Universities merging in France: the University of Lorraine as a case

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A Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (UTL) promoveu a 8 de março, no Auditório Lagoa Branca do Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (UTL), o workshop «A Fusão entre …

A Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (UTL) promoveu a 8 de março, no Auditório Lagoa Branca do Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (UTL), o workshop «A Fusão entre Universidades: Experiências Europeias», que contou com a presença de vários especialistas de renome internacional nesta temática entre eles o Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Presidente da Universidade de Lorraine, França, que proferiu a palestra "Universities merging in France: the University of Lorraine as a case".

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  • 1. Universities Merging in France Global evolution A Case Study : the University of Lorraine Jean-Pierre Finance, Provisional administrator of UdL Advisor for Europe of the CPU Lisbon, march 2012
  • 2. Transformationof the university -system in France : work in progress
  • 3. Brief History from 1793 to 2012
  • 4. Birth, death and resurrection13th Century: First universities in France1793: suppression of 22 universitiesFrom 1793 to 1968: no real universities in France : “Grandes Ecoles” (Polytechnique, Centrale, Mines,…) and independent faculties (law, medicine, humanities, sciences) Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 5. The “Republic” of Faculties and Écoles: Fragmentation of small structures Weakness and fragmentation of research units Lack of critical mass to face the new challenges of research  creation of national research bodies: CNRS created in1930, INSERM, INRA … Many competitions between institutions with the state as single refereee Atypical in the context of European and international trends (Humboltian university)
  • 6. Birth, death and resurrection 1968: New law (Faure) redefines “comprehensive universities” as public institutions based on several principles including autonomy and multidisciplinarity Strengths and weaknesses : – Good intentions: • The will to create «real universities» • The will to democratise (access) – But: • Over-bureaucratisation and inefficiencies, micro management by the ministry • Persistence of fragmentation with 3 types of institutions : universities (83), “Grandes Ecoles” outside universities (180), National research institutions (20) Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 7. A wide distribution of HE institutions on the territoryMarch 1st 2010 Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 8. Trends and Actions
  • 9. Context evolution Massification (from 600 000 students in 1965 to 2,2 millions today) New needs and new hopes (society, students, business, compagnies) Competition between universities : noteasy to be managed with a vision of public service Laws of decentralization : role of the other stakeholders (regions, other local collectivities) ?  International rankings (Shanghai, Times ...) Europe : Bologna process, knowledge triangle Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 10. France has to face many questions toimprove his HE system How to manage the balance between Competition and cooperation in the framework of a public service ? Laws of decentralization : role of the other stakeholders (regions, other local collectivities) ? Origin of funding and sustainability ? How to improve the attractiveness and the visibility of the French universities ? How to enhance the capacity of initiative and the efficiency of the universities ? What kind of autonomy for the French universities ? How to reconstruct the universities, and more generally the HE&R landscape ? Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 11. Main actions developped over the last 20years Four-year contracts between each university and State  emergence of institutional strategies, notably in research Shared labs with the national research bodies Creation of :  doctoral schools (~ 300),  incubators to support innovative start-ups…  poles of competitivity  National Agency for Research (ANR)  National Agency for University Evaluation (AERES) Emergence of a regional development policy Bologna process and Lisbon, 08-03-2012 the creation of the bachelor/master/doctorate (2002 -2005)
  • 12. Two main Laws for HE&R in France LRU : law on autonomy and accountability of the universities (august 2007), law of decentralization :  Statutory changes : governance  HR & financial autonomy  Funding increased by 1B€ per year during 5 years (in fact from 2008 to 2009, less in the following 3 years due to the crisis) Law on research (2006) with, in particular, the capacity to develop cooperation between universities and between universities and “grandes ecoles” through the PRES. Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 13. PRES : A strategic approach forneighbouring institutionsTo avoid needless competition  a forum for building consensus and regulationTo reinforce visibility  identification and communicationTo reach critical mass and increase scientific impact Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 14. PRES : A large diversity Various size of territory :  City  Region Inter Region Transfrontier Several type of missions :  Mutualize the best jewels (labs, doctoral school ..)  Organize common facilities and services  Support joint projects  Prepare the merging Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 15. State of the PRES Today (about 20) Lisbon, 08-03-2012 15
  • 16. Two important initiatives of the government Main objectives :  To promote “world champions” at international level  To enhance the scientific quality of the French HE&R system Campus Operation :  Distinguish 12 “campus of excellence”  5Md€ mobilized for real estate and site architecture operations Investments for the Future :  35 Md€ mobilized, including 22 Md€ for HE&R  Many call for projects :  Excellence laboratories  Excellence research equipment  Technological Research Institutes  Excellence initiative Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 17. Two important initiatives of the government(follow) Consequences for the university system organisation :  For the operation campus : the project leader should be a PRES  For the initiative of excellence :  The main criteria were the strength of the research, the critical mass and the quality of the governance  Thus, the last criteria implies an engagement of merging the institutions concerned, if it was not yet the case. Finally, for the 8 winners of IDEX :  2 of then have already merge : Strasbourg and Marseille  6 should do the same within the next years (if possible ???) Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 18. The University of Lorraine as a case study of universities merging
