DIGITAL MEDIA FOR THE CLASSROOM: How to Tell your Story Using Film, Photography, Blogs and PodcastsPart 1 – Friday April 29, 2011Part 2 – Friday May 6, 2011 APOP – L’Association pour les applications pédagogiques de l’ordinateur au postsecondaire Reisa Levine – Web & Educational Media Producer firstname.lastname@example.org @reisa101http://www.delicious.com/reisa101
CLASS 2 Friday May 6, 10:30am – 12 :00pm The Production Process More Ideas for Classroom Activities The Production Process Scripting/Storyboarding Shooting Editing Sharing Resources
Before you create media, understand how to “read” media
Share resources and learn how to find resources on your own.
Teachers – you know the ‘what and why’s’ behind the lessons, students know the ‘how’s to use the tools… let them take the lead on this.
5 questions to ask when deconstructing and analyzing media Who created this message? What techniques are used to attract my attention? How might different people understand this message differently from me? What lifestyles, values and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message? Why was this message sent?
Who are the characters and what do we know about them from this clip alone?
What other elements stand out?: Music? Dialogue? Costumes? Lighting? Sets?
http://vimeo.com/21164913 Engineerby Michael Yaroshevskyand Diego Rivera Kohn
How You Can Use Digital Stories Projects and activities based on subject matter Group building Chronicling a series of events (timeline), a personal history, changes over time Raise awareness for your organization or group Campaign for social change Public Service Announcement Publicity for an event Promote a product
The phases of ‘classic’ Digital Storytelling process – as per the Center for Digital Storytelling Brainstorming - (the story circle – sharing ideas and discussion) Scripting – write a 200 – 300 word script to become the audio baseline Storyboarding – adding images to the audio storyline Recording & Editing – using your preferred software tools Fine Tuning, Titling, Exporting – finalizing the works Burning & Sharing – on to DVD and/or the Web
The Production Process - Scripting/Storyboarding - Shooting - Editing - Sharing
7 Basic Elements to any ‘effective’ digital story Point of View – Who is the narrator and why is he/she talking to us? Dramatic Question – Desire – Action - Realization Emotional Content – What are the emotions associated with your narrative? The Gift of your Voice – What does your narrator sound like? The Power of the Soundtrack – What music sets the mood for your story? Economy – Keep it short and succinct. Pacing – The rhythm of the story helps set the tone Source – Digital Storytelling Cookbook
Scripting The focus should be on the story part ! Story Mapping
Storyboarding How to compose your shots Think creatively Use a combination of shots: establishing shots, close-up’s, medium shots, ‘B-role’ complimentary footage, etc Use text, found footage/photos (Avoid copyrighted materials – use Creative Commons and other open repositories) Use sound effects, narration, music etc
Shot: a shot corresponds to the length of film that is exposed during production as it is run through the camera from the time the camera is turned on until it is turned off. It is essentially defined from one cut to the next.
Cut: The transition from one shot to the next shot. Dividing a moment in time on film. Cuts can be accentuated by different types of transitions (dissolves, fades, wipes, etc.)
Framing: The way in which subjects and objects are depicted within a shot which produces specific readings of the content (the way the camera is positioned, angle or type of shot).
Mise-en-scène : This is what takes place on the set itself, as opposed to during editing – all of the different elements that comprise a shot. The direction of actors, placement of cameras, choice of lenses, sets and lighting, etc.
Dissolve: In a dissolve a first image gradually dissolves or fades out and is replaced by another which fades in over it. This type of transition, which is known also as a soft transition (as opposed to the cut), suggests a longer passage of time than a cut.
Fade in and Fade out: The screen is black at the beginning; gradually the image appears, brightening to full strength. The opposite occurs in the fade out.
Establishing Shot: A shot, normally taken from a distance that establishes where the action is about to occur. A film will often begin with an establishing shot. Close-up: A shot taken at close range, sometimes only inches away from a subject’s face, an object, or some other item of significance, used to focus attention on this particular item.
Extreme Close-Up: Exaggerated proximity to an object showing significant detail. Even closer than a close-up. Long shot: Subject or characters are at some distance from the camera; they are seen in full within their surrounding environment.
Medium Shot: A shot that frames subjects, usually from the waist up. Medium Long shot: Halfway between a long and a medium shot. If this shot frames a character then the whole body will be in view towards the middle ground of the shot.
