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Clean Coal Technology:Indian Perspective by Himadri Banerji
 

Clean Coal Technology:Indian Perspective by Himadri Banerji

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The clean coal technology (CCT) market is likely to see substantial spending over the next decade as governments and industry alike invest in R&D, installation, and operation in this growing market. ...

The clean coal technology (CCT) market is likely to see substantial spending over the next decade as governments and industry alike invest in R&D, installation, and operation in this growing market. The emergence of clean coal technologies has created market opportunities for equipment manufacturers and utilities. Presented here is the Indian perspective from the talk given at TREC STEP program on invitation from E&Y at REC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012

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  •   Economics, R&D   The World Coal Institute noted that in 2003 the high cost of carbon capture and storage (estimates of US$ 150-220 per tonne of carbon, $40-60/t CO 2  - 3.5 to 5.5 c/kWh relative to coal burned at 35% thermal efficiency) made the option uneconomic. But a lot of work is being done to improve the economic viability of it, and the  US Dept of Energy   (DOE) was funding R&D with a view to reducing the cost of carbon sequestered to US$ 10/tC (equivalent to 0.25 c/kWh) or less by 2008, and by 2012 to reduce the cost of carbon capture and sequestration to a 10% increment on electricity generation costs.  These targets now seem very unrealistic.      A 2000 US study put the cost of CO 2  capture for IGCC plants at 1.7 c/kWh, with an energy penalty 14.6% and a cost of avoided CO 2  of $26/t ($96/t C). By 2010 this was expected to improve to 1.0 c/kWh, 9% energy penalty and avoided CO 2  cost of $18/t ($66/t C), but these numbers now seem unduly optimistic.   Figures from IPCC Mitigation working group in 2005 for IGCC put capture and sequestration cost at 1.0-3.2 c/kWh, thus increasing electricity cost for IGCC by 21-78% to 5.5 to 9.1 c/kWh. The energy penalty in that was 14-25% and the mitigation cost $14-53/t CO 2  ($51-200/tC) avoided. These figures included up to $5 per tonne CO 2  for transport and up to $8.30 /t CO 2  for geological sequestration. In 2009 the OECD’s International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated for CCS $40-90/t CO2 but foresees $35-60/t by 2030, and McKinseys estimated EUR 60-90/t reducing to EUR 30-45/t after 2030.

Clean Coal Technology:Indian Perspective by Himadri Banerji Clean Coal Technology:Indian Perspective by Himadri Banerji Presentation Transcript

