www.opencoesione.gov.itwww.dps.tesoro.it/opencoesione   Open Data and the transparency   of the lists of beneficiaries of E...
Recovery.gov
Farmsubsidy.org
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives   The Digital Agenda   for Europe      .   “Turning government data into ...
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives      Re-use of Public Sector Information Directive (2003)      A common l...
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives      Structural Funds Regulation 2007-13      Art. 7 Reg. 1828 8 dic 2006...
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives    European Transparency Initiative (2008) - Indicative    table for sett...
A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy!                                                   ...
A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy!  Stewardship principle includes the actions and po...
An evaluation on thetransparency the lists ofbeneficiaries of EU RegionalPolicyThe goals•  To compare the performances of E...
EU Regional PolicyThe background!Common EU policy                                  Multilevel governanceall EU 27 Countrie...
Data collectionMethodology!     •  Web-based survey on availability and quality of the lists        of beneficiaries of EU ...
Data collectionStarting points of the web-based analysis!
Category)              Characteristics)             ETI)   Italy) EU27)Stewardship    Content)        Final&Beneficiary&& ...
Usefulnessvariables                    Category)                Characteristics)           ETI)   Italy)    EU27)         ...
Content (1/2)
Content (2/2)   )$$%&                                                                            )$$%&    -$%&            ...
Financial data (1/2)
Financial data (2/2)  ;::<#                                                                            ;::<#   A:<#       ...
Information quality (1/2)
Information quality (2/2)  ;::>#                                                                            ;::>#   J:>#  ...
Format (1/4) A score is assigned that is directly proportional to the degree of openness and re-usability of the informati...
Format (2/4)
Format (3/4)   100%                                                                           (!!"#    90%                ...
Format (4/4) October 2012
Search functions (1/2)
Search functions (2/2) ;::<#                                                                             ;::<#  B:<#      ...
Advanced functions (1/2)
Advanced functions (2/2)  ;::<#                                                                          ;::<#   J:<#     ...
ThreedifferentpublicationstrategiesFactor analysis!
Three different publication strategies Dimension 2    -3.0               Group 3         61%                              ...
Three different publication strategies 100% 80%          57% 60%                   73%                                    ...
Three different publication strategies100%                          12% 80%       89%                          41% 60%    ...
Towards the new RegulationEU rules and initiatives Art. 105 General Regulation (EC proposal) Machine-readable format: CSV,...
Towards thenew RegulationEU27 2007-2013 OPsaverage level ofcompliance with therequirements set by theRegulation for2014-20...
The path to a balanced approach                        Re-­‐user	                         centered	                     Da...
Some examples….                          Re-­‐user	                           centered	                                   ...
Open questions  •  How will these three different strategies evolve over time?  •  How do information management issues in...
Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe
Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe
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Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe

  1. 1. www.opencoesione.gov.itwww.dps.tesoro.it/opencoesione Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe! Luigi Reggi! Department for Cohesion and Economic Development! ! ! Croatia Study Visit! March 7, 2013! !