Eyeline matching: Based on the belief in mainstream cinema that when a character looks into off-screen space, the spectator expects to see what he or she is looking at.
Match-cut: Two shots are shown back to back and a relationship is suggested between them. Ex: A person opening a door and a close-up of the person’s hand turning a door-knob.
Follow shot/Tracking shot: A pan, zoom, or dolly which follows the subject as it moves.
Over-the-Shoulder Shot: A shot of one subject taken from over the shoulder of another. This type of shot is usually used in the context of a discussion between two people.
Point of view shot: (Often abbreviated as P.O.V.) A shot which shows the scene from the specific point of view of one of the characters or the camera (in documentary this would be the filmmaker’s perspective).
Pan: Movement of the camera from left to right or right to left.
Zoom-in and Zoom-out: A way of focusing in or away from a point.
Shooting - The Production Process Cameras, mics & other equipment (with external sound in jack) ‘Pocket’ video cameras (several on the market, HD video, some with external sound inputs, under $200 - example: The Kodak Zi8 pocket HD cam) ‘Prosumer’ type mini DV (or memory card) video camera Your photo camera’s video mode or your cell phone Use an external microphone if possible (get good sound ! This is crucial – use headphones to monitor levels) Location scouting Composing your shots Use a tripod whenever possible Don’t forget; batteries, and to charge your cameras/recorders !
Double-check that your camera batteries are fully charged before you begin shooting. If possible, bring extra batteries with you.
After you press record, count to 5 before beginning any movement or dialogue. Similarly, count to 5 at the end of each shot, before stopping the camera. This will make editing your piece much easier.
Keep digital zooming (zooming in and out) and camera pans (moving the camera from one side to the other) to a minimum. When you zoom or pan to much, you lose the audience’s attention).
Whenever possible and appropriate, use a tripod when filming.
Try shooting each shot from 2 different angles (for easier editing)
Make sure you are not shooting into the sun, otherwise your actors will be in silhouette. This is true shooting in a sunny room as well as outside.
Understand the Rule of Thirds: A good guideline for composing your shots is the rule of thirds. This means that you should imagine your frame into thirds, with actions and objects placed at the intersections of the vertical and horizontal thirds.
Editing Free and easy to use software: imovie (Mac) Movie Maker (PC) Online editing tools YouTube File formats and transcoding - It’s an issue ! (Think about this at the beginning of the production process).
About codecs What format does your camera take pictures in? What format does your camera take video in? The format is the extension after the . (examples: mov, wmv, avi, flv) About iTunes, MovieMaker and format compatibility Transcoding - http://www.convertfiles.com/
Avoid cutting immediately to a shot of the same thing, as this will give you a ‘jump’ cut. First cut to a shot of a different subject, then cut back to the first subject.
Most transitions between shots should be cuts. Avoid using ‘wacky’ transitions. (Stay away from ‘clichés!)
Special effects of any kind will remain special by using them at a minimum.
Make sure your sound levels (music, narration, sound effects) are well-balanced.
Working with Sound Recording and editing a script or soundtrack Podcasting The art of radio, interviews and syndicated programming Sound Scapes Great for focusing on listening skills (describe a place through sound) Audio Editing Tools: Audacity (free, all platforms) Ardour (Mac, Linux) WavePad (PC) Adobe Audition (more expensive) GarageBand (on Macs)
Sharing Put your film online (YouTube, Vimeo, Facebook, other site) Share in your blog Help spread the word – newsletters, emails, Facebook, Twitter, other social networks A note about Internet Privacy…. Think about the impact of posting your digital stories on the World Wide Web
Resources This PowerPoint presentation can be found on My slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/reisa101/apop-digital-mediafortheclassroom My bookmarks for Digital Storytelling Sites: http://www.delicious.com/reisa101/digitalstorytelling CitizenShift Educational Resources: http://citizenshift.org/trainingresources The Center for Digital Storytelling - http://www.storycenter.org/index1.html VoiceThread - https://voicethread.com/?#q.b46225.i249486 SFETT - http://www.sfett.com/html_movie/Ican2/Bee.html Learning through digital storytelling- Article by SharynMehner DigiTales - http://www.digitales.us/gallery/other_story_sites.php The Workbook Project - Culture Hacking - a ‘new’ way of looking at digital storytelling - Background article by Pheobe, Tedx talk by Elan Lee