  • Clean Coal Technology, The Indian Perspective:Challenges and Road MapPresented by Himadri Banerji at REC TREC on 25th Jan 2012 Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Coal The most Significant Source of EnergySome 23% of primary energy needs are met by coal and 39% of electricity isgenerated from coal.About 70% of world steel production depends on coal feedstock. Coal is the worldsmost abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel source.The International Energy Agency expects a 43% increase in its use from 2000 to2020.Burning coal produces about 12 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year which isreleased to the atmosphere, about 70% of this being from power generation.Other estimates put carbon dioxide emissions from power generation at one third ofthe world total of over 28 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • What are Clean Coal Solutions?A continuously developing range of technology solutionswhich improve the efficiency and environmental impactof using coal as an energy source.● Beneficiating coal (pre-combustion) – coal de-watering, washing and briquetting.● Efficient alternative uses of coal reserves – UCG, coalseam methane● Efficiency improvements of power plants (postcombustion)– Plant upgrades,● Supercritical and ultra supercritical plants.● Advanced technologies – IGCC, PFBC and IGFC● Super-Advanced Technologies – Carbon sequestrationor elimination Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Why are Clean Coal solutions so important?Dual Crisis - Energy crisis v Climate change crisisEnergy Crisis – Quick Stats (international Energy Agency, WEO 2006)•Global energy demand will increase by 70% by 2030.•70% of the increase will come from China and India.•Fossil fuels will account for 83% of global energy production.•Coal will makeup 25% of all fossil fuels used – The largest contributor.•Power generation will account for over 80% of increased Coal usage.Energy Crisis---Impacts and Concerns•Fear and uncertainty for growing economies on how to fuel their continuedeconomic success is rising.•Coal is the most abundant source of energy in the world and will be continued to beused as the major feedstock for electricity production for at least the next 30-40years Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • UNIVERSAL ENERGY ACCESS BY 2030There are estimates that more than 2 Billion people lack access to clean andmodern energy sources.In China, 423 Million people rely on conventionalbiomass for cooking applications.The corresponding number in India and Africa is 855 and 657 Millionrespectively.Almost 400 million Indians lack access to electricity. The per capita electricityconsumption of India is a measly 600 kWh as against over 12,000 for the US.Providing clean and cheap energy access is a major challenge, especially inthe developing countries. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • India’s Power Sector..Reliance on CoalAvailability of, and access to, electricity is a crucial element of modern economiesand it helps pave the way for human development.Accordingly, the power sector has been given a high priority in the national planningprocesses in India and a concerted focus on enhancing this sector has resulted insignificant gains in generation and availability of electricity in the years sinceindependence.Coal-based power has driven much of thegrowth in India’s power sector over the Currently, the power sector consumespast three decades. By 2004-05, coal and about 80% of the coal produced in thelignite accounted for about 57% of country. As the demand for electricityinstalled capacity (68 GW out of 118 GW) is expect to rise dramatically over theand 71% of generated electricity (424 TWh next decade, coal will continue to beout of 594 TWh) in the country; the dominant energy source. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • India’s Power Sector Reliance on Sub CriticalTechnologyThe Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has estimated that meeting electricitydemand over the next ten years will require more than doubling the existingcapacity, from about 132 GW in 2007 to about 280 GW by 2017, of which at least 80GW of new capacityis expected to be based on coal.Sub-critical pulverized coal (PC) combustion power plants manufactured by BharatHeavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) – based on technologies licensed from variousinternational manufacturers – have been the backbone of India’s coal-power sector. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • India’s Load Curve…Recipe for Disaster Can Smart Metering Help? Load Shedding Urban Centric Supply Tariff Distortion Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • History of Efficiencies of Indian Power Plants Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • The International Scene on Technology: Internationally Combustion based on supercritical steam, offering higher efficiencies than sub-critical PC, is a commercial technology. Ultra-supercritical PC, which offers even higher efficiency, is also being deployed, while oxy-fuel combustion for facilitating capture of carbon- dioxide (CO2) is under development. Integrated gasification with combined-cycle operation (IGCC), with significant potential for high efficiency and for cost-effective reduction of CO2 and other emissions, is likely to be commercially available in the near future. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Coal-fired power generation, thermal efficiency  OECD Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010, Tables 3.3.  