  • 19. The original universityorganisation in Lorraine 19
  • 20. LorraineLisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 21. Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 22. Universities in LorraineNancy:  Creation of the university in 1572 (Art, Theology, Medicine and Law) 1850  1968: 4 faculties (law, medicine - pharmacy, sciences, humanities) and 6 engineering schools,1 school of management and 3 schools independent of the university (forestry, architecture, arts) Lisbon, 08-03-2012 22
  • 23. Universities in Lorraine (3 in Nancy)Nancy: 1970  2008 : Creation of 3 «real» universities (public institutions, legal personality) • Henri Poincaré, Nancy1: sciences, technology (including 3 engineering schools), health. 19 000 students, 3 000 staff including 1 500 academics • Nancy 2: humanities, law, economy, management. 18 000 students, 1 300 staff including 650 academics • INPL: 7 engineering schools, 3 500 students. 1 100 staff including 650 academics Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 24. Universities in Lorraine ( 1 in Metz) Metz (60 km from Nancy): –  1970 A branch of the Strasbourg university – 1970  2008 : new university, comprehensive (but without health sciences), no school within the university, 14 000 students Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 25. Universities in Lorraine (1970 2004) Facets of competition :  Creation of new study programmes leading to redundancies, especially between Nancy and Metz  Access to same regional funding sources But also aspects of cooperation :  In Nancy: many research labs are shared  Graduate schools (écoles doctorales) created in 1999 : 7 out of 8 are shared by the 4 universities  In 2004 : shared willingness to make more coherent the education curricula Lisbon, 08-03-2012 25
  • 26. Why an unique university in Lorraine ? To face as one university the national, European and international competition To enhance recognition, reputation, attractiveness To promote regional economic and social development ( Lorraine being in trouble from an economical and demographical point of view) To increase responsiveness based on different SWOT analyses (demography, economic context, competition...) Lisbon, 08-03-2012 26
  • 27. Objectives To develop a full comprehensive university, associating engineering and academic domains, with two missions :  International excellence  Territorial excellence To reinforce visibility, transparency and attractiveness both for education and research To enhance the efficiency To increase critical mass and scientific impact To share, merge and reinforce services and activities in order to do more, better and fasterTo coordinate 2008, Nancy-Université, cooperation and competition 21 June and develop ambitious strategies Lisbon, 08-03-2012 27
  • 28. A series of steps Implementing a coordinated 4-year contract with the state in 2005-2008 focused on a common research strategy at regional level Creation of the “PRES Nancy-University” in 2007 A joint project to answer to the “campus call for project” (2008) A decree changed the PRES into a new one at regional level : PRES of “the University of Lorraine” (October 2009, still as an “EPCS”) Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 29. Identification of locking risk Many fears :  From the scientific communities (e.g. humanities)  From the people (e.g. administrative staff) Will not lose any privileges/rigths (engineers, lawyers, doctors ..) Willingness to respect the territorial balances Oppositions between various visions of the university Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 30. Cautious approach, progressive and sustained (1) Study the conditions for merging into a new university : witch kind of organisation and governance ? Need to derogate with the general law (LRU) partially should be taken into consideration Reminding of this project is not imposed by either the government or by the communities Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 31. Cautious approach, progressive and sustained (2) Design principles :  Assume and manage internal diversity  Proximity  Territoriality  Accountability  Internal coherence  Subsidiarity  Quality of services  Reactivity  Academic collegiality and democracy Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 32. Cautious approach, progressive and sustained (3) To elaborate an original university model To involve many faculties and staff members :  The 4 councils of the existing universities  A steering group with the 4 university presidents  A lot of working groups :  Governance and organisation  Human resources  Research  Education …  Many discussions with the community  Communication with stakeholders and ministry Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 33. Cautious approach, progressive and sustained (4) In January 2010 : transition from the “mode hypothesis” to the “mode project”, with a retro schedule leading to January 1st 2012 Prepare the merging  Future administrative organisation  New rules  Process to follow the evolution Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 34. Elaboration of an original university model 34
  • 35. Let’s recall : Overall Figures• Students • Bachelor : 29 500 • Masters : 15 700 • Engineers : 3 500 • PhD : 1 800 • Others : 3 000• staff : • Academic and teachers : 3721 • Administrative and technical : 3064 Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 36. Let’s recall : Structuration46 internal components : Real Estate :- 10 Engineers Schools 58 implantations- 8 Polytechnics- 28 FacultiesResearch and Doctoral studies :- 65 labs organized in 10 scientific domains- 8 Graduate Schools Lisbon, 08-03-2012-
