles$ client$ complaints,$ the$ response$ to$ a$ bad$ press$ release$ or$ the$ manner$in$which$a$reorganisa?on$is$implemented.$Discuss$up$to$three$or$ four$topics.$That's$really$enough$to$understand$the$essence$of$the$dynamics$ of$the$organisa?on.$ 4. Together,,determine,a,number,of,routes. The$INK/EFQM$ Naviga?on$ Map$is$simply$ intended$to$ start$ a$dialogue$on$ how$the$connec?ons$run$in$an$organisa?on$and$what$condi?ons$they$are$ connected$ to.$ The$ exis?ng$ roads$ in$ the$ INK/EFQM$ Naviga?on$ Map$ are$ theore?cal$and,$in$prac?ce,$an$ organisa?on$ has$more$ roads$that$can$be$ navigated.$ There$ are$ shortcuts,$ lanes,$ elephant$ paths,$ trails,$ streets,$ highways,$byways$and$walkways.$Your$team$has$of$course$the$freedom$to$ get$off$the$beaten$track. 5. Ask,ques1ons,and,listen The$team$occasionally$ gets$bogged$down$in$concepts$or$it’s$hard$to$see$ where$ a$ turn$ can$ or$ should$ be$ taken.$ The$ descrip?ons$ and$ direc?on$ ques?ons$on$the$previous$pages$help$to$keep$the$search$going$and$to$find$ new$roads. 6. Iden1fy,the,decisions,that,you,make,with,each,other Anecdotes,$examples,$discussions$and$ques?ons$will$help$you$to$find$the$ routes.$ Name$ the$eventual$ assessment$ you$ make$with$ each$other$ and$ place$one$or$more$road$sign$and/or$traffic$obstruc?on$to$symbolise$this$ assessment.$ 7. Describe,the,traffic,rules A$close$examina?on$and$analysis$of$the$completed$INK/EFQM$Naviga?on$ Map$will$allow$the$ team$to$ discover$ several$generally$ applicable$traffic$ laws.$ These$ traffic$ rules$ say$ something$ about$ the$ effects$ of$ these$ connec?ons. 8. Discuss,and,evaluate,the,clustering Joint$reflec?on$on$the$created$clustering$creates$a$higher$level$of$analysis$ (at$ the$ system$ level)$ of$ the$ quality$ of$ the$ cohesion$ within$ your$ organisa?on$(or$department). Blank$copies$of$the$Naviga?on$map$can$be$found$on$page$73.$ On$the$following$pages$you’ll$find$ two$examples$from$prac?ce.
  • 28. 28 Examples Case:,Implementa1on,of,Process,Management Organisa1on, X, implements, Process, Management, to, connect, ambi1ons, with, the, various, business,units.,Staff,are,closely,involved,with,this,introduc1on., To,promote,safeguarding,of,the,rela1onships,,a,project,is,started,to,direct,the,implementa1on., Process,Management,is,introduced,along,the,line,and,is,further,supported,by, a,Management, Development, Programme., Safeguarding, processes, happens, in, accordance, with, established, procedures.,Input,for,this,consists,of,client,indicators,and,complaints. Findings Clients,$(chain)$partners$and$suppliers$are$not$involved$in$the$design$of$the$processes. Integra?on$with$other$ policy$ ini?a?ves$that$ promote$ a$ clientCdriven$process$ design$is$s?ll$ insufficient. No$integrated$cycle$to$assess$the$process$design. Casus:,Ontwikkelen,meerjarenbeleidsplan The,crea1on,of,the,mul1(year,plan,within,organisa1on,X,involved,a,representa1ve,delega1on, from, the,organisa1on., The,vision,and, mission,statement, of,the,organisa1on, was,used,as, a, star1ng,point.,These,were,subsequently,translated,locally,in,consulta1on,with,the,employees., The,transla1on,of,the,objec1ves,into,concrete,results,takes,place,within,the,MT, and,is,also, aligned,with,the,individual,employee,through,the,planning,mee1ng. Findings Clients,$(chain)$partners$and$suppliers$were$not$involved$in$the$development$of$the$mul?Cyear$ plan. The$teams$have$not$been$involved$in$the$transla?on$of$goals$into$concrete$results. Communica?on$about$the$policy$to$other$stakeholders$has$been$lacking. Analysis Based$ on$the$ discussions$ and$ findings,$ the$ MT$ that$ has$ done$this$exercise$described$the$following$“traffic$rules”$of$ organisa?on$X: The$ "outside$ world"$ may$ not$ and$ cannot$ par?cipate$ directly$and$exert$influence. Management$decides.$ Management$according$to$policy$is$not$selfCevident. Employees$are$involved$and$are$allowed$to$think$along. Learning$is$through$systems$and$not$through$people. Sugges1ons Convert$HRM$from$tac?cal$to$strategic. Organise$structural$par?cipa?on$of$stakeholders. Ongoing$development$of$the$policy$process.
  • 29. 29 Examples Case:,Implementa1on,of,the,organisa1on’s,direc1on Organisa1on, Y, is, engaged, in, the, deployment, of, a, new, direc1on., The, “key”, is, in, professionalising,of,staff, and,managers.,This,new,direc1on,requires,a, cultural,change.,To,give, content,and,meaning, to,this,process,, several,ac1ons,(dialogues),were,undertaken,with,staff., However,,due,to,the,way,the,project,is,communicated,,it,is,perceived,as,a,one(way,affair. Findings Middle$management$is$insufficiently$included$in$the$dialogue. Leadership$development$remains$underexposed. Tempo$differences$are$created$(because$of$this)$between$the$execu?ves. Case:,Societal,posi1on Organisa1on, Y, is,firmly, planted, in, society., Organisa1on, Y, involves, various, stakeholders, in, crea1ng,policy.,Ini1a1ves,of,employees,regarding,chari1es,are,supported,and,the,organisa1on, has, an, ac1ve, policy, on,rela1ons, with, the, press., Society, highly, appreciates,the, efforts,and, organisa1on,Y,regularly,receives,this,recogni1on,from,respected,authori1es. Findings Organisa?on$is$very$ac?ve$with$the$outside$world. In$par?cular,$(local)$poli?cs$has$a$major$impact$on$policy. However,$there$is$no$specific$policy$that$connects$all$outward$ini?a?ves$and$provides$a$focus. Analysis Based$ on$ the$ discussions,$ this$ team$ of$ organisa?on$ Y$ described$the$following$“traffic$rules”: Society$and$poli?cs$override$interest$and$contribu?ons$ of$its$own$employees. Middle$management$is$(s?ll)$not$a$connec?ng$element. Reflec?ons$on$leadership$are$lacking. Sugges1ons Strengthen$dialogue$with$middle$management. Develop$policy$on$social$ini?a?ves. Revision$of$the$policy$portolio.
  • 30. 30 Can we do with less? The$ response$ of$ companies$ to$ the$ recession$ is$ par?cularly$ aimed$ at$ ?ghter$ control$ of$ expenditures$ and$ the$ ini?a?on$ of$ improvement$ programs.$ It$ appears$ that$ rela?vely$ few$ organisa?ons$have$an$eye$for$stopping$ongoing$programs$and$ac?vi?es.$It’s$?me$to$take$a$close$ look$at$all$projects,$ac?ons$and$tools$that$your$organisa?on$has$collected$over$the$years$and$to$ wonder$if$they$s?ll$have$their$value.$Is$there$s?ll$some$synergy$or$do$you$see$an$accumula?on$ of$tools$and$an$increase$of$contradic?ons?$ In$the$course$of$?me,$an$organisa?on$collects$numerous$tools$and$approaches.$Some$of$these$ originated$from$a$need$and$some$from$a$trend.$Each$profession$within$your$organisa?on$has$its$ own$vision$of$what$is$good$for$the$organisa?on.$The$strength$of$life$preserva?on$ensures$that$ you$are$s?ll$working$with$outdated$and/or$ineffec?ve$tools.$ What can you do about this? Start$ with$ an$ inventory,$ because$ do$ you$ know$ how$ many$of$ such$ tools$ exist$ within$ your$ organisa?on?$The$INK/EFQM$Naviga?on$Map$can$help$you.$An$addi?onal$advantage$of$posing$ this$ques?on$is$to$call$for$a$discussion$about$what$is$exactly$meant$by$a$tool.$Did$you$know$that$ an$organisa?on$has$adopted$an$average$of$13$approaches,$with$their$accompanying$tools? The$second$step$is$to$request$addi?onal$informa?on$for$each$tool.$Who$is$the$owner$and$who$ is$ the$ client?$Is$ there$ a$descrip?on$ of$the$approach$ and$ were$ objec?ves$ formulated?$ This$ second$step$will$surprise$you! The$third$step$is$an$assessment$of$the$tools.$The$answers$to$the$ques?ons$alongside$provide$ targeted$informa?on$for$further$op?miza?ons. Tweaking Can$ (or$ should)$ we$ do$ with$ less?$Try$to$ recycle$ those$ tools$that$ would$ otherwise$be$ lost$ unnecessarily.$Modify$them$in$such$a$way$(Tweaking),$that$they$are$once$again$aligned$with$ ambi?ons. Checklist: Is the objective of the tool a derivative of the mission, vision and strategy of the organisation? Is the operation of the tool transparent to all relevant stakeholders? Is the application supported by well-defined processes? Have the relationships with other tools/ activities been established? Was the tool systematically introduced and is it applied broad and deep? Is the tool regularly evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency, and adjusted accordingly? Do users see the added value of the tool in relation to improving the quality of services and/or products?
  • 31. 31 The Eye of the Master Create$your$own$storyboard Step%3: Tracking%the%dynamics
  • 32. 32 Tracking the dynamics An$excellent$organisa?on$not$only$performs$well,$it$ also$knows$why$it$ performs$well$and$it$ knows$how$to$con?nue$to$perform$well$in$the$future.$The$ques?on$ is:$Do$you$know$how$ well$ your$ organisa?on$ is$ performing$ and$ why$ that$ is?$ This$ is$ where$ you$ start$ your$ expedi?on$to$the$development$ of$the$composi?on$of$your$organisa?on$ over$the$years.$ Based$on$the$experiences$and$insights$gained$from$The$Management$Challenge®$you$will$ discover$ and$ follow$ the$ dynamics$ of$ the$ connec?ons$ that$ form$ the$ basis$ for$ the$ organisa?on$of$tomorrow. The Management Challenge® The$Management$Challenge®$is$a$simula?on$game$based$on$the$INK$Management$Model,$EFQM$ Excellence$ Model$ and$ the$ theories$ of$ Graves.$ The$ game$ allows$ par?cipants$ to$ learn$ and$ experience$ the$ effect$ of$ directed$ aBen?on$ to$ the$ development$ of$ the$ organisa?on$ and$ its$ employees.$The$Management$ Challenge®$simulates$the$opera?on$ of$a$(fic?onal)$ organisa?on$ over$ a$ maximum$of$ five$ years,$ depending$ on$ the$ dura?on$ of$ the$ game.$ Each$ quarter,$ the$ par?cipa?ng$teams$make$some$decisions.$They$make$their$choice$from$a$list$of$approximately$ 130$measures.$These$are$measures$that$come$from$business$prac?ce$and$that$affect$different$ aspects$of$business$opera?ons.$If$the$teams$ignore$certain$areas$of$interest,$erosion$occurs$and$ the$ score$ in$ that$ domain$ will$ automa?cally$ drop.$ Some?mes$ it$ is$ also$ the$ connec?on$ of$ measures$that$determines$the$desired$effect.$This$element$is$also$clearly$woven$into$ The$Management$Challenge®. The Eye of the Master© To$clarify$the$effect$of$the$choices$of$a$team,$the$“founding$father”$of$the$game,$Willem$Jan$van$ der$Veldt,$designed$a$chart$that$looks$like$an$eye:$The$Eye$of$the$Master©$The$eye$displays$the$ dynamics$of$the$connec?ons$during$the$game$and$is$therefore$a$wonderful$tool$to$visualise$and$ analyse$the$dynamics$within$your$ own$organisa?on.$A$detailed$explana?on$ of$the$Eye$can$be$ found$alongside. Create your own storyboard On$ the$ basis$ of$ the$ examples$on$ the$ following$ pages$ you$ will$ be$ challenged$ to$ create$a$storyboard$of$your$ organisa?on$(unit).$To$do$ this,$study$the$dynamics$of$ the$ eyes$in$the$examples$ and$ use$ these$ as$a$ basis$ for$ your$ own$ storyline.$ The$ following$ques?ons$will$help$you$study$the$examples: How$does$the$eye$look$at$first$sight? Which$areas$of$interest$received$more$of$an$investment? What$areas$score$rela?vely$low? Is$there$a$visible$difference$between$the$“enablers”$and$the$“results”? Is$there$a$visible$correla?on$between$the$different$areas$of$interest? For$example,$do$you$recognise$the$three$axes? Are$there$disturbances$in$the$flow? Where$are$the$biggest$changes$in$subsequent$periods? Did$you$expect$these,$based$on$the$descrip?ons? Where$did$you$invest? Do$you$see$the$rise$of$a$dynamic$in$?me?
  • 33. 33 The$4$‘Results’The$5$‘Enablers’ Valua?on$of$an$area$of$ interest$on$a$scale$of$1$C10 Weighted$valua?on$of$the$ Enablers$on$a$scale$of$1$C10 Weighted$valua?on$of$the$ Results$on$a$scale$of$1$C10 Weighted$valua?on$of$ the$en?re$organisa?on$on$a$ scale$of$1$C10 People$axis Business$axis Resources$axis Valua?on$of$the$colors$on$a$ scale$of$1$C10 L ! = Leadership P! = People S! = Strategy and Policy P&R! = Partnerships & Resources PP&S! = Processes, Products & Services BR! = Business Results SR! = Society Results CR! = Customer Results PR! = People Results
  • 34. 34 Storyboard Enablers before Results Client The Green Team Titel Ready - Steady - Go Storyboard Enablers before Results Spot Group B Taaknr. D203 Shot 1: Start Position The organisation’s condition is moderate. The organisation gets a score of 5.7 from the stakeholders. The stock market is also moderately satisfied. Shot 2: Year 3, Quarter 1 The MT highlights the seriousness of the situation and the sense of urgency is shared. An investment is made in joint leadership in order to properly focus the energy. Shot 3: Year 3, Quarter 2 The organisation continues to invest in itself and is strongly introverted. It forgets, however, to invest in the processes. Shot 4: Year 3, Quarter 4 The MT maintains its policy, but also invests firmly in the processes. Clients and relationships see and appreciate that, triggering better results. Shot 5: Year 4, Quarter 1 Improving working conditions and the balancing of competencies and responsibilities is appreciated. However, the quality of the processes declines slightly. Shot 6: Year 4, Quarter 3 The results are good, but a downward trend is visible. External stakeholders give the organisation a score of 6.9 against 7.5 in Q1. The ratio between inward and outward attention becomes unbalanced.
  • 35. 35 Storyboard No focus Client Customized care Titel Flip - Flop Storyboard No focus Spot Group B Taaknr. D203 Shot 1: Start Position The organisation’s condition is moderate. The organisation gets a score of 5.7 from the stakeholders. The stock market is also moderately satisfied. Shot 2: Year 3, Quarter 1 The MT is on a safe course. There are organisational measures and investments in employees through training and improving working conditions and processes. Shot 3: Year 3, Quarter 2 The target groups are investigated and the supply is made accessible. Processes are not being maintained and the attention to employees slackens. Shot 4: Year 3, Quarter 4 The organisation collapses. The focus is gone. The organisation makes outward “noises”, but fails to invest in itself. Shot 5: Year 4, Quarter 1 As a consequence, results decline rapidly. The processes are again being addressed and investments in its employees also take place. A reassessment of the strategy is in place. Shot 6: Year 4, Quarter 3 The foundation is partially back in shape, but processes still need improvement. Clients are not satisfied. The organisation will need to consistently tackle its processes.
