Citizen Shift Media in Action WorkshopPresentation Transcript
WELCOME to CitizenSHIFT’s Media in Action Workshop!
Your guides today are:
Who Are You?! Why Are You Here?!
Today You Will…
Learn how to “read” media by deconstructing and discovering the real messages of media.
Learn filmmaking basics - how to create visual media with powerful messages.
Learn how to use social media to interact with your community and students.
Learn about the abundance of resources to teach media, critique, produce and share media.
Let’s Talk Media
Tech literacy Vs. Media Literacy
Before you create media, understand how to “read” media
Share resources and learn how to find resources on your own.
DON’T BE AFRAID OF TECHNOLOGY!
Teachers – Understand the world your students are living in. They are “digital natives”.
Community workers – Do not underestimate the importance of media production and social media to attain your goals.
DIGITAL NATION - Frontline
5 questions to ask when deconstructing and analyzing media
Who created this message?
What techniques are used to attract my attention?
How might different people understand this message differently from me?
What lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message?
Why was this message sent?
Deconstruct these Ads
Spoof Ads www.adbusters.org
Media Awareness Network Tools, Lesson Plans and Activities
Shot: a shot corresponds to the length of film that is exposed during production as it is run through the camera from the time the camera is turned on until it is turned off. It is essentially defined from one cut to the next.
Cut: The transition from one shot to the next shot. Dividing a moment in time on film. Cuts can be accentuated by different types of transitions (dissolves, fades, wipes, etc.)
Framing : The way in which subjects and objects are depicted within a shot which produces specific readings of the content (the way the camera is positioned, angle or type of shot).
Mise-en-scène : This is what takes place on the set itself, as opposed to during editing – all of the different elements that comprise a shot. The direction of actors, placement of cameras, choice of lenses, sets and lighting, etc.
Dissolve: In a dissolve a first image gradually dissolves or fades out and is replaced by another which fades in over it. This type of transition, which is known also as a soft transition (as opposed to the cut), suggests a longer passage of time than a cut.
Fade in and Fade out : The screen is black at the beginning; gradually the image appears, brightening to full strength. The opposite occurs in the fade out.
Establishing Shot : A shot, normally taken from a distance that establishes where the action is about to occur. A film will often begin with an establishing shot. Close-up : A shot taken at close range, sometimes only inches away from a subject’s face, an object, or some other item of significance, used to focus attention on this particular item.
Extreme Close-Up: Exaggerated proximity to an object showing significant detail. Even closer than a close-up.
Long shot : Subject or characters are at some distance from the camera; they are seen in full within their surrounding environment.
Medium Shot : A shot that frames subjects, usually from the waist up.
Medium Long shot : Halfway between a long and a medium shot. If this shot frames a character then the whole body will be in view towards the middle ground of the shot.
Eyeline matching : Based on the belief in mainstream cinema that when a character looks into off-screen space, the spectator expects to see what he or she is looking at.
Match-cut: Two shots are shown back to back and a relationship is suggested between them. Ex: A person opening a door and a close-up of the person’s hand turning a door-knob.
Follow shot/Tracking shot : A pan, zoom , or dolly which follows the subject as it moves.
Over-the-Shoulder Shot : A shot of one subject taken from over the shoulder of another. This type of shot is usually used in the context of a discussion between two people.
Point of view shot : (Often abbreviated as P.O.V.) A shot which shows the scene from the specific point of view of one of the characters or the camera (in documentary this would be the filmmaker’s perspective).
Pan : Movement of the camera from left to right or right to left.
Tilt: The camera tilts up or down.
Zoom-in and Zoom-out : A way of focusing in or away from a point.
What to look for when analyzing a film clip:
What are some of the unique characteristics of this clip?
How do these techniques contribute to the story?
Are these techniques effective in producing an emotional response?
What other messages do the shots convey?
Who are the characters and what do we know about them from this clip alone?
What other elements stand out?: Music? Dialogue? Costumes? Lighting? Sets?
“ I’ve Seen It All” performed by BJORK from Dancer in the Dark (Lars Von Trier, 2000) Watch this clip and identify the different types of shots. How many different shots are there? What is the effect of the shots independently vs. together? What genre of film is this? What other cinematic elements are important in this clip?
Public Service Announcements
ACTIVITY: PRODUCE A PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT
Make a PSA that is no more than 1 minute long! (30 seconds is ideal).