  • 37. First organisational principles With 45 faculties, Engineer Schools and Polytechnics; and about 65 labs it was decided : To accept, but not to oblige the fusion of such internal structures : more precisely, the fusion should not directly modify the basic structures of the university (if they don’t want to do) To introduce an intermediate structuration in order to be able to manage such number of basic components : The collegiums, grouping faculties, polytechnics and/or Engineers Schools The Scientific Poles, grouping labs Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 38. A Two dimensional organisation 8 Collégiums IAEM BMS10 scientific poles MMM Law Engineers Health Economy Humanities Schools Manag. 38 Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 39. Other organisational principles Toward a single public institution with legal statut Precisely define the internal subsidiarity Accept derogation to the law : special statutes of “Grand Etablissement” Taking the time to gain the support of the faculty, staff and students Double structuration : collegiums and poles Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 40. Collegium Beyond the simple coordination and harmonization, it has a decisive role It allocates resources (jobs, credit) that are assigned among its constituents, maintaining its own share of budget It approves agreements and conventions to matters that concern them Administrative services remain light. It is based on platforms of site administrative and financial Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 41. The 8 Collegiums  Engineering Science Technology Health Sciences Law, Economy, Management  Arts, Humanities, Languages  Social Sciences  Interface Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 42. The 10 Scientific Poles A2F : Agronomy, Agribusiness Forest BMS : Biology, Medicine, Health CLCS : Knowledge, Language, Communication, Companies CPM : Chemistry and Molecular Physics EMPP : Energy, Mechanics, Processes, Products GSC : Geosciences IAEM : Computer Science, Control, Electronics and Mathematics M4: Material, Materials, Metallurgy, Mechanics SJPEG : Legal Science, Policy, Economics and Management TELL : Time, Space, Literature, Languages Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 43. Central Organisation Board : President, Vice presidents, heads of the collegiums and of the scientific poles Administration Council Research Council Education Council Council of the university life Senate Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 44. Evolution of Tools and Methods  First : 4 different ruling process (notably in GRH) : Process Political decisions Huge converging process : Process  working group focusing on jobs Tools (information system) Political choices (bonus,work time, statuts) Should be followed in 2012 and more Positive point : Arbitration legal framework Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 45. Administrative organisation  Part of 2011 has been devoted to : Préparation of the organising the administrative services The setting-up of administrative and financial plate-form to welcome the staff to be reallocated The new organisation will be set-up progressively in 2012 16 directions Geographical reallocations, new services Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 46. Agenda (1)  September 2008 : first steps January 2010 : « mode project » January 26th 2011 : affirmative vote of the 4 administration councils July 26th 2011 : Positive opinion of the State Council September 24th 2001: publication of the decree creating the Université de lorraine October 2011 : Provisional administrator, provisional council Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 47. Agenda (2)  January 1st, 2012 : the Université de Lorraine, is the single university in Lorraine January, February, March : elections Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 48. By way of a conclusion Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 49. Some remarks on the process (1/2)Summon up all Presidents’ energy on political projectand on arbitration on organisationFears of various members of the Academic communities Against LRU in 2007, then … don’t accept any derogation in 2011! (paradoxe) Some students : against well established institutions « grand établissements » because of the registration fees and selection (December 2011 : summary proceedings from UNEF at the Council of State) Fears of changing even if a lot guarantees have been given Arbitration to intervene on time scheduled andcomposative policy Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 50. Some remarks on the process (2/2)Complex process, risk of major deadlocks severaltimes (sit-in in the Management board, NationalCouncilof the universities, appeals from the studentsagainst the decree, appeals against elections)A lot of supports : Local/ regional Authorities Ministry EPST (RTO)Demand to slow down the process but the Agendahas been respected Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 51. PRES of the University of Lorraine : Missions (1)As a facilitator to build the future university : – To accompany the political approach leaded by the presidents of the 4 universities – To support the design and the implementation of the future university – To manage many working groups – To organize the communication – To Speed up the merger of administrative services Lisbon, 08-03-2012 51
  • 52. PRES of the University of Lorraine : Missions (2)As a federation of universities : – Organise the strategic development on behalf of the four institutions – Ensure the implementation and management of shared services, resources and equipment – Prepare the next 4-years contract with the State – Negotiate contracts with partners, on behalf of the founding institutions – Develop activities to increase international visibility – Promote student mobility within Lorraine and coordinate student support service Lisbon, 08-03-2012 52
  • 54. Expected resultsCapacity to take into account the great diversity of French universities : – Each university should be able to develop its own strategy, according to the local , national and international context – Developing several type of excellence (question : place of international rankings ?) – BUT : maintaining a national general framework based on shared values (education is a public good, public service …) Lisbon, 08-03-2012
  • 55. Au départ : une analyse croisée Plus ou moins Secteurs scientifiques GSC A2F CPM MMM EMPP IAEM BMS SJPE L2SH de transversalité G IUFM Science Répartie s « Grandes » composantes 1 Ecoles 1 IUT 0 5 0 10 Santé 0 20 0 Droit Eco. Effectifs EC Gestio n SH Concentrée L.L. Lisbon, 08-03-201208-07-201030-04-2010 55