  2. 2. Recovery.gov
  3. 3. Farmsubsidy.org
  4. 4. Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives The Digital Agenda for Europe . “Turning government data into gold” E-government action plan 2011-2015 •  Improvement of Transparency •  Access to information on government laws and regulations, policies and finance •  Re-use of Public Sector Information
  5. 5. Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives Re-use of Public Sector Information Directive (2003) A common legislative framework regulating how public sector bodies should make their information available for re-use in order to remove barriers such as discriminatory practices, monopoly markets and a lack of transparency. In December 2011, the Commission presented an Open Data Package: 1.  A Communication on Open Data 2.  A proposal for a revision of the Directive, which aims at opening up the market for services based on public-sector information, by •  including new bodies in the scope of application of the Directive such as libraries (including university libraries), museums and archives; •  limiting the fees that can be charged by the public authorities at the marginal costs as a rule; •  introducing independent oversight over re-use rules in the Member States; •  making machine-readable formats for information held by public authorities the norm. 3.  New Commission rules on re-use of the documents it holds
  6. 6. Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives Structural Funds Regulation 2007-13 Art. 7 Reg. 1828 8 dic 2006 “the managing authority shall be responsible for organising the publication, electronically or otherwise, of 1. the list of beneficiaries, 2. the names of the operations and 3. the amount of public funding allocated to the operations”
  7. 7. Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives European Transparency Initiative (2008) - Indicative table for setting the list of beneficiaries of EU Funding
  8. 8. A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy! Government should consider Government Open  data  and   different users should only Public  Value  &   needs (public the  “invisible  publish data in Data  divide   value) and hand”  open, machine- provide also readable easy-to-access formats data in processed form Brito, 2007 Dawes and Helbig, 2010 (data divide) Robinson et al., 2009 Gurstein, 2011 Harrison et al, 2011
  9. 9. A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy! Stewardship principle includes the actions and policies addressed to data “care” and aiming to ensure information quality and detail, reduce the risk of misuse, and consequently increase users’ confidence in government information. Usefulness includes the creation of added value for citizens and enterprises and innovation promotion, thus understanding the actions aimed at making data more accessible to end-users. Source: Dawes, S: Stewardship and usefulness: Policy principles for information-based transparency. Government Information Quarterly 27, p. 381 (2010).
  10. 10. An evaluation on thetransparency the lists ofbeneficiaries of EU RegionalPolicyThe goals•  To compare the performances of EU MS & Regions•  To explore the information-based strategies that European public agencies are pursuing when publishing their data on the web
  11. 11. EU Regional PolicyThe background!Common EU policy Multilevel governanceall EU 27 Countries are involvedfull comparability: same rules Regional and/or National agencies are Managingand regulations Authorities of Operational ProgrammesMinimum set of informationrequired by the Regulation(Reg. No. 1828/2006 of 8 December 2006, art. 7) ⇒ They are free to decide the level of information disclosed in terms of detail, quality, access and visualization.