  • 36. 36 • Client$Segmenta?on • HRM$to$the$line • Process$Ownership • From$clientCorientated$to$clientCdriven • Improvement$and$maintenance$of$the$service$ concept • Coaching$and$support$for$managers • Structured$measuring$and$improving • Opera?onal$efficiency • Further$development$of$eCservices • Mul?channel$Approach • Rela?onship$Management • From$supply$to$marke?ng$ orienta?on • Developing$entrepreneurship • ResultCresponsible$Departments • Structure$towards$a$matrix$organisa?on • CoCcrea?on$with$clients$and$chain$partners • Inves?ng$in$team$development • Implemen?ng$processCorientated$work$and$thinking • SelfCmanagement$as$a$guiding$management$ principle • Implementa?on$of$competency$ management • Revision$of$the$service$concept • Ac?vity$Based$Cos?ng Storyboard To Grow and Flourish Client Organisation X Titel The real deal Storyboard To Grow and Flourish Spot Big City Taaknr. 2005 - 2008 - 2011 2005 2008 2011
  • 37. 37 The Storyboards explained The$first$two$storyboards$represent$two$teams$from$the$same$group$who$par?cipated$in$ The$Management$ Challenge®$during$an$ MD$ programme.$Both$ teams$received$ the$same$ ini?al$informa?on$and$produced$different$development$paths$for$a$game$of$eight$quarters.$ Although$this$is$about$fic??ous$organisa?ons,$it$is$interes?ng$to$see$how$the$teams$came$to$ their$choices$and$what$the$resul?ng$effect$was. In$ the$approach$of$the$“Green$Team”,$the$following$strategy,$chosen$by$the$team,$was$a$ constant$focus:$If$we$are$good$for$the$organisa?on,$results$will$follow.$In$quarter$1,$the$tone$ was$set$by$choosing$measures$that$were$based$on$power,$energy$and$community.$Ready$ for$a$fight,$they$pointed$out$the$seriousness$of$the$situa?on$and$the$need$for$change,$while$ clearly$seeing$the$need$for$involving$key$stakeholders.$The$effect$can$clearly$be$seen$in$the$ areas$of$Leadership$and$Employees.$By$quarter$4,$management$took$place$as$if$it$was$a$real$ company.$ The$ energy$was$focused$ on$increasing$produc?vity,$improving$the$ image$and$ con?nuously$ striving$for$ improvements.$ Although$ the$ efficiency$ of$ the$ efforts$ was$ not$ immediately$visible$in$quarter$2,$the$team$stuck$to$their$strategy$and$managed$to$reap$the$ benefits$in$quarter$4.$However,$in$the$third$quarter$of$year$4$the$results$slightly$declined.$ The$main$ reason$ was$ that$ the$ team$was$not$ quite$ keen$ enough$ on$ the$ quality$of$ the$ processes,$which$was$immediately$no?ced$by$the$client. The$approach$of$team$“Care$ Made$to$ Measure”$ was$of$ a$different$ order.$ Their$ energy$ during$the$game$was$mainly$on$power$and$order.$The$results$they$got$back$each$quarter,$ was$leading$in$their$ac?ons.$Quarter$1$started$with$taking$organisa?onal$measures$and$staff$ training.$ A>er$ quarter$ 1$ the$ focus$ shi>ed$ to$ the$ outside$ and$ in$ par?cular$ on$ the$ achievement$of$results.$The$organisa?on$is$forgoBen,$which$is$clearly$reflected$in$quarter$4$ of$year$3.$The$resul?ng$dissa?sfac?on$of$the$employees$is$quite$evident$in$quarter$1$of$year$ 4.$The$team$rallies$and$pays$more$aBen?on$to$the$management$theme.$The$effect$is$visible$ in$quarter$3. The$ storyboard:$ “Grow$ and$ Bloom”$ is$ based$ on$ three$ selfCevalua?ons$ of$ a$ very$ large$ organisa?on$in$the$period$2005$to$2011.$The$measures$and$ambi?ons$shown$are$dis?lled$ from$ various$ policy$ documents$ and$ serve$ to$ illustrate$ where$the$ focus$ was$ during$ this$ period.$Since$2005,$a$course$was$set$that$was$supposed$to$decrease$the$bureaucra?c$way$of$ organising,$replacing$it$ with$ a$more$ entrepreneurial$culture$ and$ structure.$The$way$this$ happened$was$quite$managerial.$The$change$plans$were$made$by$the$policy$departments$ and$then$deployed.$The$client$was$the$central$theme$in$this$renewal$opera?on.$The$effect$ can$clearly$be$seen$ in$ the$“eye”$of$ 2008.$Obvious$steps$have$been$ made$in$the$ field$of$ Strategy$and$Policy,$Employees$and$Processes.$The$effect$was$par?cularly$no?ceable$with$ Customers$ and$ Partners$ of$ this$ organisa?on,$ which$ directly$ resulted$ in$ beBer$ grades$ (Directors$ and$ Financiers).$ The$ aBen?on$ to$ structure$ and$ policies$ drowned$ out$ the$ rela?onship$ between$ management$ and$ employees.$ A>er$ 2008,$ the$ organisa?on$ has$ con?nued$on,$while$more$aBen?on$was$given$to$human$axis.$This$effect$is$also$obvious$in$ the$“eye”$of$2011. Create your own storyboard Crea?ng$a$storyboard$of$your$own$team,$unit$or$organisa?on$helps$you$to$understand$the$ dynamics$of$the$connec?ons$even$beBer.$By$drawing$your$current$“eye”$and$comparing$it$ with$the$ac?ons$you$have$taken$in$previous$years,$you’ll$create$the$basis$for$your$analysis.$ In$ the$next$step$ you$dis?l$ the$prominent$ ac?ons$from$your$ current$ annual$ plan.$On$this$ basis$you$create$a$new$sketch$(see$next$page).$$ Drawing$the$“eye”$is$not$an$exact$science.$It$is$mainly$the$rela?ve$differences$between$the$ areas$of$interest$which$are$interes?ng$for$crea?ng$your$own$analysis.$For$this$exercise$it$is$ also$ true$that$ it$ will$ have$added$value$ if$it$ is$completed$together$ with$ your$ colleagues.$ Crea?ng$a$storyboard$is$a$valuable$addi?on$to$the$analysis$you$made$using$the$INK/EFQM$ Naviga?on$ Map.$ Through$ this,$ you$ have$ not$ only$ interpreted,$ but$ also$ deferred$ the$ dynamics$within$your$organisa?on.
  • 38. 38 L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR Actions previous years: Current Profile L ! = Leadership P! = People S! = Strategy and Policy P&R! = Partnerships & Resources PP&S! = Processes, Products & Services BR! = Business Results SR! = Society Results CR! = Customer Results PR! = People Results
  • 39. 39 Actions next year: Profile Next Year L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L ! = Leadership P! = People S! = Strategy and Policy P&R! = Partnerships & Resources PP&S! = Processes, Products & Services BR! = Business Results SR! = Society Results CR! = Customer Results PR! = People Results
  • 40. 40 If$ you$ want$ to$ understand$ the$ func?on$ of$ a$ car,$ you$ have$ two$ op?ons:$ take$ the$ car$ completely$apart$and$examine$and$analyse$all$components,$or$look$down$on$ the$ A12$ during$ rush$ hour$ and$ contemplate$ the$ trafficCjam.$ The$ first$ method$will$show$you$that$a$car$can$drive$and$that$it$requires$a$lot$of$ parts$ and$ of$ course$ a$ driver.$ The$ second$ method$ will$ clarify,$ among$ others,$ that$ the$ apparent$ sense$ of$ freedom$ is$ stronger$ than$ working$ on$ our$ environment.$ The$ func?on$ and$ effec?veness$ of$ management$ systems$ can$ therefore$ not$ be$ understood$ by$ (only)$ looking$ at$ the$ underlying$ processes$ and$ methodologies,$ but$ mainly$ by$ placing$these$processes$in$a$larger$ whole.$ This$is$called$Systems$Thinking.
  • 41. 41 Systems thinking & doing The$dynamics$in$perspective Step%4: Understanding%from the%larger%whole
  • 42. 42 Let's$start$ straightaway$with$a$first$brain$ exercise$on$ a$topic$which$ everyone$within$ an$organisa?on$ deals$ with:$The$assessment$ cycle.$ Because$ this$ cycle$ consists$ of$ several$ types$ of$ conversa?ons,$in$the$context$of$this$exercise$I$will$refer$to$it$as$the$ conversa?on$cycle.$This$cycle$o>en$starts$just$a>er$the$new$year$with$a$ planning$ conversa?on$ or$ an$ objec?ves$ conversa?on.$ Agreements$ are$ made$ about$deliverables$and$personal$development.$During$the$year,$these$are$followed$by$one$ or$more$progress$conversa?ons.$The$year$ends$with$a$performance$and/or$an$assessment$ conversa?on$that$serves$as$input$for$a$possible$adapta?on$of$the$reward.$ The$essence$of$the$conversa?on$cycle$is$to$annually$match$the$mutual$obliga?ons$between$ the$employer$and$the$employee.$What$can$and$should$you$expect$from$the$other,$what$do$ you$get$in$return$and$will$this$lead$to$"beBer"$performance.$For$the$sake$of$honesty$and$ fairness,$in$ the$course$ of$?me$ we$ have$developed$a$large$number$of$auxiliary$tools$ to$ support$ this$ process,$ such$ as$ checklists,$ forms,$ manuals,$ job$ profiles,$ language$ competence,$assessment$and$conversa?on$techniques,$et$cetera.$And$are$we$happy$about$ this?$Does$this$cycle$lead$to$beBer$ performance,$to$employees$who$are$involved$and,$if$ necessary,$to$ saying$goodbye$ to$ people$who$ do$not$fit$in$with$the$ambi?ons$that$ the$ organisa?on$has$in$mind? Daily$prac?ce$ shows$ that$ one$ is$ o>en$ not$ capable$ of$ making$concrete$arrangements,$ neither$ in$ the$ field$ of$ the$ expected$ performance,$ nor$ on$ the$ developmental$ stage.$ Conversa?ons$are$o>en$guided$by$a$checklist$and$progress$conversa?ons$are$not$or$rarely$ conducted.$The$evalua?on$requires$a$lot$of$prepara?on$and$in$terms$of$score$o>en$ends$in$ the$middle.$On$to$the$next$cycle.$It’s$a$“must$have”$for$many$a$manager$ and$employee.$ And$yet$we$go$through$with$this$each$year,$and$every$three$to$four$years$we$overhaul$the$ system.$What’s$going$on$here?$And:$is$there$another$way? Basic Principle 1: If$an$ac?vity$leads$to$a$result,$it$is$likely$that$the$result$will$lead$ to$doing$more$of$the$same$ac?vi?es.$If$the$mo?ve$for$an$ac?vity$ is$to$obtain$a$result,$then$it$will$get$more$and$more$aBen?on. This$is$a$reinforcing$principle$of$reciprocity$that$applies$to$many$processes$ within$an$organisa?on,$a$principle$that$leads$to$“prosperity”. Basic Principle 2: Obtaining$a$posi?ve$result$contributes$posi?vely$to$the$value$we$ assign$to$the$ac?vity. For$ example:$I$ invest$ a$rela?vely$large$ amount$ of$?me$ maintaining$my$ contacts$ and$ this$ results$ in$ a$ lot$ of$ work$from$exis?ng$ rela?onships.$ I$ therefore$consider$networks$as$very$useful$ and$for$ me$it$is$an$important$ mo?ve$to$con?nue$my$way$of$networking. exercise ac#vi#es(results( ac#vi#es(results( meaning(
  • 43. 43 Basic Principle 3: Objec?ves$without$“meaning”$s?mulate$ ac?vi?es$that$do$not$lead$to$the$desired$ results.$$ The$main$func?on$of$the$conversa?on$cycle$is$to$give$direc?on,$meaning$and$value$to$the$ac?ons$required$for$success,$based$on$the$ ambi?on$ of$ the$organisa?on.$Objec?ve$ C$ Ac?on$C$Result$ C$Reward.$By$formula?ng$objec?ves,$ discussing$ ac?ons,$ quan?fying$and$ apprecia?ng$results,$an$extrinsic$element$is$added$to$the$intrinsic$mo?va?on,$a$new$mo?va?on.$The$addi?on$of$an$extrinsic$element$ leads$ to$ the$ s?mula?on$ of$ new$ ac?vi?es$ and$ results$ for$ which$an$ intrinsic$valua?on$ has$not$ (yet)$ been$ made,$or$ it$ leads$to$ the$ discon?nua?on$of$ac?vi?es$which$do$have$an$underlying$intrinsic$mo?va?on.$The$“art”$of$the$assessment$cycle$in$this$area$is$therefore$ in$connec?ng$the$extrinsic$mo?va?on$of$the$employee$to$the$intrinsic$mo?va?on.$If$this$fails$or$if$mo?ves$get$out$of$step,$the$following$ happens:$ Over$?me,$two$dynamics$will$appear,$each$with$its$own$mo?ve.$The$employee$will$con?nuously$try$to$(con?nue$to)$do$ac?vi?es$that$ really$are$meaningful$to$him$or$ her$ and$he$or$ she$will$also$be$engaged$in$ac?vi?es$that$are$driven$by$the$external$reward$with$the$ objec?ve:$ the$ reward.$ The$ mo?va?on$ for$ these$ ac?vi?es$ is$ therefore$ no$ longer$ directly$ linked$ to$ obtaining$ the$ desired$ result.$ Ul?mately,$the$results$will$diminish$as$the$primary$mo?ve$and$the$reward$will$become$the$desired$result.$ To$counteract$ this$ effect,$organisa?ons$ implement$ various$techniques$ in$ order$ to$ connect$ the$ meaning$(intrinsic)$and$ the$reward$ (extrinsic)$with$each$other.$However,$in$prac?ce$it$is$apparent$that$the$power$of$the$meaning$that$everyone$gives$his$work$is$so$great$ that$it$cannot$be$directed$through$a$reward,$or$the$power$of$the$reward$is$so$substan?al$that$it$leads$to$undesirable$behaviour. Now$that$we$have$thought,$albeit$to$a$very$limited$extent,$about$the$workings$of$this$system,$where$would$we$find$possible$solu?ons$to$ counter$the$undesirable$effects?$Is$the$solu?on$in$the$further$development$of$policies,$procedures$and$instruc?ons$or$is$there$another$ path$we$ can$ walk?$One$ sugges?on$ would$be$to$ link$rewards$to$the$effects$ of$results,$rather$ than$to$the$results$ themselves.$The$ outcome. There is another way... Since$ the$ effect$ (the$ outcome)$ is$ the$ resultant$of$mul?ple$results$and$the$meaning$ that$a$professional$gives$to$his$work$is$o>en$ linked$to$this$higher$objec?ve,$it$is$also$logical$ to$relate$the$reward$to$this.$It$is$encouraging$ to$ do$ those$ ac?vi?es$ that$ really$ make$ a$ contribu?on. Read$on$for$even$more$ prac?cal$examples. ac#vi#es(results( meaning( rewards( ac#vi#es( ac#vi#es( results( meaning( reward( effect(
  • 44. 44 Synergy You$may$find$it$strange$if$I$men?on$synergy$as$one$of$the$consequences$of$an$ incoherent$management$system.$And$so$you$ should,$because$synergy$is$what$ we’re$looking$for$ and$ what$ we$want$ to$ see$ in$the$organisa?on.$1$+$1$ =$3.$A$ beau?ful$outcome$that$leads$to$growth.$Within$system$thinking$this$is$called$the$ reinforcing$loop.$The$energy$that$is$created$when$two$or$more$ac?vi?es$merge$ is$so$powerful$that$this$energy$can$be$used$for$its$own$growth.$Synergy,$on$the$ other$ hand,$ requires$ maintenance$ and$ protec?on.$ Synergy$ is$ fragile$ and$ unstable.$A$single$(unwanted)$event$or$ac?on$can$cause$synergy$to$collapse,$or$ even$work$against$us.$Besides,$there$are$limits$to$growth.$Without$the$necessary$ maintenance$or$replacement,$growth$will$eventually$level$off$or$even$decrease. For example A$new$division$of$a$na?onally$opera?ng$organisa?on$ was$clearly$growing.$The$ leadership$had$properly$assessed$the$market$and$the$public$was$clearly$ready$ for$the$new$version$of$product$X.$Marke?ng$was$commissioned$for$ a$na?onal$ adver?sing$campaign.$This$immediately$resulted$in$a$huge$increase$in$orders.$The$opera?on$was$running$at$full$?lt$and$a>er$a$few$weeks$already,$there$came$the$first$indica?ons$of$a$high$ workload.$Based$on$the$exis?ng$plans,$the$demand$for$the$products$was$expected$to$con?nue$for$a$while$and$may$even$increase.$So$the$task$of$providing$addi?onal$capacity$was$up$to$HRM.$ Understanding the dynamics To,support,the,brain,exercise,on,the,conversa1on,cycle,,I,have,used,some, (technical), diagrams, to, clarify, a, thing, or, two., This, method, stems, from, Systems,Thinking.,Systems,Thinking,is,an,approach,that,seeks,to,maintain,an, overview, of, the, whole,, rather, than, to, focus, on, individual, components, without,considering,what,role,these,components,play,in,the,bigger,picture., By, visualising, the,rela1onships, and, the,underlying, dynamics, via, Systems, Thinking,,a,broader,conceptual,framework,is,created.,A,broader,conceptual, framework,gives,you,more,insight,into,the,problem,and,helps,you,in,finding, solu1ons,that,are,more,fundamental,in,nature.,While,using,the,INK/EFQM, Naviga1on, Map, and/or, making, your, own, storyboard,, you’ve, probably, discovered, one, or, more, system, errors, within, your, organisa1on., At, the, beginning,of, this,workbook,,I,talked,about,the,seven, possible,effects,that, can, occur, in, an, incoherent, management, system:, Synergy,, Symbiosis,, Collusion,, Muta1on,, Stacking,, Wear,, Contradic1ons, and, Façade., In, this, chapter,I,discuss,two,effects,on,the,basis,of,systems,thinking.,,
