1. Land Use- describes how humans have decidedto use the land.
Thailand• Rural: 90% of Thailand’s total area is- used for agriculture and forestincluding beaches and wildernessparkland.• Urban: 10% of Thailand’s total area isused for cities including industrial landsand space used for transportation systemas roads
Rural Agricultural LandUntil 1960’s• an agricultural societyCauses of the Change:1.Advancement in Technology2.Economic Globalization
111. Advanced Technology Farmers need to learn a new and betterways to farm their land.
Use of scientific method to work the land- farmers need to be more educated andregulated about how they use the land- Farmers who learned to use science toproduce higher crop yields, raisedhealthier livestock and develop new waysof farming
2. Economic GlobalizationFarmers must produce crops that meetthe standards of the food industry.
Chao Phraya River Basin• Large rice paddies arespread across the ChaoPhraya river basin(Central Plain).• Crops like rice, grains andrubber are shipped tomarkets by boat, rail andtransport trucks.
Thailand’s Success in Agriculture:Reasons:1.Excellent Climate2.Long growing season3.Large expanses of flat lands4.Rich soil5.Thai people apply science to business ofproducing food- Thailand’s crop production is a source ofinternational trade.
Thailand’s IssuesThat are important to the successin farming
I. WATER CONSERVATION
Water is the single most important challengethat faces agriculture in Thailand.4 Areas of importance:1.Water Quantity2.Water Management3.Flood Control4.Water Quality and Sustainability
1. Water Quantity
THAILAND• When water is managedproperly:- Increase crop yields• When water ismismanaged:- disaster in farming- bad for Thai economy
Water Management:Manage trees!•Roots (from trees) holdsoil•Conserve ground water•Maintain water balancein the naturalenvironment
• Over time, more and more forest coverhas been taken over for agriculture.• Forest near larger cities , farmland hasbeen taken over for housingdevelopments and industry.
In 1840, 95% of the district was covered in native vegetation; this figureis now 15%, most of which is in the Kaimai ranges. (New Zealand)
This will result to serious problems:Removal of trees:1.Soil erosion: soil can be washed away by the rain soil can be blown away by the wind2. Farmland converted to roads, industrialand residential areas can no longer be usedin producing food
2. Water Management1. Monitor water quantity2. Create wells (underground water can bepumped to the surface for crop use.)3. Construct irrigation system to farms4. The use of canals, open and covereddrainage ditches, above ground tubingsystem, levees and sprinkler systems
Open and covered drainage
Sprinkler SystemLevee (dike)
3. Flood Control• - farmers plant low plants or ground coveron the fields that they are not using andalong irrigation ditches and slopes so thatsoil will not be washed away during heavyrain or flooding
4. Water Quality andSustainability• - farmers know how to protect waterresources.- control chemicals that pollute the soil anddamage quality of water.
Causes of water pollution infarm areas1. Runoff of soil andfertilizer• Farm animal manure aremajor source of nitratethat pollutes groundwater
2. PRESERVATION OFFARMLAND
• Government agencies monitor (check)and set limits for land use in Chao Phrayabasin.- the land cannot be used in otherpurposes except farming- farmers are taught how to protect the soilfrom pollution and erosion- foreigners cannot own rich farmland
3. QUALITY OF LIFE IN RURALAREAS
People in Thailand do not pay high pricesfor their food when compared to othercountries in the world.There are many government projects thatprovide equal opportunities for Thais livingin both rural and urban areas leading to animproved quality of life for people living inthe rural areas.- increased access to education, bettermedical care and improved sanitation
Some Issues1. The economics of farming causesinequality in the standard of living2. Some Thai agricultural products bringhigh prices in international markets butsometimes the middle men/overseasbrokers get a greater share of the profit
3. People who live and work in the ruralareas earn a lower salary than people wholive and work in the cities.4. Farmers are poor; some people in therural areas want to move to big cities likeBangkok making the city overpopulated.
5. This will result to social problems likeunemployment, lack of housing, increasecosts for government services, tension insociety which often result to increase crimerates.