  12. 12. Data collectionMethodology! •  Web-based survey on availability and quality of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Regional Policy •  All EU Countries and Regions included •  434 Operational Programmes reviewed [European Commission - DG Regional Policy database] •  Starting point: EC DG Regional Policy and DG Employment dedicated portals •  Three waves: Oct 2010, Oct 2011, Oct 2012
  13. 13. Data collectionStarting points of the web-based analysis!
  14. 14. Category) Characteristics) ETI) Italy) EU27)Stewardship Content) Final&Beneficiary&& Yes) Av.)%) Av.)%) 100) 97)variables ) ) Project& Axis&& Yes)) ) 100) 65) 97) 45) ) Specific/Operat.&Objectives&& ) 52) 25) ) Intervention&Line&& ) 25) 15) ) Project&description& ) 12) 18) ) Award&and&payment&dates&& Yes) 75) 70) ) Project&start/end&dates& ) 2) 17) ) Status&(active/completed)& ) 6) 19) Financial)Data) Financial&value&allocated&& ) ) ) to&the&project& Yes) 100) 97) ) Payments& Yes) 65) 43) ) EU&coFfinancing&& ) 17) 37) ) National&coFfinancing&(or&other)&& ) 10) 12) Downloadable) PDF& ) 87) 64) file)format)) DOC& ) 0) 1) ) HTML&(single&page)& ) 6) 6) ) HTML&(multiple&pages)& ) 12) 23) ) XLS& ) 8) 31) ) CSV& ) 2) 1) ) XML,&JSON& ) 0) 0) ) RDF,&linked&data& ) 0) 0) Information) Last&update&date& Yes) 88) 91) Quality)) Update&frequency& ) 8) 19) ) Data&description& ) 12) 16) ) Fields&description&in&another&language&& ) 4) 13)October 2011 ) Number&of&clicks&from&home&page&<&3& ) 25) 65) &
  15. 15. Usefulnessvariables Category) Characteristics) ETI) Italy) EU27) Av.)%) Av.)%) DB)consultation)) SearchbyFundtype ) 6) 29) through)masks)) SearchbyProject ) 10) 27) ) SearchbyOP ) 2) 31) ) SearchbyAxis/Object./Action ) 6) 17) ) SearchbyBeneficiary ) 10) 13) ) SearchbyResources ) 2) 8) ) SearchbyTerritory/Area ) 10) 19) ) SearchbyProjectstatus ) 0) 7) Advanced) Georeferencingthroughmaps ) 0) 16) Functions) ) Visualisationthroughgraphsand ) 2) 17) otherelaborations ) DatawithsubEregionaldetail ) 29) 18) October 2011
  16. 16. Content (1/2)
  17. 17. Content (2/2) )$$%& )$$%& -$%& -$%& +$%& +$%& $%& $%& ,$%& !"#$%& ,$%& "#%& "-#)%& !$%& "(#)%& !$%& *+#*%& *+#-%& "$%& "$%& *$%& *$%& ($%& ($%& )$%& )$%& $%& $%& ./01&234564& ERDF- ./01&78964&/:& ERDF-EU .0/&234564& ESF .0/&78964&/:& ESF-EU Average Centralised Non-centralised ;8<3=456>>43?& @?<&A8<3=456>>43?& Italy Average Italy )$$%& +$%& ,$%& /:&MP8=4Q8R&($))& "$%& ($%& $%& B:& .2& CD& EF& //& GC& HI& @C& 2D& E/& ;J& 0I& .1& 1K& 0/& 02& C:& GD& H/& ;L& F1& 2/& 7D& MD& :I& /0& CN& O&($)$& )$$ +%&+%&")%&,%&,%&!,%&!)%&"!%&"*%&""%&""%&"*%&""%&""%&**%&*-%&(-%&*!%&**%&**%&**%&**%&*(%&"*%&(+%& $%& %& O&($))& )$$ +%&+%&,%&,%&,%&!,%&!*%&"-%&"%&""%&""%&""%&""%&""%&""%&*-%&*%&*"%&**%&**%&**%&**%&*(%&(-%&(+%& $%& %&
  18. 18. Financial data (1/2)
  19. 19. Financial data (2/2) ;::<# ;::<# A:<# A:<# C:<# C:<# >:<# >:<# =BJ@<# B:<# ?AJB<# B:<# =:J9<# =:<# ?9J@<# =:<# ?@J@<# @CJ=<# ?:<# ?:<# @:<# @:<# 9:<# 9:<# ;:<# ;:<# :<# :<# ERDF- 2/$,#%KGLMG# 2/$,#+ENMG#/4# ERDF-EU 2$/#%KGLMG# ESF- Italy 2$/#+ENMG#/4# ESF-EU Centralised Non-centralised EOKFGLMPPGKQ# .QO#REOKFGLMPPGKQ# Italy Average Average ;::<# C:<# B:<# /4#6DEFGHEI9:;;# ?:<# 9:<# :<# !"# $%# $&# (# )*# +*# ,-# .)# !/# 0# 1&# 2%# 34# 2,# %*# 5*# 1/# /$# )4# 4&# 6*# //# ",# %/# 5)# $/# )7# 8#9:;:# 9;<#=:<# ;:: >=<#>=<#>=<#>=<#?=<#=@<#=:<#=:<#=:<#=:<#?A<#?9<#@A<#?B<#@><#@C<#?C<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<# :<# <# 8#9:;;# ;:: ;:: ;:: >=<#>=<#>=<#>=<#B:<#=@<#=:<#=:<#=:<#=:<#?A<#?C<#?B<#?B<#@C<#@C<#@C<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<#9=<# :<# <# <# <#