  • 45. 45 The$ first$ new$ employees$ went$ right$ to$ work.$ There$ was$ liBle$ ?me$ to$ work$ them$ in$ properly,$but$there$was$sufficient$capacity$of$wellCtrained$staff$to$resolve$this.$This$period$ of$high$work$pressure$took$its$first$toll.$A$number$of$highly$respected$professionals$could$ no$longer$accept$the$pace.$Not$because$they$could$not$work$hard,$but$the$pace$ul?mately$ came$at$the$expense$of$the$quality$of$the$product.$They$had$warned$about$this$several$ ?mes.$However,$there$ was$ no$?me$ to$really$pay$aBen?on$to$ this,$neither$ in$ the$basic$ training$ of$ new$ employees,$ nor$ during$produc?on$ through$ mentoring.$Some$of$ these$ professionals$called$in$sick$and$one$of$them$saw$the$opportunity$to$work$elsewhere.$The$ stream$of$complaints$about$the$product$also$increased.$The$reputa?on$of$the$product$was$ under$pressure.$Several$“lean$experts”$were$hired$to$find$out$what$had$gone$wrong$in$the$ process.$Projects$were$ini?ated$to$repair$the$problems.$Just$before$the$first$improvement$ successes$were$made,$the$morning$paper$displayed$a$headline$in$large$leBers:$product$X$ does$not$work.$Greatly$exaggerated$of$course,$but$the$damage$was$done.$If$we$record$this$ case$into$the$INK/EFQM$Naviga?on$Map,$we$come$to$the$following$conclusions: The$business$axis$in$this$organisa?on$is$the$“highway”$where$all$the$energy$is$going. Financial$gain$is$given$priority$in$decisionCmaking. HRM$is$at$the$service$of$ produc?on$ and$ there$is$no$balance$in$the$interac?on$ with$ policy. The$path$ from$inflow$to$ produc?on$ is$a$difficult$one.$The$“beware,$people$at$work”$ mentality$ensures$that$new$employees$do$not$get$the$aBen?on$needed$to$be$able$to$ go$to$work$effec?vely. SOS$signals$ are$ issued$ and$ the$ high$ pressure$ eventually$leads$ to$ a$ loss$ of$ human$ capital. Customer$complaints$are$seen$as$incidents$that$have$to$be$solved. Analysis If$ we$ scru?nize$ the$ above$ case$ with$ systems$thinking,$we$ can$ see$ a$reinforcing$ cycle$ running$ through$ the$ business$ axis.$ The$ focus$ on$ commercial$ ac?vi?es$ generates$more$ customers,$which$ increases$produc?on.$This$success$ is$the$ “pacemaker”$for$ even$more$ commercial$ac?vi?es.$In$the$INK/EFQM$Naviga?on$Map$this$is$shown$as$the$black$line$and$ in$ the$ system$ paBern$ alongside$ it$ is$ indicated$ by$ R1.$ The$ R$ stands$ for$ “Reinforcing$ loop”$(reinforcing$cycle).$The$rela?onships$between$the$various$ac?vi?es$are$what$we$call$ causally$connected.$If$one$rises$then$the$other$will$also$rise,$more$or$ less,$and$vice$versa.$ This$rela?onship$is$indicated$by$an$S$(Same).$For$clarity,$I’m$indica?ng$these$connec?ons$in$ the$system$paBern$with$a$green$line. This$case$also$shows$a$number$of$“opposing”$forces$which$act$as$a$brake.$In$the$INK/EFQM$ Naviga?on$Map$these$are$the$red$lines.$Since$the$success$of$the$reinforcing$cycle$for$these$ forces$ shows$ an$ opposite,$we$ call$ these$ cycles$ “balanced$ loops”$ (balancing$ cycle).$ The$ issues$ surrounding$the$ unqualified$ inflow$ and$ the$consequences$for$ the$quality$become$ visible$ with$ system$ paBern$ B1,$ the$ outlow$ through$ the$ work$ pressure$ with$ B2$ and$ customer$complaints$with$B3.$The$doBed$lines$indicate$that$the$effect$only$becomes$visible$ at$a$later$?me$(delay). turnover( orders( produc-on(adver-sement( R1( new( staff( share(trained(( personnel( quality( workload( ou:low( professionals( B1( B2( Limit:(-me(and( capacity(to(work( complaints( B3( Limit:(-me(for( structural(solu-ons( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( s( o( o(
  • 46. 46 Collusion and Wear A$wonderful$company$has$a$strong$focus$to$be$innova?ve$and$renewing.$With$ numerous$ini?a?ves$it$manages$to$put$up$a$good$performance.$These$ini?a?ves$ are$regularly$also$taken$up$by$other$companies.$They$are$true$pioneers.$Many$of$ the$deployed$processes$and$projects$within$the$company$flow$through$temporary$ support$structures$and$are$executed$simultaneously.$The$effect$of$this$drive$for$ renewal$and$innova?on$is$a$high$degree$of$energy$and$pride$among$employees.$ However,$the$employee$survey$also$highlights$that$it$is$too$much$and$that$things$ are$not$being$finished. Analysis This$ case$ clearly$ shows$ what$ happens$ when$ we$ employ$ the$ same$ resources$ without$coordina?on.$In$this$case$it’s$all$employees,$but$in$prac?ce$you$can$also$ see$ this$ happen$ in$ rela?on$ to$ specific$ departments,$ such$ as$ IT$ or$ communica?ons.$ In$ system$ thinking$ this$ paBern$ is$ called$ “overfishing”.$ The$ diagram$below$shows$how$the$various$ini?a?ves$are$ul?mately$constrained$ by$ the$available$capacity.$ Possible solutions The$collusion$of$ac?vi?es$and$ini?a?ves$will$eventually$be$naturally$hampered$by$the$lack$ of$capacity,$with$all$of$ the$associated$ nega?ve$consequences.$Dosing$and/or$ limi?ng$the$ capacity$will$ o>en$be$chosen$as$an$interven?on$strategy.$In$ this$case,$it$ is$important$ to$ realise$that$the$demand$for$capacity$comes$from$several$par?es$and$that$this$problem$can$ only$be$solved$jointly. What,do,you,think?,How,would,you,solve,this?succes%performance% R1% Limit:%3me%and% energy%employees% B2% s% s% performance%succes% R2% s% s% Total%performance% available% capacity% B1% s% s% o%
  • 47. 47 Causally connected: Causally connected (opposing): Delay: With stacking, the use of management tools leads to divergent, separate effects. A typical example is the budget round. Annual plans are made, but not aligned with budgets. Draw below, what you think will happen.
  • 48. 48 UNDERSTANDING P O S I T I O N I N G
  • 49. 49 What’s holding us back? There$is$a$strong$call$for$fundamental$changes,$but$we$are$stuck$in$outdated$structures$and$ paBerns$that$ were$once$ upon$ a$?me$intended$ to$ give$freedom.$They$are$ restric?ng$us,$ especially$in$these$turbulent$?mes.$Many$organisa?ons$are$therefore$working$on$crea?ng$an$ organisa?onal$climate$that$can$handle$the$challenges$of$ tomorrow.$They$are$building$the$ future,$a$new$philosophy,$a$new$order.$This$road$of$ renewal$is$liBered$with$ tough$issues$ which$are$not$always$tackled$extensively,$because$the$current$organisa?onal$structure$and$ culture$simply$does$not$ allow$ it.$Especially$at$ this$?me$when$ the$revenue$model$ of$ the$ organisa?on$is$under$pressure$and$the$future$is$uncertain,$managers$and$employees$do$not$ risk$discussing$the$current$effec?veness$of$organising,$even$though$ this$is$when$it’s$badly$ needed. A$ few$ exis?ng$ organisa?ons$ may$ be$ devising$ innova?ve$ new$ business$ models$ and$ structures,$but$these$are$usually$placed$outside$of$their$own$structure.$The$overwhelming$ majority$ is$ taking$ small$ steps$ in$ the$ sideline.$ There$ are$ nevertheless$ examples$ of$ organisa?ons$ that$ are$ making$ radical$ breakthroughs$ into$ the$ familiar$ philosophy$about$ organising.$Seats2Meet,$care$ins?tu?on$de$Hoven,$Buurtzorg$Nederland,$Finext$and$there$ are$many$other$familiar$names$in$the$list$of$examples$of$new$organising. Within$the$current$context$however,$exis?ng$organisa?ons$don’t$have$the$luxury$to$act$upon$ this$broadly$and$directly.$Changes$must$take$place$from$the$current$situa?on,$with$current$ resources$and$ with$ current$ people.$It$ will$ have$ to$ be$a$step$by$step$ approach,$through$ projects$and$control.$There$is$no$other$way.$But$that$doesn’t$ mean$ you$cannot$take$steps$ towards$a$more$effec?ve$and$coherent$form$of$organising. But, what’s,stopping,us,now?,How, is,it, possible,that, a,management,system,becomes,so, out, of, balance, that, it, is,no, longer,helpful,,but, instead, hinders, us?,From$my$prac?ce$ I$ recognise$two$vital$causes:$the$validity$of$the$implemented$theories$and$techniques,$and$the$ role$of$staff$and$the$lack$of$maintenance. Validity of theories and techniques The$validity$problem$is$threefold.$The$first$problem$is$that$a$large$number$of$theories$and$ techniques$are$ quite$ obsolete$and$ no$ longer$ provide$ insights$and$ solu?ons$ to$ today’s$ challenges.$The$second$problem$is$the$stacking$of$theories$and$techniques$over$?me.$Old$ tools$ are$ maintained$ and$ are$ supplemented$ with$ newer$ and$ some?mes$ contradictory$ approaches.$The$third$problem$is$that$tools$are$o>en$tailored$for$a$specific$development$ level$and$are$not$capable$of$growing$with$the$organisa?on. Archaic way of thinking Over$the$past$decades,$a$lot$of$research$has$been$conducted$and$many$theses$have$been$ wriBen$about$the$rela?onship$between$societal$developments$and$our$vision$on$work$and$ on$organising$work.$Here$is$the$short$version:$Star?ng$with$the$industrial$revolu?on,$the$ aBen?on$has$been$placed$primarily$on$scien?fically$scru?nising$work$from$a$mechanis?c$ approach.$ The$ organisa?on$ (and$ the$ worker)$ is$ a$ machine$ that$ can$ be$ finely$ tuned.$ Subsequently$the$focus$shi>ed$to$the$coordina?on$of$work,$which$became$the$founda?on$ for$the$bureaucra?c$approach.$The$fact$that$we’re$dealing$with$people,$who$have$certain$ behavioural$characteris?cs,$became$a$point$of$discussion$since$1900.$$
  • 50. 50 A$ quick$ inventory$ at$ a$ large$ Dutch$ ZBO$ (nonCdepartmental$ public$ body)$ yielded$ the$ following$result.$Ripe$and$green$together:$A3$annual$plan,$Review$Cycle,$External$Auditor$ control,$Process$Controls,$Complaints$processing,$SelfCAssessment,$Customer$Sa?sfac?on$ Survey,$Management$Review,$Error$List,$Project$Review,$Supplier$ assessment,$Signal$List,$ Balanced$ Scorecard,$ ISO,$ EFQM,$ Implementa?on$ Calendar,$ Management$ Contracts,$ Monitor$ interview,$Personal$Development$Consulta?ons,$Process$Audit,$Customer$Panel$,$ Visita?on,$Case$study$discussion,$Improvement$Groups,$Client$Council,$Intervision,$Lean$Six$ Sigma,$Market$Research,$Mentoring,$Training$and$educa?on,$Audit$ Plan,$Quality$Charter,$ Cer?fica?on,$Work$Instruc?ons,$ Guidelines. Stacking$approaches$ and$ tools$ always$ has$ implica?ons$ and$ leads$ to$ the$effects$ men?oned$ earlier.$ This$ discussion$ was$ held$ in$ the$ context$ of$ the$ mechanis?c$ approach,$ where$ the$ basic$ assump?on$is$that$everything$is$repairable$and$controllable.$The$increasing$degree$of$scale$ and$complexity$of$organising$shi>ed$the$aBen?on$from$thinking$about$work$to$the$workings$ of$ an$ organisa?on.$ Added$ to$ this$ was$ the$ awareness$ that$ an$ organisa?on$ cannot$ be$ considered$as$a$separate$en?ty$from$its$environment$and,$besides$“profit”$and$“people”,$our$ “planet”$also$came$into$view. During$ recent$ decades,$ our$ view$ of$ working$ and$ organising$ generated$ a$ diversity$ of$ management$ theories,$ approaches$ and$ tools$ that$ we$ can$ s?ll$ find$ within$ organisa?ons.$ Approaches$that$are$based$on$the$expecta?ons$that$people$will$faithfully$do$their$work$and$ that$ they$will$ work$harder$ and$beBer$ as$the$ reward$gets$higher.$Control,$discipline$and$ efficiency$are$ the$key$words.$We$now$find$ ourselves$in$an$ era$where$we$really$need$ to$ ques?on$ this$ way$ of$ thinking$ and$ organising.$ Societal$ ques?ons$ of$ today$ demand$ organisa?ons$and$professionals$who$can$adapt,$who$dare$to$adopt$innova?on$as$their$basic$ premise,$who$wish$to$coCcreate$and$to$be$accountable$for$their$ac?ons. Stacking The$following$overview$of$commonly$used$management$tools$(approaches)$originates$from$ the$annual$survey$by$Bain$&$Company$(Management$Tools$&$Trends):$Business$process$reC engineering,$ Mergers$ &$ acquisi?ons,$ Shared$ service$ centres,$ Core$ competencies,$ Open$ innova?on,$Strategic$alliances,$Customer$segmenta?on,$Price$op?misa?on$models,$Supply$ chain$ management,$ Downsizing,$ Balanced$ scorecard,$ Enterprise$ risk$ management,$ Sa?sfac?on$ and$ loyalty$ management,$ Knowledge$ management,$ Mission$ and$ vision$ statements,$ Outsourcing,$ Rapid$ prototyping,$ Scenario$ and$ con?ngency$ planning,$ Social$ media$programs$and$Strategic$planning.$This$study$shows$that$in$2010,$organisa?ons$used$ an$average$of$ten$of$these$tools.$Larger$organisa?ons$naturally$used$more.$In$2006$this$was$ an$average$of$fi>een,$but$according$to$the$researchers$this$also$follows$the$dynamics$of$the$ economy.$If$organisa?ons$are$doing$well,$they$can$afford$more$budget$for$ new$ini?a?ves,$ while$in$difficult$?mes$these$ini?a?ves$are$not$taken$or$put$on$hold. My inventory:
  • 51. 51 Level%I% Ac)vity%oriented% Level%II% Process%oriented% Fase%III% System%oriented% Fase%IV% Chain%oriented% Leadership%Determines% Direc)ve% Focus%on%output% Reac)ve% Control% Effort% Manager%determines% Focus%on%process% Process%and%procedures% Measure%and%improve% Command% Performance%standard% Employee%determines% Focus%on%rela)ons% All%processes% Preven)ve% Trends%and%developments% Customerfocus% Society%determines% Con)nuous%improvement% Internally%and%externally%% Effect%driven% awareness%and% selfFreflec)on% Level Differences Adop?ng$a$new$ methodology$is$ o>en$ a$difficult$process.$Similar$ to$a$ virus,$ some$ are$ rejected$ by$ the$ system.$ If$ the$ organisa?on$ has$ a$ tradi?on$ of$ following$ hypes$ then$ the$ organisa?on$ will$ eventually$ become$immune.$Integra?ng$a$new$tool$within$an$exis?ng$management$ system$is$therefore$a$process$that$takes$years.$And$one$is$not$yet$fully$ integrated$ before$ it$ is$ being$ replaced$ or$ overpowered$ by$a$ new$ development.$ One$reason$that$an$instrument$or$approach$is$not$accepted$is$ mostly$due$to$the$fact$that$it$ is$not$ in$line$with$the$level$ of$ development$of$the$organisa?on$and$is$too$far$ahead$of$ it.$ Although$ the$ inten?on$ is$ that$ the$ new$ approach$ brings$the$organisa?on$into$a$new$development$ phase,$ it$ is$ overpowered$ by$ the$ strengths$ of$ the$ exis?ng$ opera?ng$ procedures.$ One$ o>en$ doesn’t$ invest$ in$ this$ anymore,$ or$ renewal$ is$ lacking.$ Consider,$ for$ example,$ the$ introduc?on$ of$ Alterna?ve$ Working$ Prac?ces$ and$ the$ con?nued$ monitoring$of$working$hours$through$?mekeeping. The role of staff and the lack of maintenance The$ balanced$ scorecard$ is$ from$the$ department$ Planning$ &$ Control,$ Process$ management$ is$ from$ the$ department$ of$ Quality,$ and$ Competency$ Management$ is$ associated$ with$ HRM.$ It’s$ obvious$ that$ these$three$management$tools$are$connected$with$each$other,$and$that$ they$ can$ strengthen$ each$ other$ (synergy).$ The$ extent$ to$ which$ departments$seek$coherence$depends$on$the$extent$to$which$they$coC operate$with$each$other$and/or$are$controlled.$In$many$organisa?ons,$ this$is$an$issue.$ Management$tools$are$also$not$maintained.$We$may$add$a$KPI$to$the$scorecard,$or$a$new$competence$in$the$ assessment$ form,$but$ a$ fundamental$ change$ is$ o>en$ overlooked.$ Similarly,$organisa?ons$ encourage$ the$ personal$ development$ of$ an$ employee$ through$ Personal$ Development$ Consulta?ons,$ but$ the$ appraisal$ interview$stops$at$assessing$established$performance$targets.$It$also$happens$that$certain$management$tools$ are$ being$ overdeveloped.$ For$ example,$ competency$ management$ is$ intended$ to$ use$ an$ unambiguous$ language$ to$ s?mulate$ the$ organisa?on’s$ thinking$ about$ behaviour.$However,$such$ dialogues$ end$ with$ a$ checklist$on$a$fiveCpoint$scale$during$the$performance$interview.