Break into groups of 2-3 people.
2. Brainstorm an idea. If you cannot think of anything, use these questions as a guideline for a topic:
Who is in you family? Do you know their history? Is there anyone in your life (family, friends, etc.) who means something to you?
If you were a world leader, what’s the first thing you would do?
If you could go back 100 years in time, what would you change?
If you could be the inventor of anything (ex: telephone, trains, computers, etc.) what would it be and why?
A PSA which is a call to action to promote your cause or organization.
You Must Use:
5 different shots (ex: one close-up, one medium-shot, establishing shot, etc.)
5 different online sources (ex: photos, archival images, graphics, etc.)
SOUND ! (Music, narration, sound effects, etc.)
3. Create a Storyboard and a Shot List
4. Go out and use your camera to shoot the video portions and then the computer to locate your online sources.
Effective PSAs are:
generally 30 seconds long
have a targeted audience
grab the viewers’ attention
make one point
propose a specific action to the audience (stop smoking, help save water, etc.)
give accurate facts
include contact information for follow-up
*Remember – you are shooting for the web so it changes things a bit. You will likely be fitting your images into a small screen so keep that in mind when making aesthetic decisions. For example, no big, long establishing shots with lots of visual elements*
** Keep in mind your time and location limitations**
**Remember to consider Copyright laws. If your piece is going to be shown to the public you must use open source material***
Open Source Cinema and the documentary film: A Remix Manifesto 2.0
Produced by the Children’s Media Project
Media in Action! Now that you have learned how images are created and how to deconstruct them, it’s time for you to produce your own images and messages: 1. Divide into groups 2. Brainstorm a simple topic that is socially relevant. 3. Being aware of the medium you are working with, come up with a shot list. 4. Storyboard each shot. 5. Assemble your images in an editing program. 6. Edit them together according to your storyboard (as much as possible). 7. Add sound or any other extra elements. 8. Convert your file to a viewable format (mov, mp4, avi, etc.) 9. Upload it to YouTube, CitizenShift or other social media sites. 10. Point people to the URL and encourage them to leave comments and discuss the topic!
PSA Script Samples
GUIDELINES AND TIPS FOR SHOOTING:
Double-check that your camera batteries are fully charged before you begin shooting. If possible, bring extra batteries with you.
After you press record, count to 10 before beginning any movement or dialogue. Similarly, count to 10 at the end of each shot, before stopping the camera. This will make editing your piece much easier.
Keep digital zooming (zooming in and out) and camera pans (moving the camera from one side to the other) to a minimum. When you zoom or pan to much, you lose the audience’s attention).
Whenever possible and appropriate, use a tripod when filming.
Try shooting each shot from 2 different angles (for easier editing)
Make sure you are not shooting into the sun, otherwise your actors will be in silhouette. This is true shooting in a sunny room as well as outside.
Understand the Rule of Thirds: A good guideline for composing your shots is the rule of thirds. This means that you should imagine your frame into thirds, with actions and objects placed at the intersections of the vertical and horizontal thirds.
Learn about the person before the interview and plan a general outline of questions.
Be conscious of the placement of your subject in relation to the camera.
Before beginning your interview it is important to record your interviewee providing consent and details about themselves (name, occupation, date).
Avoid “yes” or “no” questions. You are aiming to get your interviewee to give full and complete answers that you can use to tell your story. Be careful not to ask leading questions.
Explain to your interviewee how to incorporate your questions into their answers.
Even if you have shot excellent visual footage it can be useless without good sound. Always use your headphones, so you can hear precisely what the camera is recording. Our hearing filters out noises
that a microphone will pick up (e.g. air-conditioning or electrical hum). If you have poor sound, there is little you can do to salvage your footage.
Avoid cutting immediately to a shot of the same thing, as this will give you a ‘jump’ cut. First cut to a shot of a different subject, then cut back to the first subject.
Most transitions between shots should be cuts. Avoid using ‘wacky’ transitions.
Special effects of any kind will remain special by using them at a minimum.
Make sure your sound levels (music, narration, sound effects) are well-balanced.
Time to edit your PSA but first, a little inspiration from home… WHAT’S YOUR PROBLEM By Angela Brown (sign-in to Facebook required to view this film) Created by a participant of Next-Gen NDG