PCC= pulverised coal combustion, AC= air-cooled, WC= water-cooled. country Technology Efficiency Projected efficiency with CCSAustralia Black ultra-supercritical WC 43% 33% Black supercritical WC 41% Black supercritical AC 39% own ultra-supercritical WC 35% 27% own supercritical WC 33% own supercritical AC 31%Belgium Black supercritical 45%China Black supercritical 46%Czech Republic own PCC 43% 38% own ICGG 45% 43%Germany Black PCC 46% 38% own PCC 45% 37%Japan, Korea Black PCC 41%Russia Black ultra-supercritical PCC 47% 37% Black supercritical PCC 42%South Africa Black supercritical PCC 39%USA Black PCC & IGCC 39% 39%USA (EPRI) Black supercritical PCC 41% Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Chaleenges to Development of Ultra Super Critical UnitsThe most important challenge is to develop materials towithstand the tough operating conditionsMain requirements:Creep rupture strength >100 MPa at 100,000 hrsResistance to fire side corrosion at elevated temperatures Resistance to steam side oxidation Good thermal conductivityLow coefficient of expansionGood manufacturabilityAmenable to casting, forging, welding, and manufactureof pipesand tubes Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Adv-USC MaterialsNickel based alloys have been developed for 700 °Capplication: IN 617, IN740, Alloy 263 and their variantsDevelopment is also in progress to develop improvedmaterials to meet specific objectives:12-15%Cr Advanced Martensitic Steels for temperatures up to 650 °CZ Phase strengthening steels up to 650 °CLow Nickel alloys for 700 °C to 710 °C Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Additional Challenges for Adv-USC in IndiaDeveloping indigenous processes and capacities forcomplex alloys and other materialsDeveloping technologies and vendors for castings, forgingsfor steam turbines and pipes and tubes for boilersDeveloping welding technologies for thick sections and fordissimilar metals in welded rotorsCharacterisation and long term testing of indigenouslyproduced materialsComponent testing facility for corrosion with Indian coalsDeveloping capabilities for ab initio design of equipmentlike boilers and steam turbines Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • India’s Energy Woes…An Ailing Power SectorIn the case of electric power, any increase in generationcapacity is more than offset by inefficiencies and wastage atevery stage — generation, transmission, distribution anddelivery.Without fixing these inefficiencies and wastage, increasinggeneration capacity and production is like filling a bucketfull of holes! Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • The key challenges facing India’s power sector :An urgent need to increase energy and electricity availability for humanand infrastructure development;Increasing energy security;Local environment protection and pollution control; andControl of greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide). Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • The key challenges facing India’s power sector •Generating utility-scale electricity from coal requires a range of tradeoffs – financial, natural resource, environmental, and social – and there is need to meet the requirements of a diverse set of stakeholders who have strong concerns about decisions made in this sector. •We need to cut down on transmission and distribution losses and •Untangle the environmental problems that coal mining has run into. •Policymakers have to balance the needs of development with environmental considerations. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Major Constraints in meeting these key challengesThe task of meeting these broad challenges is furthercomplicated by several constraints:Availability and quality of domestic coal;Limited financial resources;Inadequate technical capacity for R&D, manufacturing, andO&M; andThe institutional characteristics of the Indian power sector. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Options in Clean Coal Technology for India:Commercial supercritical combustion technology is the best option forIndia in the short-to-medium term.While gasification and advanced combustion technologies will bepotentially important options for the longer-term future, there aresignificant issues surrounding the current relevance of these emergingtechnologies for India, including uncertainties in technical and costtrajectory, suitability for Indian conditions, and timing of India’sgreenhouse-gas mitigation commitments. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Suggested Roadmap For India:implement the following roadmap:(a) improve the efficiency of the power system (generating stock, T&Dnetwork, and end-use sectors) to reduce the need for addition ingeneration capacity and therefore buy time formaking appropriate technology decisions;(b) implement supercritical-combustion-based generation plants tomeet capacity addition needs in the short-to-medium term; Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Suggested Roadmap For India:(c) enforce and tighten local environmental pollutioncontrols through better pollution control technologies andgreater and meaningful public participation; and(d) invest in a focused plan to examine geological carbonstorage options, with detailed assessment of CO2 storagelocations, capacity and storage mechanisms in order tocollect valuable information for India’s carbon mitigationoptions and inform future technology selection as well assiting decisions for coal-power plants. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • Suggested Roadmap For India:(e) Evaluate on an ongoing basis the appropriateness of emergingtechnologies for India through a monitoring and feasibilityassessment program, and(f) By advancing specific elements of these technologies and ensurethat they can be deployed as and when needed through(g) Strategic research, development, and demonstration program, in partnership with key actors from the coal and hydrocarbon mining, and the petrochemical industry;(h) Consolidate the existing coal-based R&D programs inindustry, research institutes, and academia under a common vision with specific objectives and plans for the future, and help make appropriate international linkages Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012
  • FundingGlobal transition to low carbon technologies is inherently an expensive option.For instance, most renewable sources are expensive as compared withconventional technologies.Wind is now almost cost competitive, but solar poweris very expensive; almost four times that of coal based power generation.Developing countries would be unable to undertake such a transition in theabsence of a global funding initiative to incentivize a large – scale deployment ofrenewable power.The present mechanisms such as CDM and World Bank/GEFfunded projects have only gone so far and are not adequate for large scaleadoption of renewable sources in developing countries. Presented by Himadri Banerji at REC- TREC Tiruchirapalli on 25th Jan 2012