  • 52. 52 Approach Dimension Reacting Anticipation Reframing Redesigning Central1Triad Fragile Fragile Robust Antifragile Focus Activity Process Structure System Characterisation PlanADoACheckACorrect PlanADoACheckAAct PlanADoAStudy PlanADoAStudyAAdapt Tone1of1Voice React*on*the*basis*of*existing* routines,*standards*and* guidelines. Identifying*and*extrapolating* patterns*and*trends*from*the* past*to*the*future Investigate*whether*the* assumptions*underlying*the* methods*are*still*valid Watching*the*system*that* the*problems*and*solutions* are*part*of Tone1of1Attitude Ignore,*flight*or*fight Intervention*to*prevent* recurrence Reflecting*on*mental*models Continuously*redesigning* work*structures,*processes* and*organisational*culture Learning1level Conditioning SingleAloop*learning DoubleAloop*learning Deutero*Learning Errors? Error*=*bad Error*=*information Error*=*opportunity Error*=*correct Central1Learning1Question Who*and*What? Where*and*When? Why*and*When? How*else? What1is1our1basic1attitude? Rigid Planned Flexible Dynamic How1do1we1work? Routine Mechanistic Systemic Organic What1do1we1think1is1important? Frugal Suitability Effectiveness Relevance Where1is1our1focus? SupplyAoriented QuestionAorientated ClientAorientated ValueAorientated Where1are1we1headed? Objectives Indicators Results Dynamic*objectives How1do1we1regulate1work? Rules Standards Principles Virtues How1are1we1organised? Department Team Network Mesh How1do1we1relate1to1others? Subcontractor Supply*Chain Partner Alliance What1do1we1vallue? Effort Result Outcome Effect What’s1guiding1us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfAdirection What1are1our1responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop How1do1we1deal1with1information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoAcreate How1do1we1view1development? Training Training Learning Grow How1do1we1reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect Instruments Activity*Based*Costing ValueABased*Management Rolling*forecast Beyond*budgeting Time*Management Process*Management Operational*Excellence Business*ReAengineering Management*By*Objectives Balanced*Scorecard OneAPageAStrategy Continuous*Strategy* Development Control Audit Appreciative*Assessments Open*Dialoque Decision*Rules Root*cause*analysis Risk*Management Scenario*Planning Quality*Control Quality*Management Business*Excellence Social*Excellence Performance*Benchmarking Process*Benchmarking Strategic*Benchmarking Open*Innovation Performance*Appraisal Performance*Management Competence*Management Talent*Management Marketing Satisfaction*Management Loyalty*Management Relationship*Management Bossing Managing Coaching*&*Intervision Leading*&*SelfAManagement Typical*instruments Levels1of1action Characterization*of*actions ReActing ReThinking Theory*A*Results*Driven Heuristics*A*EffectADriven
  • 53. 53 How aware is your organisation? The$diagram$on$the$next$page$describes$four$composi?ons,$each$with$its$own$character.$At$ the$metaClevel,$these$composi?ons$can$be$ reduced$ to$ two$levels$of$ ac?on:$ReAc?ng$and$ ReThinking. ReAct Organisa?ons$with$a$preference$for$ reAc?ng$prefer$to$work$with$and$react$to$informa?on$ that$is$real$and$tangible.$They$are$focused$on$conduc?ng$business$and$respond$primarily$on$ the$ basis$ of$ exis?ng$ rou?nes,$ standards$ and$ guidelines.$ They$ have$ a$ soCcalled$ “fixed$ mindset”.$Their$structure$and$culture$is$focused$on$condi?oning$of$the$work$and$the$central$ learning$ques?on$in$ all$ development$ ac?vi?es$is$who$is$doing$what$ and$ how.$Issues$that$ arise$are$either$ ignored$ or$ resolved$using$a$ profit/loss$model.$At$ the$ next$ level,$we$find$ organisa?ons$that$ are$more$ processCorientated$ and$ try$to$learn$ from$their$ ac?ons.$They$ recognise$ and$ examine$historic$paBerns$and$trends,$taking$early$ac?on$in$order$ to$ avoid$ repea?ng$past$ mistakes.$This$called$an?cipa?on.$These$organisa?ons$constantly$ques?on$ where$and$ when$something$happens$and$ how$ they$can$ prevent$ it.$ The$ underlying$ management$approaches$and$instruments$ are$ internally$ focused.$ At$ this$ level,$ management$ and$ control$ are$the$star?ng$ points$ for$ crea?ng$ a$stable$ organisa?on.$ ReActCdriven$organisa?ons$aim$at$results. ReThink ReThinkCdriven$ organisa?ons$ or$ departments$ more$ frequently$ ques?on$ the$ exis?ng$ structure$and$applied$methods.$They$are$more$focused$on$the$connec?ons$and$rela?onships$ between$facts$and$tend$to$focus$on$iden?fying$new$opportuni?es.$Their$main$focus$is$not$on$ “doing”,$but$rather$on$the$reason$why$they$do$it.$“It's$not$about$the$product;$it's$all$about$ the$ purpose$ of$ the$ product.”$ This$ mindset$ is$ focused$ on$ growth.$Organisa?ons$ with$ a$ preference$for$ restructuring,$systema?cally$enter$ into$a$dialogue$with$all$stakeholders$and$ ques?on$whether$ the$assump?ons$underlying$the$methods$are$s?ll$ valid.$The$next$step$is$ that$ these$ organisa?ons$ are$ con?nuously$ working$ on$ redesigning$ work$ structures$ and$ processes.$This$type$of$organisa?onal$ culture$is$always$in$mo?on$and$the$ques?on$is$not$ who$does$what,$but$can$ it$be$done$differently?$ReActCdriven$ organisa?ons$are$striving$for$ stability,$ while$ ReThinkCdriven$ organisa?ons$ assume$ that$ instability$is$a$ requirement$ for$ development.$ ReThinkCdriven$ organisa?ons$ aim$ for$ the$ effect$ they$ ul?mately$ want$ to$ achieve. At$ first$ glance$ one$might$ say$that$ either$ approach$ is$ quite$ valid$ and$ that$ the$ choice$ of$ approach$depends$on$the$type$of$organisa?on$and$the$environment$in$which$it$operates.$A$ lamp$ factory$ or$ an$ inspec?on$ is$ ReActCdriven,$ while$ a$ communica?ons$ consultancy$ is$ ReThinkCdriven.$ Is$ that$ right?$ Or$ maybe$ not?$ For$ example,$ how$ would$ you$ classify$ a$ company$ like$ Apple$ or$ Google?$ Or,$ closer$ to$ home:$ Buurtzorg$ Nederland,$ Finext,$ Handelsbanken.$All$of$these$companies$must$con?nuously$deliver$quality$and$C$based$on$the$ ReAct$approach$C$should$be$stable$and$avoid$changes.$However,$prac?ce$shows$that$these$ businesses$are$using$a$ReThink$approach.$These$organisa?ons$are$capable$of$crea?ng$new$ organisa?onal$models$with$innova?ve$value$proposals.$Of$course$they$have$to$control$the$ primary$process$and$be$fully$accountable$to$the$stakeholders,$but$how$they$accomplish$this$ and$with$which$instruments,$is$essen?ally$different.$
  • 54. 54 From ReAct to ReThink When$ac?ons$based$on$the$ReAct$paradigm$no$longer$lead$to$the$desired$effect,$organisa?ons$decide$to$switch$to$the$ReThink$paradigm.$That’s$when$they$go$looking$for$more$effec?ve$ strategies$to$address$future$challenges.$This$drive$is$usually$expressed$in$an$ambi?ous$vision$and$mission$statement$that$is$aimed$at$changing$the$public$at$large.$ReThinking$is$an$intriguing$ and$poten?ally$powerful$state$of$mind.$It$requires$inCdepth$and$pure$research$on$past$experiences$and$a$permanent$desire$to$undertake$the$new$challenge.$ReThinking$is$not$easy.$It$requires$ a$high$degree$of$awareness$and$selfCreflec?on,$at$all$levels.$ Consciousness$is$described$as$the$subjec?ve$reflec?on$on$impressions$from$the$outside$world$(knowing$what$you$see,$hear$ or$feel$and$what$you$can$tell$about$it)$or$ on$one’s$own$mental$ processes$(know$what$you're$going$through$and$what$you$can$tell$about$it).$From$a$psychological$perspec?ve,$consciousness$as$a$personal$experience$has$to$do$with$one’s$capacity$for$selfC reflec?on.$Partly$depending$on$the$subject$or$ situa?on,$some$individuals$may$be$beBer$ at$ this$than$others.$Some$people$have$absolutely$no$tolerance$for$ reflec?on,$or$they$draw$quick$ conclusions$on$the$basis$of$their$current$experiences$and$insights.$Others$are$able$to$momentarily$postpone$this$primary$reac?on,$taking$some$?me$to$consider.$Some$have$the$ability$to$really$ refocus,$to$listen$empha?cally$and$to$view$the$situa?on$from$a$different$perspec?ve.$And$finally,$some$people$are$truly$objec?ve.$They$have$the$capacity$to$let$go$of$the$past,$to$act$in$the$ here$and$now$and$to$connect$with$things$to$come. Also$at$the$group$and$organisa?onal$levels$there$is$evidence$of$this$kind$of$capacity$for$selfCreflec?on.$To$what$extent$is$your$team$open$to$new$insights?$Do$you,$as$a$group,$enter$into$a$ debate$or$even$a$dialogue$with$the$stakeholders?$Does$your$organisa?on$possess$the$ability$to$delegate$decisions$(power),$or$to$take$an$extra$step,$to$let$go$of$hierarchical$thinking$and$to$ allow$for$selfCmanaging$teams?$Or$are$the$reins$being$?ghtened$in$?mes$of$stress?$ It$ becomes$interes?ng$when$the$above$is$considered$within$the$context$ of$an$ organisa?on’s$management$system.$Is$this$system$especially$based$on$exercising$ control,$ and$ does$ it$ strengthen$ the$ hierarchical$ way$ of$ direc?on$ and$ accountability$in$?mes$of$need?$(ReAct).$Or$is$the$system$then$ able$to$provide$ direc?on$and,$together$with$the$stakeholders,$to$take$on$the$challenge$and$allow$ for$completely$equal$rela?onships?$(ReThink) It$gets$even$more$interes?ng$if$you$consider$that$an$organisa?on$employs$a$large$ group$of$professionals$who$are$generally$capable$of$selfCreflec?on$at$the$highest$ level.$ This$is$even$ expected$ of$ them$ when$ exercising$their$ func?on$ properly$ (teachers,$ police,$ nursing).$ Contrast$ this$ with$ a$ common$ and$ tradi?onal$ management$ system$ which$ is$ based$ on$ control.$ Employees$ will$ (try$ to)$ undermine$the$system,$or$there$will$be$a$loss$of$inspira?on$and$commitment. Awareness matrix It#is#clear#to#us#where#the#organisation#is#headed. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#confidence#in#the#chosen#direction. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree It#is#clear#to#us#how#we#can#contribute#to#this. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree Our#proposed#actions#constitute#a#logical#and#understandable#whole. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#tailor#our#activities#to#our#expectations,#and#vice#versa. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#are#able#to#respond#to#(new)#developments#quickly#and#adequately. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#receive#good#support#from#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#provide#good#support#to#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#an#equivalent#(cooperative)#relationship#with#all#our#stakeholders. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#request#and#receive#continuous#feedback#on#our#performance. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#give#each#other#highAquality#feedback. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#use#feedback#to#reflect#on#our#assumptions. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#create#sufficient#challenges#to#help#our#(personal)#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#take#enough#freedom#and#time#to#learn#and#develop. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree There#is#a#clear#balance#between#appreciation,#performance#and#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree What#is#our#basic#attitude? Rigid Planned Flexible Dynamic How#do#we#work? Routine Mechanistic Systemic Organic What#do#we#think#is#important? Frugal Suitability Effectiveness Relevance Where#is#our#focus? SupplyHoriented QuestionHorientated ClientHorientated ValueHorientated Where#are#we#headed? Objectives Indicators Results Dynamic*objectives How#do#we#position#ourselves? Department Team Network Mesh How#do#we#relate#to#others? Subcontractor Supply*Chain Partner Alliance What#do#we#vallue? Effort Result Outcome Effect What’s#guiding#us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfHdirection What#are#our#responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop How#do#we#deal#with#information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoHcreate How#do#we#view#development? Training Training Learning Grow How#do#we#reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect How#conscious#are#my#actions? I*make*quick* decisions*based*on*my* current*experiences*and* insights. I*am*able*to*set*aside* my*primary*reaction*and* to*delve*into*the* information. I*am*able*to* empathetically*listen*to* others*and,*in*dialogue,* to*consider*the*situation* from*the*perspective*of* others. I*have*the*capacity*to* let*go*of*the*past*and*to* act*in*the*here*and*now. How#conscious#are#the#actions#of#my#team/department? We*are*tenacious*and* therefore*not*open*to* new*insights. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*debate*with*each* other*in*order*to*openly* discuss*everyone's* viewpoint. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*dialogue*with*each* other*in*order*to* consider*the*situation*in* its*entirety. We*are*able*to*make* room*for*each*other*in* order*to*let*go*of*the*past* and*to*connect*with* things*to*come. How#conscious#can#we#act#within#our#organisation? The*organisation* holds*on*to*its*current* way*of*working. The*organisation*is* capable*of*allowing* decisionHmaking*at*the* appropriate*level. The*organisation*is* able*to*take*on*the* challenge*with*internal* and*external* stakeholders. The*organisation*is* able*to*let*go*of* hierarchical*thinking*and* to*allow*room*for*selfH management*and*selfH organisation. How#do#managers#encourage#us? ☐*Management* reinforces*the* hierarchical*style*of* control*and* accountability. ☐*Management*allows* room*for*using*regulation* and*competition*as*a* coordination*mechanism. ☐ Management* encourages*directional* control*to*take*on*the* challenge*together*with* the*stakeholders. ☐*Management* stimulates*the*release*of* vertical*coordination*and* allows*room*for*the* development*of* equivalent*relations*with* all*stakeholders. Questionnaire#Organising#Efficiency Evaluation#of#our#actions Characterization#of#our#actions Awareness#of#our#actions Examples#of#our#actions
  • 55. 55 At what level are you, your team and your organisation? What’s#guiding#us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfHdirection re#our#responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop deal#with#information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoHcreate we#view#development? Training Training Learning Grow How#do#we#reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect scious#are#my#actions? I*make*quick* decisions*based*on*my* current*experiences*and* insights. I*am*able*to*set*aside* my*primary*reaction*and* to*delve*into*the* information. I*am*able*to* empathetically*listen*to* others*and,*in*dialogue,* to*consider*the*situation* from*the*perspective*of* others. I*have*the*capacity*to* let*go*of*the*past*and*to* act*in*the*here*and*now. my#team/department? We*are*tenacious*and* therefore*not*open*to* new*insights. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*debate*with*each* other*in*order*to*openly* discuss*everyone's* viewpoint. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*dialogue*with*each* other*in*order*to* consider*the*situation*in* its*entirety. We*are*able*to*make* room*for*each*other*in* order*to*let*go*of*the*past* and*to*connect*with* things*to*come. ithin#our#organisation? The*organisation* holds*on*to*its*current* way*of*working. The*organisation*is* capable*of*allowing* decisionHmaking*at*the* appropriate*level. The*organisation*is* able*to*take*on*the* challenge*with*internal* and*external* stakeholders. The*organisation*is* able*to*let*go*of* hierarchical*thinking*and* to*allow*room*for*selfH management*and*selfH organisation. anagers#encourage#us? ☐*Management* reinforces*the* hierarchical*style*of* control*and* accountability. ☐*Management*allows* room*for*using*regulation* and*competition*as*a* coordination*mechanism. ☐ Management* encourages*directional* control*to*take*on*the* challenge*together*with* the*stakeholders. ☐*Management* stimulates*the*release*of* vertical*coordination*and* allows*room*for*the* development*of* equivalent*relations*with* all*stakeholders. Awareness#of#our#actions Examples#of#our#actions
