Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneficiaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe
www.opencoesione.gov.itwww.dps.tesoro.it/opencoesione Open Data and the transparency of the lists of beneﬁciaries of EU Cohesion Policy in Europe! Luigi Reggi! Department for Cohesion and Economic Development! ! ! Croatia Study Visit! March 7, 2013! !
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives The Digital Agenda for Europe . “Turning government data into gold” E-government action plan 2011-2015 • Improvement of Transparency • Access to information on government laws and regulations, policies and ﬁnance • Re-use of Public Sector Information
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives Re-use of Public Sector Information Directive (2003) A common legislative framework regulating how public sector bodies should make their information available for re-use in order to remove barriers such as discriminatory practices, monopoly markets and a lack of transparency. In December 2011, the Commission presented an Open Data Package: 1. A Communication on Open Data 2. A proposal for a revision of the Directive, which aims at opening up the market for services based on public-sector information, by • including new bodies in the scope of application of the Directive such as libraries (including university libraries), museums and archives; • limiting the fees that can be charged by the public authorities at the marginal costs as a rule; • introducing independent oversight over re-use rules in the Member States; • making machine-readable formats for information held by public authorities the norm. 3. New Commission rules on re-use of the documents it holds
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives Structural Funds Regulation 2007-13 Art. 7 Reg. 1828 8 dic 2006 “the managing authority shall be responsible for organising the publication, electronically or otherwise, of 1. the list of beneﬁciaries, 2. the names of the operations and 3. the amount of public funding allocated to the operations”
Open Data & TransparencyEU rules and initiatives European Transparency Initiative (2008) - Indicative table for setting the list of beneﬁciaries of EU Funding
A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy! Government should consider Government Open data and different users should only Public Value & needs (public the “invisible publish data in Data divide value) and hand” open, machine- provide also readable easy-to-access formats data in processed form Brito, 2007 Dawes and Helbig, 2010 (data divide) Robinson et al., 2009 Gurstein, 2011 Harrison et al, 2011
A measure for Open Data qualityRelevant literature on open data policy! Stewardship principle includes the actions and policies addressed to data “care” and aiming to ensure information quality and detail, reduce the risk of misuse, and consequently increase users’ conﬁdence in government information. Usefulness includes the creation of added value for citizens and enterprises and innovation promotion, thus understanding the actions aimed at making data more accessible to end-users. Source: Dawes, S: Stewardship and usefulness: Policy principles for information-based transparency. Government Information Quarterly 27, p. 381 (2010).
An evaluation on thetransparency the lists ofbeneﬁciaries of EU RegionalPolicyThe goals• To compare the performances of EU MS & Regions• To explore the information-based strategies that European public agencies are pursuing when publishing their data on the web
EU Regional PolicyThe background!Common EU policy Multilevel governanceall EU 27 Countries are involvedfull comparability: same rules Regional and/or National agencies are Managingand regulations Authorities of Operational ProgrammesMinimum set of informationrequired by the Regulation(Reg. No. 1828/2006 of 8 December 2006, art. 7) ⇒ They are free to decide the level of information disclosed in terms of detail, quality, access and visualization.
Data collectionMethodology! • Web-based survey on availability and quality of the lists of beneﬁciaries of EU Regional Policy • All EU Countries and Regions included • 434 Operational Programmes reviewed [European Commission - DG Regional Policy database] • Starting point: EC DG Regional Policy and DG Employment dedicated portals • Three waves: Oct 2010, Oct 2011, Oct 2012
Data collectionStarting points of the web-based analysis!
Format (1/4) A score is assigned that is directly proportional to the degree of openness and re-usability of the information provided. It takes into account whether the formats used are machine- readable, open or, at best, consistent with the linked data model. Format Score (%) PDF$ 16.7$ DOC$ 16.7$ HTML$(multiple$pages)$ 16.7$ HTML$(single$page)$ 33.3$ XLS$ 50.0$ CSV$ 66.7$ XML,$JSON$ 83.3$ Linked$data$model$supporting$format$(e.g.$RDF)$ 100.0$ $
Three different publication strategies Dimension 2 -3.0 Group 3 61% Group 1 18% Reuse-centred Regulation-centred Update and description -1.5 Ease of search Financial Resources XLS / CSV Content 0 Group 2 Research masks PDF User-centred Georeferencing HTML 1.5 21% 3.0 -1.5 0 1.5 3.0 4.5 Dimension 1
Three different publication strategies 100% 80% 57% 60% 73% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% Group 2-User-centred 24% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 14% 19% 14% 0% ERDF ESF 100% 80% 52% 67% 61% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% 20% Group 2-User-centred 20% 21% 27% 28% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 11% 8% 0% CONV RCE Cooperation
Three different publication strategies100% 12% 80% 89% 41% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% 60% Group 2-User-centred 44% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 57% 0% Decentralised Centralised100% 22% 80% 74% 23% 60% Group 3- Regulation-centred 40% Group 2-User-centred 54% Group 1 - Reuse-centred 20% 19% 0% 7% EU15 NEW MSs
Towards the new RegulationEU rules and initiatives Art. 105 General Regulation (EC proposal) Machine-readable format: CSV, XML single national website or portal Mandatory data ﬁelds include • Beneﬁciary name (only legal entities; no natural persons shall be named); • Operation name; Operation summary; • Operation start date & Operation end date (expected date for physical completion or full implementation of the operation); • Total eligible expenditure allocated to the operation; • EU co-ﬁnancing rate (as per priority axis); • Operation postcode; • Name of category of intervention for the operation; • Date of last update of the list of operations. • The headings of the data ﬁelds and the names of the operations shall be also provided in at least one other ofﬁcial language of the European Union.
Towards thenew RegulationEU27 2007-2013 OPsaverage level ofcompliance with therequirements set by theRegulation for2014-2020 !
The path to a balanced approach Re-‐user centered Data quality Open, approach hi-quality, FOCUSED ON useful and Stewardship raw data, accessible advanced user, mash-up apps data Data visualization Closed data approach FOCUSED ON User processed data, non centered technically-oriented Regula<on citizens centered Usefulness
Some examples…. Re-‐user centered IT BG EE Stewardship PL FR ES HU NL DE GR DK User UK centered Regula<on centered Usefulness
Open questions • How will these three different strategies evolve over time? • How do information management issues inﬂuence openness and transparency (e.g. centralization / decentralization)? • What are the determinants of openness and transparency? For example: • Regional context (size, innovation, ICT diffusion, etc.) • Transparency and Democracy indicators • Economic variables (amount of funding, FEIs vs. grants..) • How to compare the performance of EU27 Regions and Member States? Composite indicator