  20. 20. Information quality (1/2)
  21. 21. Information quality (2/2) ;::># ;::># J:># J:># <:># <:># @:># @:># ?:># ?:># A:># A:># B:I:># =?IA># B:># 9JI;># B:># 9=I9># 9?I=># =:># 99I9># =:># 9:># 9:># ;:># ;:># :># :># ERDF- +,/#(KFLMF# +,/#6DNMF#+%# ERDF- EU ESF-Italy ,+#(KFLMF# ,+#6DNMF#+%# ESF-EU Centralised Non-centralised !DOKEFLMPPFKQ# 2QO#RDOKEFLMPPFKQ# Italy Average Average ;::># <:># ?:># +%#-CDEFGDH#9:;;# B:># 9:># :># !"# $%# !&# (# )*# +,# -.# ).# /# (+# /0# ,+# 1+# 2*# ,(# (.# %3# 4+# ,3# 5/# *.# 6.# 45# 13# *%# ++# *7# 8#9:;:# <=>#?@>#A:>#A:>#;@>#=B>#=<>#9A>#;@>#9<>#==>#;@>#=?>#9:>#;@>#;<>#9;># 9># ;@>#;@>#;@># :># ;B>#;@># <># :># :># 8#9:;;# <=>#?@>#A:>#A:>#A:>#B9>#=<>#=A>#==>#==>#==>#=;>#=;>#=:>#9<>#9=>#99>#;<>#;@>#;@>#;@>#;@>#;@>#;@># <># :># :>#
  22. 22. Format (1/4) A score is assigned that is directly proportional to the degree of openness and re-usability of the information provided. It takes into account whether the formats used are machine- readable, open or, at best, consistent with the linked data model. Format Score (%) PDF$ 16.7$ DOC$ 16.7$ HTML$(multiple$pages)$ 16.7$ HTML$(single$page)$ 33.3$ XLS$ 50.0$ CSV$ 66.7$ XML,$JSON$ 83.3$ Linked$data$model$supporting$format$(e.g.$RDF)$ 100.0$ $
  23. 23. Format (2/4)
  24. 24. Format (3/4) 100% (!!"# 90% A!"# 80% !"# 70% @!"# 60% &!"# 50% B!"# 40% %!"# C%JB"# 30,2% 30% 23,2% 23,1% C!"# 18,8% (AJC"# 20% $!"# 10% (!"# 0% !"# ERDF- ESF- Centralised Non-centralised ,EKLFGMNOOGLP# 9PK#QEKLFGMNOOGLP# italy Italia FESR FESR Media EU ERDF-EU FSE Italia FSE Media EU ESF-EU Average Italy Average Italy (!!"# !"# &!"# %!"# )6#8DEFGHEI#$!((# $!"# !"# ))# *+# ,-# ./# 01# 20# 34# .5# 3)# 06# 21# /)# *)# /1# 64# 7)# )3# 81# 74# 90# ,:# +5# ;1# 5<# =6# 0># 3/# ?#$!(!# (@"#$A"#B!"#B!"#B!"#B!"#B!"#%A"#CC"#$B"#$!"#$$"#%!"#$!"#$("#(A"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"# !"# !"# ?#$!((# &@"#B!"#B!"#B!"#B!"#B!"#B!"#%A"#CC"#$B"#$%"#$$"#$$"#$("#("#("#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"#(@"# !"# !"#
  25. 25. Format (4/4) October 2012
  26. 26. Search functions (1/2)
  27. 27. Search functions (2/2) ;::<# ;::<# B:<# B:<# =:<# =:<# @:<# @:<# >:<# >:<# A:<# A:<# C:<# C:<# 9@JB<# ?:<# 9;J=<# ?:<# 9:<# ;?J:<# 9:<# @J;<# @J9<# ;:<# ?J><# ;:<# :<# :<# ERDF- +*-.#,KGLMG# ERDF- EU +*-.#6ENMG#*"# ESF-Italy +-*#,KGLMG# ESF-EU +-*#6ENMG#*"# Centralised Non-centralised 2EOKFGLMPPGKQ# 0QO#REOKFGLMPPGKQ# Italy Average Average ;::<# =:<# >:<# C:<# *"#1DEFGHEI9:;;# 9:<# :<# !"# $%# &# ()# **# +,# -*# -,# +.# /$# ")# 0$# &*# /%# ,%# (*# 1%# 23# 24# *-# .# ,*# $"# $5# 6%# .7# -)# 8#9:;:# ;:: ==<# :<# >?<#@A<#A:<#A:<#;?<#?=<# :<# =<# ;=<# =<# :<# ><# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# <# 8#9:;;# ;:: ==<#@A<#>?<#A:<#A:<#A:<#A:<#?B<#?=<#9:<#;=<#;;<#;:<# ><# ;<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# <#
  28. 28. Advanced functions (1/2)
  29. 29. Advanced functions (2/2) ;::<# ;::<# J:<# J:<# A:<# A:<# >:<# >:<# =:<# =:<# @:<# @:<# B:<# B:<# ?:<# ?:<# 9?I=<# ;JI=<# 9:<# ;;IJ<# ;;I;<# 9:<# AI?<# AI;<# ;:<# ;:<# :<# :<# ERDF- )(-*#.KFLMF# ERDF- EU )(-*#6DNMF#("# ESF-Italy )-(#.KFLMF# ESF-EU )-(#6DNMF#("# Centralised Non-centralised 2DOKEFLMPPFKQ# /QO#RDOKEFLMPPFKQ# Italy Average Average ;::<# A:<# =:<# B:<# ("#1CDEFGDH#9:;;# 9:<# :<# !"# $%# &# ((# )*# +,# -.# /+# 0,# .,# $(# 1,# "# &(# 23# 24# (-# ).# %*# .(# +"# +5# 6,# 0+# *7# -(# -# 8#9:;:# ;:: ;:<#=><#??<#=@<#??<#??<#9><#;><# A<# ><# =<# @<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# <# 8#9:;;# ;:: =><#=><#=><#==<#??<#??<#9><#;><#;:<# ><# =<# =<# 9<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# :<# <#