  • 56. 56 Into the mind Balancing$the$ management$ system$ of$ an$ organisa?on$ involves$outlining$ and$ developing$ approaches,$structures$and$instruments$at$the$appropriate$level.$Of$course$you$are$the$one$ who$ determines$ the$ right$ level.$ However,$there$ is$ an$ essen?al$ difference$ whether$ you$ represent$a$ReAct$or$a$ReThinkCdriven$organisa?on.$If$Rethinking$is$the$ambi?on,$then$you$ will$have$to$ work$on$increasing$the$capacity$for$selfCreflec?on$at$the$individual,$team$and$ organisa?onal$levels.$Building$a$higher$ level$of$consciousness$will$then$require$a$review$of$ (our)$underlying$values$and$their$fundamental$dynamics,$because$values$exert$influence$on$ rules$(jus?fica?on).$Values$influence$our$percep?ons$of$reality$(thought$paBerns),$while$in$ context$they$determine$the$way$we$react$to$events$(work$paBerns),$and$vice$versa.$Events$ influence$values$through$experience,$learning$and$reflec?on$processes. We$must$therefore$connect$ our$exis?ng$ajtudes,$standards$and$values$to$new$ajtudes,$ standards$and$values,$which$will$eventually$start$us$thinking$about$other$things.$It$will$then$ become$part$of$our$socialisa?on$process$by$which$we$consciously$and$unconsciously$learn$ the$ values,$ standards$ and$ cultural$ characteris?cs$ of$ others.$ We$ will$ also$ need$ to$ con?nuously$reflect$on$our$current$expecta?ons$and$interpreta?ons.$Reflec?on$is$constantly$ changing$our$(in)sight$of$things$that$ have$been$and$will$be,$which$is$how$we$work$on$the$ underlying$ condi?oning$ principles$ (thought$ paBerns).$ However,$ the$ admission$ of$ new$ insights$is$ a$difficult$ process$for$ many,$because$ the$forma?on$ of$values$is$not$ a$ra?onal$ process.$Values$merge$with$others$and$new$values$materialise.$It$is$a$process$that$is$fed$by$ argumenta?on$and$persuasion,$in$dialogue.$$ A$typical$ management$ system$contains$several$tools$and$processes$to$ help$organisa?ons$ look$ into$ the$ past$ and$ the$ future.$ These$ are$ o>en$ quan?ta?ve$ in$ nature,$ some$ are$ qualita?ve.$These$tools$and$processes$help$us$in$making$plans$and$in$interpre?ng$the$effect$ of$our$ac?ons.$For$example,$the$annual$plan$system,$the$tradi?onal$employee,$customer,$or$ stakeholder$ surveys,$evalua?ons,$process$and$system$audits.$In$addi?on,$things$like$team$ sessions,$ project$ mee?ngs,$ bilateral$ discussions,$ peer$ reviews,$ coaching,$ mentoring,$ appraisal$ and$ assessment$ interviews,$ waterCcooler$ discussions$ etc.,$ all$ have$ a$ reflec?ve$ effect.$The$extent$to$which$we$are$consciously$working$to$create$a$dialogue$on$the$basis$of$ these$reflec?ons,$is$in$prac?ce$o>en$ disappoin?ng.$We$may$conduct$research$(together),$ but$ spend$insufficient$?me$and$energy$in$interpre?ng$the$results$in$ their$ proper$context.$ We’re$taking$a$good$look$C$some?mes$too$ good$ C$but$ we$don’t$ really$see,$and$our$ value$ system$is$located$somewhere$between$looking$and$seeing.$An$important$explana?on$for$this$ is$locked$into$the$management$system$itself.$Each$system$contains$fundamental$principles,$ rules$ of$ play$ which$ are$ not$ ques?oned$ by$the$ system.$“Keiner$ denkt$ mehr$ frei,$der$ ein$ System$hat”$(Johann$P.F.$Richter)$(Nobody$thinks$more$freely,$than$he$who$has$a$system).$ That’s$also$how$computers$func?on,$for$example.$Even$if$you$install$a$new$opera?ng$system,$ the$language$is$s?ll$based$on$ones$and$zeros.$Improving$a$ReThinkCorientated$organisa?on$ can$therefore$never$occur$ by$simply$improving$the$quality$of$the$reflec?on$ at$ the$system$ level.$It$has$to$be$nourished$with$energy$from$the$“outside”,$from$others.$This model is inspired by the dynamics of relationships by Roel in 't Veld. Values' Rules' Ac+ng' Percep+ons' Events' Work%pa(erns%Jus.fica.on% Expecta.ons%and% interpreta.ons% Thinking%pa(erns% Judgement) Ac.on%and%reac.on% Judgement) Condi+oning' Standards%and% regula.on% Ins+tu+onaliza+on' Behaviour'System'
  • 57. 57 What’s,the,efficiency,of,your,team?,How,do,your,team,members,evaluate,your,current,way,of, working?,Is, there, a, balance, between, the, effec1veness, of, the, professional,,the,team, and, the, organisa1on?, Where,are, the,opportuni1es, to, accelerate,and, where,could, you, make,the, next, move?,Basically:,What,is,your,Organising,Efficiency? The$“Ques?onnaire$Organising$ Efficiency”$ provides$ insight$ into$ the$effec?veness$ of$ your$ team’s$ capacity$for$organising,$developing$and$reflec?ng.$It$is$an$ingenious$tool$that$ you$can$freely$use$to$ enter$ into$ a$dialogue$ on$the$ current$ state$of$ affairs$and$the$ desired$development$ direc?on.$The$ ques?onnaire$is$ based$ on$the$premise$that$ an$ effec?ve$team$not$ only$reacts$ to$ and$ an?cipates$ developments,$but$also$that$they$need$to$reflect$on$current$prac?ces$and,$where$necessary,$proceed$ to$the$redesign$of$work$structures$and$cultures.$An$effec?ve$team$is$characterized$by: a$clear$and$shared$focus; a$coherent$and$understandable$plan; an$open$connec?on$with$each$other$and$with$the$environment; a$mature$percep?on$of$the$func?on; an$environment$where$every$individual$is$challenged. The$ ques?onnaire$ measures$ your$ team’s$ organisa?onal$ ability$ from$ three$ angles$ (valua?on,$ characterisa?on$ and$ consciousness).$ The$ opinion$ of$ your$ team$ members$ on$ the$ underlying$ ques?ons$and$ characteriza?ons$ provides$insight$ into$ how$the$ team$thinks$ about$ the$five$major$ characteris?cs$men?oned$above.$It$ will$ also$clarify$the$degree$of$ consensus$about$ the$extent$ to$ which$one$works$consciously$to$learn$and$to$develop.$The$ques?onnaire$is$excellent$for: determining$the$secondary$condi?ons$for$your$team$year$plan; periodic$evalua?on$of$your$employees; entering$into$a$dialogue$on$everyone's$contribu?on; monitoring$the$yield$of$your$efforts. The$Ques?onnaire$Organising$Efficiency$is$free$to$use$and,$like$this$book,$is$licensed$under$the$Crea?ve$Commons$ABribu?onCNonCommercialCNoDerivs$3.0$Unported$License.$ On$page$82$you$will$find$the$ques?onnaire$in$A4$format. Copyright*2012,*Liefting*Consulting It#is#clear#to#us#where#the#organisation#is#headed. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#confidence#in#the#chosen#direction. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree It#is#clear#to#us#how#we#can#contribute#to#this. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree Our#proposed#actions#constitute#a#logical#and#understandable#whole. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#tailor#our#activities#to#our#expectations,#and#vice#versa. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#are#able#to#respond#to#(new)#developments#quickly#and#adequately. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#receive#good#support#from#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#provide#good#support#to#other#teams. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#have#an#equivalent#(cooperative)#relationship#with#all#our#stakeholders. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#request#and#receive#continuous#feedback#on#our#performance. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#give#each#other#highAquality#feedback. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#regularly#use#feedback#to#reflect#on#our#assumptions. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#create#sufficient#challenges#to#help#our#(personal)#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree We#take#enough#freedom#and#time#to#learn#and#develop. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree There#is#a#clear#balance#between#appreciation,#performance#and#development. Totally*disagree Disagree Agree Quite*agree What#is#our#basic#attitude? Rigid Planned Flexible Dynamic How#do#we#work? Routine Mechanistic Systemic Organic What#do#we#think#is#important? Frugal Suitability Effectiveness Relevance Where#is#our#focus? SupplyHoriented QuestionHorientated ClientHorientated ValueHorientated Where#are#we#headed? Objectives Indicators Results Dynamic*objectives How#do#we#position#ourselves? Department Team Network Mesh How#do#we#relate#to#others? Subcontractor Supply*Chain Partner Alliance What#do#we#vallue? Effort Result Outcome Effect What’s#guiding#us? Instruction Managing Directing SelfHdirection What#are#our#responsibilities? Commitment Performance Functioning Develop How#do#we#deal#with#information? Receiving Sending Sharing CoHcreate How#do#we#view#development? Training Training Learning Grow How#do#we#reflect? Research Discussion Dialogue Connect How#conscious#are#my#actions? I*make*quick* decisions*based*on*my* current*experiences*and* insights. I*am*able*to*set*aside* my*primary*reaction*and* to*delve*into*the* information. I*am*able*to* empathetically*listen*to* others*and,*in*dialogue,* to*consider*the*situation* from*the*perspective*of* others. I*have*the*capacity*to* let*go*of*the*past*and*to* act*in*the*here*and*now. How#conscious#are#the#actions#of#my#team/department? We*are*tenacious*and* therefore*not*open*to* new*insights. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*debate*with*each* other*in*order*to*openly* discuss*everyone's* viewpoint. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*dialogue*with*each* other*in*order*to* consider*the*situation*in* its*entirety. We*are*able*to*make* room*for*each*other*in* order*to*let*go*of*the*past* and*to*connect*with* things*to*come. How#conscious#can#we#act#within#our#organisation? The*organisation* holds*on*to*its*current* way*of*working. The*organisation*is* capable*of*allowing* decisionHmaking*at*the* appropriate*level. The*organisation*is* able*to*take*on*the* challenge*with*internal* and*external* stakeholders. The*organisation*is* able*to*let*go*of* hierarchical*thinking*and* to*allow*room*for*selfH management*and*selfH organisation. How#do#managers#encourage#us? ☐*Management* reinforces*the* hierarchical*style*of* control*and* accountability. ☐*Management*allows* room*for*using*regulation* and*competition*as*a* coordination*mechanism. ☐ Management* encourages*directional* control*to*take*on*the* challenge*together*with* the*stakeholders. ☐*Management* stimulates*the*release*of* vertical*coordination*and* allows*room*for*the* development*of* equivalent*relations*with* all*stakeholders. Questionnaire#Organising#Efficiency Evaluation#of#our#actions Characterization#of#our#actions Awareness#of#our#actions Examples#of#our#actions
  • 58. 58 L E T ’ S G E T T O W O R K
  • 59. 59 Dynamic Planning Dynamic$planning$helps$to$create$(annual)$plans$that$are$alive,$well$thoughtCout,$ realis?c,$topical$and$up$for$discussion.$The$basis$for$this$methodology$includes,$among$ others,$the$INK/EFQM$body$of$thought.$Working$with$this$methodology$is$certainly$not$ a$fillCinCtheCblanks$exercise,$but$especially$entering$into$a$good$conversa?on,$both$ horizontally$and$ver?cally,$about$op?ons: What$we$have$achieved$during$the$last$period? How$did$we$do$that?$What$has$failed?$And$why? What$does$the$environment$expect$from$us?$Has$this$changed? What$is$the$ambi?on$of$the$organisa?on$and$what$is$our$ambi?on? What$should$we$focus$on$in$the$coming$period$and$what$should$we$ignore? How$can$we$do$that$in$a$smart$way?$What$ac?ons$reinforce$each$other? What$should$it$result$in?$What$is$our$contribu?on$to$the$total? How$do$we$keep$a$finger$on$the$pulse? How$do$we$stay$connected? Step%5: Utilise%dynamics% at%all%times.
  • 60. 60 Dynamic Planning = Continuous Dialogue
  • 61. 61 Dynamic Planning - The Basic Assumptions External,orienta1on Determine$the$direc?on$on$the$basis$of$economic,$poli?cal,$technological,$socioCcultural,$ecological$developments$and$the$needs$of$stakeholders.$Make$the$(external)$market$leading,$rather$ than$central$planning$and$fixed$budgets.$Remember$that$a$company$survives$thanks$to$the$degree$to$which$the$organisa?on$can$adapt$to$the$environment. Outcome,focused Align$the$strategy$and$associated$objec?ves$as$much$as$possible$with$the$effect$you$want$to$achieve$together.$First$you$determine$when$you’re$doing$really$well$and$only$then$you$iden?fy$the$ indicators$you$can$really$use$as$a$guide.$Adjust$the$goals$con?nuously$on$the$basis$of$changing$market$condi?ons. Developing,con1nuously The$strategy$process$is$a$boBomCup$process,$not$an$annual$ topCdown$party.$If$plans$are$too$rigid$and$preconceived,$a$company$will$be$blind$to$ op?ons.$Con?nuously$adjust$strategy$to$ environment,$based$on$signals$and$input$from$all$stakeholders.$Think$in$terms$of$op?ons$and$make$several$plans.$Try$new$direc?ons$based$on$trial$and$error$and$use$“errors”$as$a$source$of$ informa?on.$The$journey$is$in$the$discovery.$$P.S.$Take$away$ac?vi?es$that$no$longer$maBer.$ Not,everything,is,new A$plan$is$not$just$about$ac?vi?es$that$we$need$to$do$differently.$The$plan$also$describes$the$things$we$have$always$done$(and$perhaps$should$not$be$doing$anymore). Suppor1ng,ac1vi1es,are,secondary. Decide$on$the$basis$of$the$formulated$ac?ons$what$suppor?ng$services$are$needed$and$challenge$these$services$to$deliver$as$efficiently$as$possible.$Aim$for$the$delivery$of$added$value$in$ rela?on$to$the$goals$that$you$have$set. Demand(driven,alloca1on Allocate$resources$where$they$are$needed,$not$on$the$basis$of$the$annual$budget.$Allow$professionals$to$determine$themselves$what$resources$are$needed. Clarify Ensure$that$informa?on$about$past$ performance$is$always$available$and$accessible$to$all.$To$do$this,$not$only$make$use$of$tradi?onal$ performance$indicators,$but$ also$show$the$effect$of$ efforts$(outcome).$And$remember$that$absence$of$evidence$is$not$evidence$of$absence. Learn,Together Senior$management$supports$managers$and$employees$involved$in$defining,$formula?ng$and$evalua?ng$ac?ons.$Learn$Together Disconnect,rewards, Do$not$implement$a$reward$structure$based$on$predetermined$standards$or$issued$forecasts,$but$base$the$reward$on$(rela?ve)$performance$compared$to$others.
  • 62. 62 What are our challenges? What will we focus on? When are we doing well? What should we be aiming for? What will we work on? What should we renew? What should we stop doing?What should we be using?
  • 63. 63 Learning to learn What$are$our$strengths?$And$where$are$ our$pitalls?$What$have$we$learned$from$ completed$ projects?$How$ do$ we$learn$ and$ how$ do$ we$ u?lise$ our$ insights$ effec?vely$ to$ achieve$ established$ ambi?ons? What will you do that’s extra? What$projects$are$you$going$to$ini?ate$to$ (re)develop$ exis?ng$ processes$ or$ to$ create$ new$ processes.$ What$ concrete$ result$ would$ you$ expect$ and$ what$ will$ you$focus$on$in$the$interim? What will the result be? Ac?ons$ lead$ to$ immediate$ results$ (output),$are$directly$adjustable$and$are$ measurable$ (measuring$ point).$ Whether$your$team$is$doing$really$well,$ (also)$ depends$ on$ the$ desired$ effect$ (impact$ /$ outcome)$ that$ you$ have$ created$ with$ your$ customers,$ employees$and$all$other$stakeholders.$ Direction The$organisa?on$ has$a$ vision$ that$ you$ and$your$team$contribute$to.$But$do$we$ share$the$“dot”$on$the$horizon?$Do$we$ know$ the$ vision$ and$ strategy$ of$ the$ organisa?on$ and$ do$ we$share$a$ common$ understanding$ of$these?$What$ exactly$are$the$ underlying$assump?ons$and$design$principles?$What$is$our$ambi?on$in$view$of$the$past,$the$ context$and$the$vision?$Which$spearheads$(themes)$are$now$going$to$help$us$in$achieving$ the$desired$results? The challenges Economic,$poli?cal,$technological,$socioC cultural$ and$ ecological$ developments$ are$ challenging$ you$ to$ an?cipate$ the$ future$ even$faster.$You$and$ your$ team$ will$constantly$have$to$adjust$opera?ng$methods$in$order$to$con?nue$to$perform$well$in$a$ rapidly$changing$environment.$But$how$does$this$environment$look$now.$What$is$the$force$ field$within$which$you$need$to$move,$and$which$(external)$developments$are$now$relevant? What will you do? As$a$team,$you$repeatedly$need$to$create$a$ balance$between$achieving$the$results$and$ efforts$ that$ are$ related$ to$ these$ results.$ Which$ac?ons$ will$ make$this$ contribu?on$ and$what$will$that$contribu?on$be?$Which$ ac?ons$will$ help$each$ other$and$what$are$ the$risks?$Where$will$ you$not$be$inves?ng$ ?me,$money$and$energy,$and$why?$Where$ are$the$blind$spots?
