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  • 1. READING IMAGES: THEGRAMMAR OF VISUAL DESIGN(GUNTHER KRESS AND THEO VAN LEEUWEN) por Erika Soares
  • 2. INTRODUCTION: THE GRAMMAR OFVISUAL DESIGN•FOCUS ON GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX(FORMAL)•NOT MUCH ATTENTION HAS BEEN PAID TOTHE MEANINGS OF REGULARITIES IN THEWAY IMAGE ELEMENTS ARE USED•VISUAL STRUCTURES POINT TOPARTICULAR INTERPRETATIONS OFEXPERIENCE AND FORMS OF SOCIALINTERACTION
  • 3. •MEANINGS BELONG TO CULTURERATHER THAN TO SPECIFIC SEMIOTICMODES•EXPRESSING SOMETHING VERBALLY ORVISUALLY MAKES A DIFFERENCE•VISUAL COMMUNICATION: MARGINALIZEDIF COMPARED TO WRITING
  • 4. •VISUAL GRAMMAR: GENERAL GRAMMAROF CONTEMPORARY VISUAL DESIGN INWESTERN CULTURES•VISUAL LANGUAGE: CULTURALLYORIENTED•WESTERN DESIGN – CULTURALCONNECTION AND INTERCHANGE +GLOBAL POWER OF THE WESTERN MASSMEDIA AND CULTURE INDUSTRIES ANDTHEIR TECHNOLOGIES
  • 5. •UNITY OF LANGUAGES = THEORY + SOCIALAND CULTURAL HISTORIES.VISUAL COMMUNICATION – HAS DEVELOPEDMORE FREELY THAN LANGUAGE.DOMINANT VISUAL LANGUAGE: CONTROLLEDBY GLOBAL EMPIRES OF THE MASS MEDIA
  • 6. •DEVELOPMENT OF SEMIOTICS: THREESCHOOLS PRAGUE SCHOOL (30s and 40s): RUSSIAN FORMALISTS PARIS SCHOOL (60s and 70s): SAUSSURE – SEMIOLOGY HALLIDAY, HODGE AND KRESS (70s and 80s)
  • 7. •SIGN: KEY NOTION IN SEMIOTICS•FORMS: HOW ARE THEY USED TOREALISE MEANING IN THE MAKING OFSIGNS?•SIGN FOR KRESS AND VAN LEEWUEN ≠SIGN IN SEMIOLOGY•REPRESENTATION: FOCUSED BY THESPECIFIC CONTEXT IN WHICH THE SIGNMAKER PRODUCES THE SIGN(CRITERIAL ASPECTS ONLY)
  • 8. •SIGN MAKING = ORIENTED BY PERSONALCHOICE?•SIGN: BUILT BY SIGN MAKER (MOTIVATED),NOT PRE-EXISTENT OR ARBITRARY(SOCIAL SEMIOTICS)•FORM AND MEANING ARE INDEPENDENTFROM EACH OTHER UNTIL THEY AREBROUGHT TOGETHER BY SIGN-MAKER
  • 9. •SEMIOLOGY: MOTIVATION IS DEFINED INTERMS OF AN INTRINSIC RELATIONBETWEEN THE SIGNIFIER AND THESIGNIFIED•PEIRCE: ICON, INDEX AND SYMBOL –ARBITRARY RATHER THAN MOTIVATED
  • 10. SEMIOLOGY:•LANGUE: ABSTRACT POTENTIAL OF ALANGUAGE SYSTEM (AVAILABLEFORMS COUPLED WITH AVAILABLEMEANINGS)•PAROLE: PARTICULAR REALIZATIONOF THE POTENTIAL OF LANGUE(MATERIALIZATION OF THE WORD?)
  • 11. •SEMIOTIC POTENTIAL = ?•SIGN-MAKERS: MAKE THEIR OWNREPRESENTATIONAL RESOURCES•CONVENTIONS: PLACE PRESSURE OFCONSTANT LIMITATIONS OF CONFORMITYON SIGN-MAKING•COMMUNICATION: MAKING MESSAGESUNDERSTANDABLE•REPRESENTATION: EXPRESSION OFWHAT THE SIGN-MAKER HAS IN MIND
  • 12. APPLICATION•CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: HOWIS LANGUAGE USED TO CONVEY POWERAND STATUS IN CONTEMPORARYSOCIAL INTERACTION?•READING BETWEEN THE LINES = SENSEOF IDEOLOGICAL POSITION