  30. 30. ThreedifferentpublicationstrategiesFactor analysis!
  31. 31. Three different publication strategies Dimension 2 -3.0 Group 3 61% Group 1 18% Reuse-centred Regulation-centred Update and description -1.5 Ease of search Financial Resources XLS / CSV Content 0 Group 2 Research masks PDF User-centred Georeferencing HTML 1.5 21% 3.0 -1.5 0 1.5 3.0 4.5 Dimension 1
  32. 32. Three different publication strategies 100% 80% 57% 60% 73% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% Group 2-User-centred 24% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 14% 19% 14% 0% ERDF ESF 100% 80% 52% 67% 61% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% 20% Group 2-User-centred 20% 21% 27% 28% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 11% 8% 0% CONV RCE Cooperation
  33. 33. Three different publication strategies100% 12% 80% 89% 41% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% 60% Group 2-User-centred 44% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 57% 0% Decentralised Centralised100% 22% 80% 74% 23% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% Group 2-User-centred 54% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 19% 0% 7% EU15 NEW MSs
  34. 34. Towards the new RegulationEU rules and initiatives Art. 105 General Regulation (EC proposal) Machine-readable format: CSV, XML single national website or portal Mandatory data fields include • Beneficiary name (only legal entities; no natural persons shall be named); • Operation name; Operation summary; • Operation start date & Operation end date (expected date for physical completion or full implementation of the operation); • Total eligible expenditure allocated to the operation; • EU co-financing rate (as per priority axis); • Operation postcode; • Name of category of intervention for the operation; • Date of last update of the list of operations. • The headings of the data fields and the names of the operations shall be also provided in at least one other official language of the European Union.
  35. 35. Towards thenew RegulationEU27 2007-2013 OPsaverage level ofcompliance with therequirements set by theRegulation for2014-2020 !
  36. 36. The path to a balanced approach Re-­‐user   centered   Data quality Open, approach hi-quality, FOCUSED ON useful and Stewardship raw data, accessible advanced user, mash-up apps data Data visualization Closed data approach FOCUSED ON User   processed data, non centered   technically-oriented Regula<on   citizens centered   Usefulness
  37. 37. Some examples…. Re-­‐user   centered   IT BG EE Stewardship PL FR ES HU NL DE GR DK User   UK centered   Regula<on   centered   Usefulness
  38. 38. Open questions •  How will these three different strategies evolve over time? •  How do information management issues influence openness and transparency (e.g. centralization / decentralization)? •  What are the determinants of openness and transparency? For example: •  Regional context (size, innovation, ICT diffusion, etc.) •  Transparency and Democracy indicators •  Economic variables (amount of funding, FEIs vs. grants..) •  How to compare the performance of EU27 Regions and Member States? Composite indicator
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