  • 64. 64 What are our challenges? What will we focus on? When are we doing well? What should we be aiming for? What will we work on? What should we renew? What should we stop doing?What should we be using? Cutbacks Accountability Outsourcing Competition Differentiation Co-production and Participation Operational Excellence Sustainability Flexibility Participation Quality of life Result Solvency Valuation Image Notifications Leadership style Strategic personnel planning Procurement policy Multi-Channelling Citizen-oriented operations Create scope for professionals Celebrate successes Give conscious and active attention Inconsistent behaviour and expressions Reorganisation Staff Services Absenteeism Valuation DelayInsights from employees
  • 65. 65 How to use it - Tips 1. When,is,an,(annual),plan,good,(enough)? When$ is$a$plan$ good$ (enough)?$ When$ it$ is$future$ proof$ and$has$a$high$ degree$ of$ predic?ve$ ability?$ When$ it$ is$ shared$ and$ supported$ by$ all$ stakeholders?$ When$ it$ gives$ direc?on$ to$ the$ development$ of$ the$ department?$ When$ it$ provides$clarity$ about$ spending$ ?me,$ money$ and$ energy$in$rela?on$to$the$(imposed)$ objec?ves?$Decide$what$you$want$to$ achieve$and$focus$the$process$accordingly.$Also$think$in$terms$of$op?ons.$ Create$mul?ple$plans. 2. A,plan,is,never,finished To$arrive$at$a$balanced$and$realis?c$plan$is$a$con?nuous$process$in$which$ the$management$discussion$and$consulta?on$with$your$employees$leads$to$ a$living$ document.$ Use$a$whiteboard,$so$you$can$periodically$and$jointly$ adjust$the$plan,$keeping$it$alive.$ 3. Just,start Do$ not$ focus$ too$ much$ on$ the$ search$ for$ unifying$ themes.$ By$ naming$ relevant$ ac?ons$ on$ the$various$ organisa?onal$ areas,$ supplemented$ with$ the$ ques?on$ of$ what$return$ it$should$ yield,$ several$policy$emphases$will$ o>en$arise$naturally.$A$prac?cal$approach$is$to$complete$it$on$the$basis$of$ the$INK/EFQM$ organisa?onal$areas$and$then$to$ques?on$what$the$impact$ of$these$ac?ons$should$be.$A$comparison$between$the$desired$effect$and$ the$ambi?ons$will$naturally$generate$an$itera?ve$process. 4. Involving,=,Involved Besides$your$own$team,$also$involve$staff$from$suppor?ng$departments$in$ shaping$the$(annual)$plan.$This$will$create$ver?cal$connec?ons$within$your$ organisa?on$and$you$will$obtain$support$in$the$realisa?on$of$your$ac?ons. 5. Find,the,blind,spots An$EFQM$ selfCassessment$is$an$ideal$tool$to$ channel$the$content$of$the$ (annual)$plan$and/or$to$evaluate$it.$This$process$will$walk$you$step$by$step$ through$all$the$elements$and$it$creates$a$thorough$analysis. 6. Use,this,workbook This$workbook$ contains$ a$number$of$ tools$that$ help$ you$ in$ asking$ the$ relevant$ques?ons.$For$example,$“The$model$of$ connec?ons”$provides$a$ guide$to$assess$the$cohesion$of$ the$plan,$while$“The$eye$of$the$Master”$ provides$support$for$a$valida?on$of$the$plan. 7. Think,(together),about,what,comes,next Invigorated,$you$managed$to$translate$ambi?ons$and$ac?ons$into$a$single$ summary.$Your$(annual)$ plan$ is$finished,$shared$ and$ approved.$How$ do$ you$con?nue?$To$achieve$a$working$and$living$annual$plan,$it$is$important$ that$ you$ see$ it$ as$ a$ growth$ and$ development$ process.$ A$ process$ of$ discovery,$ adapta?on,$ learning$ and$ failing.$ By$ simultaneously$ involving$ employees,$fellow$managers$and$stakeholders$in$this$process,$you$create$ dialogue,$involvement$and$support.$This$may$sound$simple,$but$in$prac?ce$ it’s$o>en$a$challenge. Blank$copies$of$the$doCitCyourself$pages$can$be$found$star?ng$on$page$80. (including$a$ME$plan)
  • 66. 66 By%invesEng%in%socialising%business%operaEons%we%bring%back%balance% and%depth%in%the%dialogue%on%the%desired%effect,%the%achieved%results% and%the%expended%efforts%at%all%levels%within%an%organisaEon.%% The%effects%of%rendering%a%management%system%as%transparent%and% of%connecEng%underlying%tools%with%each%other,%creates%a%climate% that%makes%it%more%possible%to%reflect%on%exisEng%working%methods% and%mental%models.%%
  • 67. 67 Rhizoming Step%6: Experiment%with% chance
  • 68. 68 Rhizoming A$ Rhizome$ is$ a$ term$ from$ biology$ which$ means$ “underground$ rootstalk$ structure”.$ It$ is$ a$ root$ structure$ that$ grows$ horizontally$ under$ the$ ground.$ The$ ends$ o>en$ bend$ back$ up$ ver?cally$ and$ thus$ form$new$plants.$A$good$example$in$ nature$is$the$water$lily$or$bamboo. French$ philosopher$ Gilles$ Deleuze$ used$ this$ concept$ to$ describe$ a$ new$ way$ of$ thinking$ and$ (coC)opera?ng.$ A$ Rhizome,$ according$ to$ Deleuze:$ “A$ nonChierarchical$ and$ insignificant$ system$ that$ is$ determined$ exclusively$ by$ a$ circula?on$ of$ situa?ons,$ without$ a$ general$ and$ without$ an$ organising$ memory$or$central$automaton”.$In$other$words,$it$is$a$network$of$connec?ons$without$any$ form$of$control. “Rhizoming”$is$ini?a?ng$a$selfCorganising$tes?ng$ground$for$the$discovery$and$dissemina?on$ of$ new$ and$ renewed$ forms$ of$ organising$ within$ an$ organisa?on.$ It$ is$ a$ place$ where$ prevailing$ principles$ about$ organising$ and$ collabora?ng$ are$ challenged$ and$ renewed.$A$ Rhizome$doesn’t$have$an$elaborate$structure$beforehand.$The$ambi?on$of$the$organisa?on$ and$ the$ passion$ and$ inspira?on$ of$ the$ employees$ ul?mately$ determine$ the$ form$ and$ content.$Rhizoming$offers$an$organisa?on$the$opportunity$to$experiment$with$new$methods$ from$within. Organisa?ons$experimen?ng$with$Rhizoming$understand$the$strengths$and$weaknesses$of$ their$current$opera?ng$methods$and$are$open$to$new$insights$and$approaches$(chance)$that$ help$to$ realise$ambi?ons$for$ the$future.$They$understand$the$impact$of$the$crea?on$of$a$ Rhizome$within$ the$ current$ structure$ and$ culture$ and$ take$ the$ highest$ level$ of$ care$ to$ protect$the$values$prevailing$in$a$Rhizome.$ These$values$are: Employees$are$themselves$responsible$for$what$they$do$and$don’t$do,$and$should$ also$be$able$to$jus?fy$this,$not$only$to$themselves$but$also$to$others. Employees$ strive$ for$ an$ environment$ where$ the$ focus$ is$ on$ jus?ce,$ kindness,$ respect,$honesty,$regard$for$human$dignity$and$coChumanity. Employees$help$themselves$and$others$to$develop. What isn’t it? A$Rhizome$is$not$a$refuge$for$ nonCconformists$who$feel$summoned$to$condemn$exis?ng$ structures.$ It$ is$the$professionals$ who$ want$ to$ take$a$fresh$ look,$from$ their$ personal$ passion,$ at$ how$ the$ organisa?on$ can$ realise$ its$ ambi?ons.$ They’re$ not$ cri?cs,$ but$ employees$who$want$to$start$a$movement$from$an$open$and$apprecia?ve$ajtude. To which activities does this apply? The$ini?a?on$and$ growth$ of$ a$Rhizome$in$an$ organisa?on$promotes$ social$ innova?on.$ Social$ innova?on$ is$ the$ crea?on$ of$ renewal$ in$ the$ labour$ organisa?on$ and$ labour$ rela?ons,$leading$to$improved$performance$of$the$organisa?on,$more$job$sa?sfac?on$and$ development$of$talents.$A$Rhizome$has$a$clearly$defined$mission$and$will$be$fleshed$out$ from$the$passion$of$the$employees$involved.$This$is$the$growth$medium$for$a$Rhizome.$It’s$ important$ that$ these$ employees$ can$ be$ fully$ responsible$ for$ the$ interpreta?on$ and$ implementa?on$of$the$mission.$The$mission$of$a$Rhizome$can,$for$example,$be$focused$on$ developing$new$products$and$services,$improving$support$for$the$primary$process$or$the$ design$and$implementa?on$of$projects.
  • 69. 69 What is the biggest challenge? By$op?ng$for$ the$deployment$ of$ a$Rhizome,$the$organisa?on$endorses$that$ one$is$ not$ completely$ free$ within$ the$ present$ structure$ to$ take$ uncharted$ routes.$ This$ implicit$ expression$ of$ a$ kind$ of$ “incapacity”$ for$ fundamental$ change$ generates$ discussion$and$ brings$the$associated$resistors$along$with$it.$This$creates$a$Rhizome$that$is$a$powerful$but$ delicate$instrument.$In$addi?on,$the$strength$of$a$Rhizome$is$in$crea?ng$connec?ons.$The$ pitall$is$that$these$connec?ons$are$merging$with$ins?tu?onalised$constructs$and$that$the$ passion$they$contain$can$no$longer$flow.$Exis?ng$departments,$processes$and$procedures$ will$ aBempt$to$ bring$to$bear$ their$ power$ and$influence$on$ the$Rhizome.$Therefore$the$ mindset$of$the$par?cipants$and$keeping$the$structure$open$is$essen?al. Secondary conditions? Nevertheless,$ for$ working$ with$ a$ Rhizome$ within$ an$ exis?ng$ organisa?onal$ structure,$ some$secondary$condi?ons$(rules$of$play)$apply. A$Rhizome$ is$not$ a$ func?onal$ unit$ and$ can$ therefore$not$ be$placed$within$ the$ hierarchy$of$a$structure. A$Rhizome$has$no$formal$control. A$ Rhizome$ theore?cally$ has$ no$ rules$ and$ regula?ons,$unless$ they$ are$ a$ legal$ requirement. Employees$ in$ a$ Rhizome$ are$ always$ free$ to$ leave$the$rhizome$ and$ to$ perform$ ac?vi?es$elsewhere$within$the$organisa?on How do we begin? A$Rhizome$cannot$really$be$organised$in$advance.$Employees$must$be$free$to$aBach$to$the$ Rhizome,$from$passion$ and$ inspira?on.$However,$the$ secondary$condi?ons,$or$ rules$of$ play,$have$to$be$clear.$ Examples (1/2) The, Ecocathedral, by$Louis$Le$Roy$in$ Mildam$ (Holland)$is$ an$aBempt$ to$ demonstrate$ that$ is$ possible$ to$ realise$ a$ complex$ system$ using$ human$ energy,$nature$and$building$material.$It’s$a$Rhizome$in$its$purest$form. [source:$www.ecokathedraal.nl] Nordic,Food,Lab,is$a$nonCprofit,$selfCgoverned$organisa?on,$established$in$ 2008$by$head$chef$René$Redzepi$of$Noma$and$gastronomic$entrepreneur$ Claus$ Meyer.$ Their$ purpose$ is$ to$ explore$ the$ building$ blocks$ of$ Nordic$ cuisine$through$tradi?onal$and$ modern$gastronomies,$and$to$share$these$ results$ with$ chefs,$ academics,$ industry,$ and$ the$ public.$ The$ Lab$ is$ supported$ by$ independent$ founda?ons,$ private$ companies,$ and$ government$ sources.$ They$ are$ commiBed$ to$ an$ ethos$ of$ coopera?on,$ knowledge$ sharing,$ and$ openCsource$ research,$ and$ collaborate$ with$ various$other$local$and$interna?onal$projects. [source:$www.nordicfoodlab.org] The$objec?ve$of$project,123Dee,is$that$elementary$schools$will$have$a$3D$ printer$ that$ they$ apply$ to$ the$ learning$ environment.$ To$ achieve$ this,$ entrepreneurs$ are$ encouraged$ to$ invest$ in$ a$ 3D$ printer$ for$ a$ local$ elementary$school$ that$ shows$an$interest$in$this.$To$ support$ this,$a$user$ platorm$was$ac?vated$to$help$the$school$and$its$pupils,$during$the$startC up$phase$as$well$as$during$the$implementa?on,$to$realise$the$3D$project.$ A, group, of, Amsterdam, officials,$ scien?sts,$ police$ staff$ and$ lawyers$ is$ working$in$a$private$ini?a?ve$on$a$new$ approach$ to$dealing$ with$fraud.$ The$group$ does$not$ func?on$ under$a$ministry$or$any$other$ party$and$do$ not$ get$ separate$ pay$ for$ their$ “commiBee$ work”,$ but$ they$ can$ come$ together$during$working$hours.
  • 70. 70 Mind, Dream, Connect & Hack Working$in$ a$Rhizome$requires$an$ open$mindset.$Par?cipants$study$the$assump?ons$that$ form$the$founda?on$for$ current$work$prac?ces$and$observe$the$system$that$ the$problems$ and$solu?ons$are$part$of.$They$reflect$on$mental$models$and$redesign$work$structures$and$ processes.$They$make$new$connec?ons$inside$ and$ outside$the$ organisa?on$and$ they$are$ selfCorganising.$They$con?nuously$ask$themselves:$“Why$do$ we$do$things$the$way$we$do$ them$now,$is$there$another$way$to$do$it,$and$what$can$we$do$now?” To$ support$ a$ Rhizome,$ a$ special$ incen?ve$ programme$ can$ be$ developed$ to$ colour$ and$ interpret$ this$mindset.$A$programme$that$ serves$as$a$catalyst$ and$ focuses$on$ four$ main$ themes: Mind:$ One$reflects$on$exis?ng$assump?ons$from$an$ organisa?onal,$ psychological$ and$ neurological$ perspec?ve,$ both$ on$ the$ organisa?onal$ and$ on$ the$ individual$ level.$By$understanding$the$ dynamics,$the$ par?cipants$ recognise$ the$ forces$ that$ affect$ the$ success$of$a$WorkCRhizome. Dream:$ Direct$ with$ passion$ and$ inspira?on.$ Encourage$ crea?ve$thinking$ and$ the$ development$ of$ new$ideas. Connect:$Crea?ng$connec?ons$is$the$lifeblood$of$a$Rhizome.$The$aBen?on$will$be$focused$ on$the$launch$of$selfCorganising$ac?vi?es$that$can$take$place$in$certain$places$(physical$and$ virtual)$in$the$organisa?on.$By$periodically$employing$“external$free$thinkers”$as$catalysts$of$ the$growth$process,$numerous$new$connec?ons$will$be$created. Hack:$ Do$more$in$less$?me.$Make$smart$ moves$in$the$informa?on$and$network$society.$ Equip$par?cipants$with$knowledge$and$tools$to$support$the$finding$and$securing$appropriate$ innova?ve$solu?ons.$ Examples (2/2) In$ a$ large$ installa1on, company,$ planners$ themselves$ give$ form$ and$ content$ to$ their$ own$development$ direc?on.$They$ develop$ programmes$ and$ decide$ themselves$ which$ themes$ they$ want$ to$ expand.$ They$ will$ independently$visit$each$other$and$explore$other$ways$of$working. A$ number$ of$ strategic$ advisors$ in$ a$ municipality$ are$ redesigning$ the$ func?on$ quality$and$ control.$Star?ng$from$ the$ premise$ that$ power$ and$ possibili?es$ are$inherent$ in$people$ and$ organisa?ons,$they$bring$current$ quality$ tools$ up$ for$ discussion$ and$ they$ tap$ new$ sources$ for$ making$ progress.$ At$a$regional,government,body,$a$group$of$posi?ve$cri?cal$employees$has$ organised$ under$ the$ name:$ “Power$ Accelerators”.$ They$ keep$ the$ organisa?on$ focused$ on$ developments$ and$ improvement$ opportuni?es$ and$organise$(unsolicited)$brainstorming$sessions$with$colleagues. In$ a$ distribu1on, company$ opera?ng$ in$ Europe,$ several$ young$ professionals$have$ developed$ a$ game$ where$ the$ objec?ve$ is$ a$oneCyear$ challenge$to$managers$to$get$started$on$a$number$of$strategic$themes.$By$ ac?va?ng$the$ managers$in$a$playful$way,$and$by$periodically$sharing$the$ results$ with$ each$ other,$ these$ ini?ators$ managed$ to$ express$ “the$ undercurrent”$ in$ a$ posi?ve$ way.$ Countless$ examples$ of$ best$ prac?ces$ were$collected$and$shared. A$progressive$family,business$has$started$ a$journey$of$discovery$ to$ the$ essence$ of$ excellent$ organisa?on$ (Expedi?on$ Excellence).$ Organised$ by$ and$for$its$own$employees.$They$draw$energy$from$outside$to$inside$and$ discover$best$prac?ces$both$inside$and$outside$the$organisa?on.
  • 71. 71 EPILOGUE by Cees Hoogendijk “Cohesion$and$ Dialogue,$the$keys$to$excellence”$is$a$wonderful,$revealing$?tle.$Of$course,$ the$reader$has$easily$discovered$the$duality,$but$let’s$rediscover$it$one$more$?me. Because$if$we$really$want$to$excel,$let’s$make$sure$we$excel$in$crea?ng$cohesion!$Under$INK/ EFQM$ prac??oners,$ the$ word$ “integral”$ can$ frequently$be$ heard.$This$ concept$ is$ o>en$ unconsciously$represented$as$a$complex$of$factors$and$facets.$If$one$is$not$careful,$then$the$ INK/EFQM$Management$Model$may$look$like$a$collec?on$of$nine$(or$ten)$boxes.$People$like$ Remco$ Lie>ing$ must$ then$ make$ considerable$ effort$ to$ emphasise$ the$lines$between$ the$ boxes$and$to$highlight$the$value$of$the$model$in$the$cohesion$between$the$boxes.$It’s$funny,$ really,$because$the$concept$“integral”$is$related$to$the$term$“integer”,$which$means$“whole$ number”.$An$integral$ (crash)$ helmet$is$especially$useful$ because$of$ the$wholeness$ of$the$ construct.$And$to$go$from$integral$to$human$integrity$is$an$obvious,$beau?ful$mental$leap...$ Let’s$excel$in$personal$wholeness!$Then$cohesion$will$befall$us. On$ the$other$side$of$ the$duality$we$must$recognise$that$to$ excel$ is$far$from$being$a$solo$ ac?vity,$not$even$in$sports,$where$fellow$athletes$are$needed$ to$demonstrate$one’s$own$ excellence,$and$certainly$not$in$living$and$working$together,$where$excelling$can$be$possible$ if$and$only$if$we$pursue$it$jointly.$Excelling$simply$cannot$be$done$on$your$own.$How$much$ wisdom$can$be$found$in$a$?tle$with$so$few$words! Speaking$of$wisdom:$all$things$considered,$to$excel$appears$to$be$something$that$is$aiming$ for$ the$future:$we$ need$ to$ develop$ ourselves$ and$ our$ organisa?ons$ and$ that$ is$ mainly$ forward,$isn’t$it?$ Plan,$Do,$Check,$Act$is$the$moBo,$which$is$a$model$that$dates$from$a$?me$when$we$drew$a$ motorcar,$built$it,$tested$it$and$subsequently$reproduced$it$on$a$conveyor$belt.$It’s$beyond$ me$that$ for$many$years$we’ve$let$go$of$this$model$in$ service$processes,$and$once$upon$a$ ?me$it$convinced$me$to$replace$Act$with$Improve:$in$the$case$of$cars,$it$might$be$useful$if$ they$all$look$similar$as$much$as$possible,$but$services$only$fare$well$if$they$show$evidence$ of$progressive$insight$and$con?nuous$alignment$with$ the$needs$and$ expecta?ons$of$the$ client.$PDCI$Hoogendijk?$PDCA$Demming?$A$single$model$aBached$to$a$single$name?$Don’t$ make$me$laugh.$While$we’re$at$it,$let's$not$forget$Mr$Shewart$with$his$Plan,$Do,$Study,$Act,$ the$obvious$predecessor$to$Demming.$Or$a$few$more$centuries$back,$Mr$ Francis$Bacon$ with$ his$ scien?fic$method$ based$on$induc?on:$Plan,$Do,$Check.$Striking$in$ all$ of$ these$ varia?ons$on$the$theme$is$that$apparently$we$find$one$aspect$very$important:$the$Plan.$To$ my$taste$this$really$is$an$overrated$construct,$whose$comple?on$is$celebrated$with$flowers$ and$cake,$while$ the$ real$ work$ has$ yet$ to$ begin...$Will$ the$ Plan$really$help$ us$ into$ the$ future?$Remco’s$approach$to$make$plans$more$dynamic$is$more$appealing$in$this$case.$
  • 72. 72 We$should$note$that$all$this$drivel$about$models$C$including$the$INK/EFQM$model$C$from$an$ Eastern$perspec?ve$is$considered$completely$Yin:$it$moves$completely$on$the$inside$of$the$ organism.$And$as$everyone$knows,$Yin$only$thrives$inextricably$with$Yang:$the$pronounced,$ the$outward,$the$reciprocal.$As$long$as$we$restrict$the$INK/EFQM$model$ to$the$“enablers”$ and$ the$ “results”$ of$ an$ organisa?on,$ and$ overlook$ that$ the$ recipients$ of$ services$ and$ products$ are$ the$ most$ important$ coCcreators,$ it$ will$ be$ insufficient$ to$ evaluate$ the$ stakeholders;$it$is$a$requirement$that$we$consider$and$appreciate$the$ac?vi?es$of$these$coC creators,$along$with$ our$ interac?on$ with$ them$as$a$ (Yang)$ process...$and$ then$ suddenly$ we’re$outside$of$the$PDCA$circle$and$popped$out$of$the$INK/EFQM$Management$model. Surrounding$the$PDCA$with$an$IMWR$is$a$reputable$aBempt$to$introduce$some$more$Yang$ into$ the$organisa?on.$ Undeniably,$concepts$ like$ Inspire,$Mobilise,$Value$ and$ Reflect$ are$ construc?ve$ treatments.$ However,$they$ are$ s?ll$ focusing$on$ the$ internal$ nature$ of$ the$ organisa?on.$We’re$definitely$not$“popping$out”.$Why$not?$Because$we$would$be$losing$our$ sense$of$control...$Yes:$IMWR$is$also$s?ll$more$Yin$than$Yang.$But$who,$yes$who,$would$dare$ to$present$a$“half$open$model”?$A$model$that$searches$for$a$connec?on$with$the$unknown$ context?$A$model$that$will$never$be$able$to$map$this$context,$precisely$because$of$its$being$ unknown.$Would$con?nuous$reciprocity,$with$true$excellence$as$context,$be$able$to$confirm$ sustainable$survival?$What$an$insubstan?al$thought...$the$Perspec?ve$“Sustainable$&$ValueC orientated$Organising”,$as$shown$by$Remco,$aBempts$to$describe$this$con?nuous$reciprocity$ with$the$environment$as$the$start$of$this$explora?on.$It’s$a$beau?ful$invita?on. As$I$write$this$I$am$s?ll$full$from$a$profound$experience$in$Delphi,$Greece.$The$Delphi$temple$ represents$a$magical$place$where$ancient$knowledge$has$taken$hold.$It$is$so$old,$that$Eastern$ and$Western$philosophies$are$no$longer$dis?nguishable.$It’s$in$this$place$where$people$have$ posed$big$ques?ons$for$dozens$of$centuries.$Not$so$much$to$get$a$clear$answer$C$the$oracle$ doesn’t$speak$that$clearly$C$but$simply$to$be$able$to$pose$that$oh$so$important$ques?on$at$ the$right$ ?me$and$the$right$place.$I$was$allowed$to$ share$my$ques?on,$which$was:$“How$ does$one$provide$‘leadership’$to$an$organisa?on$that$ (already)$consists$of$a$shared$ vision$ and$a$construc?ve$mutual$reciprocity?”$(I$was$referring$to$our$guild$of$Corporate$Academy$ builders).$In$short:$asking$the$ques?on$C$especially$to$me$C$was$already$so$overwhelming$ that$an$answer$would$have$been$inappropriate. Just$imagine$that$a$powerful$plan$is$similar$to$a$crisp$development$ques?on,$with$a$deep$ desire.$And$imagine$that$this$ques?on$would$be$allowed$to$pose$itself$in$the$company$of$ her$coCcreators?$Suppose$that$a$Plan$is$a$Ques?on,$rather$ than$an$Answer?$The$IMWR$ thought$contains$hope,$par?cularly$in$the$V$of$Value$(the$IMWR$circle:$Inspire,$Mobilise,$ Value$and$Reflect).$It$would$be$to$their$credit$if$execu?ves$and$all$other$coCcreators$would$ appreciate$each$other.$Or$ beBer$ yet,$mindful$of$the$Apprecia?ve$Inquiry$movement:$to$ treat$ each$ other$ with$ apprecia?ve$ ques?oning.$ However$ flaBering$a$ compliment$ may$ seem,$there$is$a$beBer$way$to$appreciate$our$fellow$man:$namely$by$asking$him$or$her$for$ their$ most$powerful$ experience,$by$defini?on$related$to$his$or$her$ talent$ and$ poten?al.$ Then$listen$to$the$stories$that$it$generates.$There’s$a$good$chance$that$both$conversa?on$ partners$excel$in$cohesion$at$that$?me. Which$ ques?on$ are$ you$ going$ to$ pose$ tomorrow,$ to$ ra?fy$ the$ development$ of$ your$ organisa?on? Cees$Hoogendijk Suppose,that,a,Plan, is,a,Ques1on,, rather,than,an,Answer,
  • 73. 73 do-it-yourself-pages
  • 74. 74
  • 75. 75 The$‘connec)ons$model’$|$INK3EFQM$Naviga)onmap
  • 76. 76 L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR Actions previous years: Current Profile L ! = Leadership P! = People S! = Strategy and Policy P&R! = Partnerships & Resources PP&S! = Processes, Products & Services BR! = Business Results SR! = Society Results CR! = Customer Results PR! = People Results
  • 77. 77 Actions next year: Profile Next Year L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L ! = Leadership P! = People S! = Strategy and Policy P&R! = Partnerships & Resources PP&S! = Processes, Products & Services BR! = Business Results SR! = Society Results CR! = Customer Results PR! = People Results
  • 78. 78 Storyboard Unit Title Storyboard Author Period Shot 1: L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR Shot 2: Shot 3: Shot 4: Shot 5: Shot 6: L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR L P S P&R PP&S PR CR SR BR
  • 79. 79 Causally connected: Causally connected (opposing): Delay:
  • 80. 80 What are our challenges? What will we focus on? When are we doing well? What should we be aiming for? What will we work on? What should we renew? What should we stop doing?What should we be using?
  • 81. 81 What is my challenge? What will be my focus? When am I doing well? What should I aiming for? What will I work on? What should I renew? I have to stop with...I should use more...
  • 82. 82 Copyright*2012,*Liefting*Consulting It#is#clear#to#us#where#the#organisation#is#headed.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#have#confidence#in#the#chosen#direction.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree It#is#clear#to#us#how#we#can#contribute#to#this.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree Our#proposed#actions#constitute#a#logical#and#understandable#whole.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#regularly#tailor#our#activities#to#our#expectations,#and#vice#versa.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#are#able#to#respond#to#(new)#developments#quickly#and#adequately.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#receive#good#support#from#other#teams.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#provide#good#support#to#other#teams.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#have#an#equivalent#(cooperative)#relationship#with#all#our#stakeholders.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#request#and#receive#continuous#feedback#on#our#performance.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#give#each#other#highAquality#feedback.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#regularly#use#feedback#to#reflect#on#our#assumptions.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#create#sufficient#challenges#to#help#our#(personal)#development.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree We#take#enough#freedom#and#time#to#learn#and#develop.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree There#is#a#clear#balance#between#appreciation,#performance#and#development.Totally*disagreeDisagreeAgreeQuite*agree What#is#our#basic#attitude?RigidPlannedFlexibleDynamic How#do#we#work?RoutineMechanisticSystemicOrganic What#do#we#think#is#important?FrugalSuitabilityEffectivenessRelevance Where#is#our#focus?SupplyHorientedQuestionHorientatedClientHorientatedValueHorientated Where#are#we#headed?ObjectivesIndicatorsResultsDynamic*objectives How#do#we#position#ourselves?DepartmentTeamNetworkMesh How#do#we#relate#to#others?SubcontractorSupply*ChainPartnerAlliance What#do#we#vallue?EffortResultOutcomeEffect What’s#guiding#us?InstructionManagingDirectingSelfHdirection What#are#our#responsibilities?CommitmentPerformanceFunctioningDevelop How#do#we#deal#with#information?ReceivingSendingSharingCoHcreate How#do#we#view#development?TrainingTrainingLearningGrow How#do#we#reflect?ResearchDiscussionDialogueConnect How#conscious#are#my#actions? I*make*quick* decisions*based*on*my* current*experiences*and* insights. I*am*able*to*set*aside* my*primary*reaction*and* to*delve*into*the* information. I*am*able*to* empathetically*listen*to* others*and,*in*dialogue,* to*consider*the*situation* from*the*perspective*of* others. I*have*the*capacity*to* let*go*of*the*past*and*to* act*in*the*here*and*now. How#conscious#are#the#actions#of#my#team/department? We*are*tenacious*and* therefore*not*open*to* new*insights. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*debate*with*each* other*in*order*to*openly* discuss*everyone's* viewpoint. We*are*able*to*enter* into*a*dialogue*with*each* other*in*order*to* consider*the*situation*in* its*entirety. We*are*able*to*make* room*for*each*other*in* order*to*let*go*of*the*past* and*to*connect*with* things*to*come. How#conscious#can#we#act#within#our#organisation? The*organisation* holds*on*to*its*current* way*of*working. The*organisation*is* capable*of*allowing* decisionHmaking*at*the* appropriate*level. The*organisation*is* able*to*take*on*the* challenge*with*internal* and*external* stakeholders. The*organisation*is* able*to*let*go*of* hierarchical*thinking*and* to*allow*room*for*selfH management*and*selfH organisation. How#do#managers#encourage#us? ☐*Management* reinforces*the* hierarchical*style*of* control*and* accountability. ☐*Management*allows* room*for*using*regulation* and*competition*as*a* coordination*mechanism. ☐Management* encourages*directional* control*to*take*on*the* challenge*together*with* the*stakeholders. ☐*Management* stimulates*the*release*of* vertical*coordination*and* allows*room*for*the* development*of* equivalent*relations*with* all*stakeholders. Questionnaire#Organising#Efficiency Evaluation#of#our#actions Characterization#of#our#actions Awareness#of#our#actions Examples#of#our#actions
  • 83. 83 Cohesion(and(Dialogue,( the(keys(to(excellence(5( Remco(Liefing Cohesion(and( Dialogue The$perspec)ve Strategic$Transparency From$having$to$using The$Client$directs Change$is$a$constant Together$with$others New$leadership Focus$on$impact There$is$another$way Focus Cohesion Connect Reflect Challenge 1.(patchwork( unravelled Step$1:$Discover@ ing$quirks Nega)ve$effects$that$occur$in$a$ disjointed$management$system Oddi)es$ Symbiosis Collusion Muta)on Stacking Wear$and$tear Contradic)ons Façade Step$2:$Iden)fying$ the$rela)onships INK@EFQM$Manage@ ment$Framework It’s$a$way$of$thinking$and$working Framework$for$connec)ons Five$organisa)onal$areas Four$result$areas 4$perspec)ves Enabler$vs$result Plean$@$do$@$learn$@$adapt The$'flow' 3$axes Human Business Resources Model$of$the$ connec)ons Leadership Keep$the$organisa)on$on$course$ Inspire$development$ Strategy$and$Policy Translates$its$mission$statement$into$daily$prac)ce Staff$Management U)lisa)on$of$the$knowledge,$skills$ and$energy$of$its$employees The$Stakeholders Employees Clients$and$Partners Society Directors$and$Financiers Process$Management Iden)fies,$designs,$controls,$enhances$and$renews$ its$processes,$rela)ve$to$strategy$and$policy 2.(The(Eye(of(the( Master© Step$3$Tracking$the$ dynamics The$Eye$of$the$Master Create$your$own$storyboard Understand$the$dynamics$of$the$connec)on Draw$the$current$eye$and$compare$to$ac)ons 3.(Systems(think5 ing(&(doing Step$4:$Understanding$ from$the$larger$whole The$essence$of$the$conversa)on$cycle Processen$plaatsen$in$groter$geheel Basic$principles ReciprocityProsperity Meaning? There$is$another$way It$is$encouraging$to$do$those$ac)vi)es$ that$really$make$a$contribu)on. Begrijpen$van$de$dynamiek Synergie 1$+$1$=$3 4.(Understanding(and(posiKoning What’s$holding$us$back? Outdated$structures$and$pa`erns Archaic$way$of$thinking 1980@2010$Global$Connected$Theory Stacking$of$tool Adap)ng$to$a$new$methode$is$hard How$aware$is$your$ organisa)on? ReAct ReactWho$and$what An)cipateWhere$and$when ReThink ReframingWhy$and$which RedesignDifferent From$ReAct$to$ReThink Inidvidual Team Organiza)on Management 5.(UKlise(dynamics( at(all(Kmes Model Rules Values Act Percep)ons Occurence Ques)onnaire 6.(Dynamic( Planning Step$5:$U)lise$dynam@ ics$at$all$)mes Con)nuous$dialogue Plan$@$do$@$check$&$learn$@$adapt The$Basic$Assump)ons External$orienta)on Outcome$focused Developing$con)nuously Not$everything$is$new Demand@driven$alloca)on Clarify Learn$Together Disconnect$rewards 7.(Rhizoming Step$6:$Experiment$ with$chance Experiment$with$chance Biology:$underground$rootstalk$structure French$philosopher$Gilles$Deleuze$used$this$concept$to$describe$a$ new$way$of$thinking$and$(co@)opera)ng.$$it$is$a$network$of$ connec)ons$without$any$form$of$control Apply$forSocial$innova)on Asks$forMind,$Dream,$Connect$&$Hack Made by:
  • 84. 84 In$order$to$operate$in$a$dynamic$market,$it$is$important$to$have$more$op?ons$to$create$value$for$all$stakeholders.$$In$the$new$economy,$no$organisa?on$will$be$ successful$if$it$doesn’t$possess$a$significant$amount$of$agility$and$selfCorganising$ability.$This$is$a$necessary$condi?on$to$enable$rapid$switching$from$one$winning$ strategy$to$another$and$to$implement$it. The$basis$for$this$lies$in$a$different$way$of$organising,$where$meaning$is$the$basis$for$value$and$where$the$customer$is$in$charge,$and$where$organising$is$based$on$a$ sustainable,$effec?ve,$innova?ve$and$flexible$partnership$which$is$based$on$the$selfCorganising$ability$of$professionals$in$collabora?on$with$all$stakeholders. LieMing, Consul1ng, supports, your,organisa1on,in,the,further,development,of, business, by,working,(,together,with,you,(,towards,a, more,coherent,and,social, management,system.,We,do,this,by,contribu1ng,refreshing,perspec1ves,and,proven,methodologies.,Lie>ing$Consul?ng$reasons$primarily$from$human$thinking$ and$behaviour$and$makes$the$underlying$(management)$processes$visible$and$nego?able.$ A>er$all,$it’s$not$always$about$doing$something$new.$$Some?mes$it’s$a$maBer$of$viewing$your$present$reality$with$different$eyes. lie>ingCconsul?ng.com info@lie>ingCconsul?ng.nl +31$(0)$35$887$22$24 remcolie>ing nl.linkedin.com/in/remcolie>ing/ @remcolie>ing
  • 85. 85 “During$ the$ past$ two$ years,$ Remco$ has$ made$ a$ considerable$ contribu?on$to$a$ couple$ of$ large$ projects$ within$ PostNL.$ He$ joined$ the$ PostNL$ Masters$ at$ the$ incep?on$of$some$valuable$innova?ons$in$the$programme,$ followed$by$an$important$and$substan?ve$ contribu?on$as$ assessor.$Keywords$in$this$partnership:$ business$excellence$ professional,$ innovator,$ organisa?onCaware.$ Other$ talents$ surfaced$ during$ the$ employeeCengagement$ survey$ VOICE:$ associa?ng,$substan?al$resolu?on$capacity,$good$discussion$partner$for$ the$ business.$It$is$a$ real$ pleasure$ to$ work$with$Remco$because$ of$his$posi?ve$ ajtude,$ handsCon$ mentality$ and$ his$ ability$ to$ put$ things$ in$ perspec?ve.”$ Sandra$ Schipper,$ Programme$Manager$PostNL “Remco's$strength$is$his$enthusiasm$and$his$ability$ to$get$people$moving.$He$recognizes$ where$people$have$their$energy$and$he$helps$them$to$capitalise$on$that.$He$par?cipates$in$ development$projects$within$the$INK$network.$He$ also$supports$the$ INK$in$reposi?oning$ the$ organisa?on.$ He$ is$ appreciated$ not$ only$ because$ he$ proposes$ new$ angles$ and$ perspec?ves,$but$also$because$he$helps$to$bring$plans$into$reality.$It$is$a$real$pleasure$to$ collaborate$with$Remco.”$Ruud$Stassen,$Director$INK “Remco$is$an$enthusias?c$and$crea?ve$thinker$and$doer.$He$recognises$opportuni?es$and$ suggests$ “out$ of$ the$ box”$ ideas$ that$ are$ simultaneously$ possible$ within$ the$ context.$ Crea?ng$ new$ things$or$new$ programmes$and$formula?ng$ solu?ons.$ That's$what$ I$ really$ like$to$do$together$with$Remco.$It’s$also$good$to$see$that$"no$maBer$what",$he$con?nues$ to$believe$in$it.$So$especially$if$you$happen$to$hit$a$rough$stretch,$I$would$suggest$you$call$ Remco.”$Ad$Schrama,$Senior$Adviser$Trainer$and$Manager,$Bureau$Zuidema “As$a$consultant,$Remco$is$there$to$fix$something,$not$force$it;$not$only$by$contribu?ng$his$ broad$knowledge$ and$skills,$ but$also$with$an$eye$ for$ the$ tools$(i.e.$individuals)$that$are$ required$in$the$process.$He$does$this$with$understanding$and$respect$for$their$skills$and$ their$limits.”$Frits$Eijkhoudt,$project$leader$Openbaar$Ministerie$(OM,$Public$Prosecu?on$ Service) “I$met$Remco$as$an$expert$consultant$in$the$field$of$INK.$His$discerning$capacity$lies$not$ only$on$the$instrumental$level,$but$also$on$the$process$of$implementa?on$and$assurance.”$ Cees$Kiene,$MD$coordinator$UWV “Remco$developed$an$excellent$understanding$of$the$underlying$EFQM$model$and$of$the$ assessment$ process.$ As$a$ strategic$ thinker,$ he$ was$ always$eager$ to$ find$ out$ the$ basic$ fundamentals$of$the$model$and$transferred$them$into$the$business$world.”$ Chris?an$Dr.$Forstner,$Principal$Consultant Lie>ing$ Consul?ng$ works$ closely$ with$ clients,$ specialised$ consultants,$ independent$ professionals$ and$ various$ knowledge$ networks$ on$ interes?ng$ projects$involving$the$socialisa?on$of$management$systems.$ Lie>ing$consul?ng$was$founded$ by$ Remco$Lie>ing,$business$excellence$coach$ and$ experience$ partner.$ Remco$ has$ more$ than$ 16$ years$ of$ experience$ as$a$ consultant,$ facilitator$ and$ Lead$ Assessor$ in$ Business$Excellence$ (INK/EFQM),$ organisa?onal$ development$ and$ behavioural$ change,$ both$ in$ public$ administra?on$and$in$business$services.$ As$ an$ experience$partner$ he$par?cipates$in$ crea?ng$ a$number$ of$ ini?a?ves,$ including$The$Management$Challenge®$and$3D$prin?ng$for$children. His$main$strength$lies$in$bringing$together$the$“hard$ and$ so>$ side”$of$ organising.$ He$promotes$ a$ clear$and$transparent$approach.$ He$knows$how$to$inspire$all$levels$within$ an$ organisa?on$ with$ his$ enthusiasm,$ commitment$ and$ his$ ability$ to$ put$ things$in$ perspec?ve.$ At$the$same$ ?me$ he$ enjoys$ spreading$ his$ knowledge$ and$ experience$ through$coaching$and$training.
  • 86. 86 Expedi1on,Excellence Expedi?on$ Excellence$ is$ a$ journey$ of$ discovery.$No$tradi?onal$educa?on,$training$ or$ course,$but$ an$ expedi?on$ organised$ by$ the$par?cipants$themselves.$A$unique$form$ of$ learning$ is$ created$ by$ leveraging$ each$ other’s$ knowledge,$ skills,$ experience$ and$ network.$ It’s$ called$ “competenceCbased$ learning”. 1 1 Best,Prac1ce,programme Sejng$ up$ an$ internal$ recogni?on$ and$ apprecia?on$ programme$ will$ help$ you$ to$ iden?fy$ and$ share$ best$ prac?ces$ within$ your$ organisa?on.$ Discover$ valuable$ new$ insights$from$within$your$own$organisa?on,$ for$and$by$employees. 2 2 The,Management,Challenge® An$ interac?ve,$live,$management$game$for$ (emerging)$ managers,$ supervisors$ and$ (senior)$ employees.$ The$ game$ allows$ par?cipants$ to$ learn$ and$ experience$ the$ effect$ of$ directed$ aBen?on$ to$ the$ development$ of$ the$ organisa?on$ and$ its$ employees.$(INK/EFQM$inside) 3 3 INK/EFQM,Assessments,&,Advice During$ the$ process$ it$ is$ a$ good$ idea$ to$ frequently$reflect$ and$evaluate$in$order$ to$ learn$and$give$ direc?on$ for$ the$next$ step.$ Depending$ on$ the$ situa?on,$a$ quick$scan,$ selfCassessment,$ test$ or$ audit$can$be$helpful.$ 4 4
  • 87. 87 Dynamic,Planning Dynamic$ planning$ helps$ to$ create$ (year)$ plans$ that$ are$ alive,$ well$ thoughtCout,$ realis?c,$topical$and$up$for$discussion.$The$ basis$of$ this$methodology$includes,$among$ others,$ the$ INK/EFQM$ body$ of$ thought.$ Working$with$this$approach$is$certainly$not$ a$ fillCinCtheCblanks$ exercise,$ but$ especially$ entering$ into$ a$ good$ conversa?on$ about$ organisa?on$development. 5 5 6 Dialogue,Organising,Efficiency A$very$compact$ques?onnaire$develops$this$ insight$into$the$effec?veness$of$your$team’s$ capacity$ for$ organising,$ developing$ and$ reflec?ng.$This$ ques?onnaire$ can$ be$ used$ to$ enter$ into$ a$ dialogue$ on$ the$ current$ state$ of$ affairs$ and$ the$ desired$ development$direc?on. 6 7 Rhizoming “Rhizoming”$ is$ ini?a?ng$ a$ selfCorganising$ tes?ng$ ground$ for$ the$ discovery$ and$ dissemina?on$ of$ new$and$ renewed$ forms$ of$ organising$ within$ an$ organisa?on.$ The$ ini?a?on$ and$ growth$ of$ a$ Rhizome$ in$ an$ organisa?on$promotes$social$innova?on. 7 8 House,Academies,and,AI,100 How$can$you$get$your$organisa?on$to$learn$ and$ innovate$ structurally?$ With$ these$ building$blocks$you$will$be$working$towards$ sustainably$ organising$ learning$ and$ developing.$Lie>ing$Consul?ng$supports$the$ body$of$ thought$ of$House$ Academies$and$ the$ Apprecia?ve$ Enquiry$ Ac?on$ Learning$ Path. 8 Benadering Dimensie Reageren Anticiperen Herkaderen Herontwerpen Centrale/Triade Fragiel Fragiel Robuust Antifragiel Focus Activiteit Proces Structuur Systeem Typering PlanDDoDCheckDCorrect PlanDDoDCheckDAct PlanDDoDStudy PlanDDoDStudyDAdapt Tone/of/Voice Reageren*vanuit*bestaande* routines,*normen*en* richtlijnen Onderkennen*en* 'doortrekken'*van*patronen* en*trends*uit*het*verleden* naar*de*toekomst Onderzoeken*of*de* aannamen*die*ten*grondslag* liggen*aan*de*werkwijzen* nog*steeds*geldig*zijn Kijken*naar*het*systeem*waar* de*problemen*en* oplossingen*onderdeel*van* uitmaken Tone/of/Attitude Negeren,*vluchten*of* vechten Ingrijpen*om*herhaling*te* voorkomen Reflecteren*op*mentale* modellen Continu*herontwerpen*van* werkstructuren,*Dprocessen* en*organisatiecultuur Leerniveau Conditioneren SingleDLoop*leren DoubleDLoop*leren Deutero*Leren Fouten? Fout*=*slecht Fout*=*informatie Fout*=*kans Fout*=*goed Centrale/Leervraag Wie*en*Wat? Waar*en*Wanneer? Waarom*en*Waarmee? Hoe*anders? Wat/is/onze/grondhouding? Rigide Planmatig Flexibel Dynamisch Hoe/werken/wij? Routine Mechanistisch Systemisch Organisch Wat/vinden/wij/belangrijk? Zuinigheid Doelmatigheid Doeltreffendheid Relevantie Waar/richten/wij/ons/op? Aanbodgericht Vraaggericht Klantgericht Waardegericht Waar/sturen/wij/op? Doelen Indicators Resultaten Dynamische*doelen Hoe/reguleren/wij/het/werk? Regels Normen Principes Deugden Hoe/zijn/wij/ingericht? Afdeling Team Netwerk Mesh Hoe/verhouden/wij/ons/tot/anderen? Toeleverancier Supply*Chain Partner Alliantie Waar/hechten/wij/waarde/aan? Inspanning Resultaat Uitkomst Effect Hoe/worden/wij/aangestuurd? Instrueren Managen Regisseren Zelfsturing Waarover/verantwoorden/wij/ons? Inzet Prestatie Functioneren Ontwikkelen Hoe/gaan/wij/om/met/informatie? Ontvangen Zenden Delen CoDcreëren Hoe/kijken/wij/aan/tegen/ontwikkelen? Opleiden Trainen Leren Groeien Hoe/reflecteren/wij? Onderzoek Discussie Dialoog Verbinden Instrumenten Activity*Based*Costing Value*Based*Management Rolling*forecast Beyond*budgeting Time*Management Process*Management Operational*Excellence Business*ReDengineering Management*By*Objectives Balanced*Scorecard OneDPageDStrategy Continuous*Strategy* Development Controle Audit Appreciative*Assessments Open*Dialoque Decision*Rules Root*cause*analysis Risk*Management Scenario*Planning Quality*Control Quality*Management Business*Excellence Social*Excellence Performance*Benchmarking Process*Benchmarking Strategische*Benchmarking Open*Innovation Performance*Appraisal Performance*Management Competence*Management Talent*Management Marketing Satisfaction*Management Loyalty*Management Relationship*Management Bossing Managing Coaching*&*Intervision Leading*&*SelfDManagement Kenmerkende*instrumenten Typering*van*het*handelen ReActing ReThinking Theorie*D*Results*Driven Heuristiek*D*Effect*Driven
  • 88. 88 A, prac1cal, and, inspira1onal, workbook, for, professionals, who, want, to, work, towards, improving,the,cohesion,within,organisa1ons., This, workbook,helps, to,iden1fy,approaches,, tac1cs, and, instruments, that, sound, good, in, terms,of,organisa1onal,design,,but,in,prac1ce, lead,to,undesirable,(side),effects., Discover, the, strength, of, the, composi1on,of, the,organising,elements,within,your,business, and, how, mutual, rela1onships, evolve, over, 1me., Determine,what,is,right,and/or,(un)necessary, for, the, next, step, towards, achieving, your, ambi1ons. Analysing$ complex$ problems$ through$ reduc?on$ has$ become$ the$ basis$ of$ many$ management$ approaches.$ Reduc?on$ creates$ the$ belief$ that$ everything$ can$ be$ objec?fied$ and$ is$ therefore$ tangible,$ predictable$ and$ repairable.$ Reduc?on$ eradicates$ the$ feeling$ for$ the$ “human$ dimension”$ and$ creates$ a$ distance$ between$ reason$and$emo?on,$between$thinking$and$doing. Perhaps$we$should$try$to$look$differently$at$complexity$and$ approach$ problems$ from$ the$ larger$ whole.$ A$ first$ step$ would$be$ to$see$ the$ whole$ and$try$to$understand$this$by$ entering$into$a$dialogue$with$our$environment.$ This$workbook$will$help$you$and$your$colleagues$with$this. Hardcopy or free download: book.liefting-consulting.com