Job Analysis, EmployeeInvolvement and Flexible Work Schedules Chapter 4 Human Resources Management
What is Job Analysis• A job analysis adalah proses sistematis mengumpulkan informasi tentang semua parameter dari pekerjaan-nya tanggung jawab dasar, perilaku, keterampilan, dan persyaratan fisik dan mental dari orang-orang yang melakukannya.• A job analysis juga harus menjelaskan peralatan yang diperlukan untuk melakukan pekerjaan, lingkungan dan waktu di mana perlu dilakukan, dengan siapa itu perlu dilakukan, dan tingkat hasil atau kinerja itu harus menghasilkan. 1–2
Job Requirements• Job Description Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed• Job Specification Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job Since Griggs v Duke Power and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, job specifications used in selection must relate specifically to the duties of the job.
Methods Used to Collect Job Analysis Data• Five of the more popular methods are 1. The functional job analysis 2. The Position Analysis questionnaire system 3. The critical incident method 4. A task inventory analysis 5. A competency-based job analysis.
Key Elements of a Job Description• Job Title Indicates job duties and organizational level• Job Identification Membedakan pekerjaan dari semua pekerjaan lainnya• Essential Functions (Job Duties) Menunjukkan tanggung jawab dalam menyelesaikan hasil pekerjaan dan pekerjaan tersebut harus diselesaikan• Job Specifications Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job
Problems with Job Descriptions1. If they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.2. They are sometimes not updated as job duties or specifications change.3. Mereka mungkin melanggar hukum dengan mengandung spesifikasi yang tidak berhubungan dengan keberhasilan pekerjaan.4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing an organization’s flexibility.
Job Design• Industrial Engineering Sebuah bidang studi yang berhubungan dengan menganalisis metode kerja dan menetapkan standar waktu• Job Design Hasil dari analisis pekerjaan yang meningkatkan pekerjaan melalui pertimbangan teknologi dan manusia dalam rangka meningkatkan efisiensi organisasi dan kepuasan kerja karyawan• Ergonomics The process of studying and designing equipment and systems that are easy and efficient for people to use and that ensure their physical well-being.
Job Characteristics Model: Designing Jobs to Motivate EmployeesJob Characteristics Psychological States Job Outcomes Meaningfulness of Improved work Skill variety the work performed performance Task identity Responsibility for Increased Internal Task significance motivation work outcomes Autonomy Lower Knowledge of the absenteeism and Feedback results of the work turnover performed.
Enlargement, Rotation, & Enrichment• Job enlargement The process of adding a greater variety of tasks to a job.• Job rotation a process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs.• Job enrichment Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying
Empowerment, Crafting, & Engagement• Employee Empowerment Memberikan kepercayaan kepada karyawan untuk memulai perubahan, sehingga mendorong mereka untuk mengambil alih apa yang mereka lakukan• Job Crafting Sebuah fenomena alami dimana karyawan melakukan tugas mereka sesuai kekuatan masing-masing, dengan motifasi yang lebih baik• Employee Engagement Situasi di mana pekerja antusias dan tenggelam dalam pekerjaan mereka dimana hal tersebut dapat membantu meningkatkan kinerja perusahaan.
Designing Work for Group/Team Contributions• Employee Involvement Groups (EIs) Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvement Also known as quality circles (QCs) Success with EIs requires: – Comprehensive training for group members – Recognition of the group’s contributions – Continuing input and encouragement by management – Use of a participative/democratic leadership style
Characteristics of Successful Teams• A commitment to shared goals and objectives• Motivated and energetic team members• Open and honest communication• Shared leadership• Clear role assignments• A climate of cooperation, collaboration, trust, and accountability• The recognition of conflict and its positive resolution
Benefits of Employee Teams• Increased integration of individual skills• Better performance (quality and quantity) solutions to unique and complex problems• Reduced delivery time• Reduced turnover and absenteeism• Accomplishments among team members
Flexible Work Schedules• Flextime Working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.• Compressed Workweek Shortening the number of days in the workweek by lengthening the number of hours worked per day.• Job Sharing The arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee.• Telecommuting The use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace.
Key Termscritical incident method job descriptiondejobbing job designemployee empowerment job enlargementemployee teams job enrichmentergonomics job rotationflextime job specificationindustrial engineering position analysis questionnairejob (PAQ)job analysis task inventory analysisjob characteristics model telecommutingjob crafting virtual team
Chapter 4 - Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome Statements Related Outcomes from Body of the Text Explain what a job analysis is, the parts that comprise it and Are there any HR functions that are not affected by the job analysis process?1 how the information it generates is used in conjunction with If so, what are they? a firm’s HRM functions. Explain how the data for a job analysis typically is collected. Answer the questions in Highlights in HRM 1 based on the job you currently2 hold or most recently held. Do the answers give you enough information to create a job analysis? Identify and explain the various sections of job descriptions. Using your answers to the questions asked in Highlights in HRM 1, write3 a job description for your job or the job you most recently held. Are there elements of the job that are not reflected in the job description? Provide examples illustrating the various factors that must Explain how industrial engineering and ergonomics can both clash with4 be taken into account when designing a job. and complement each other in the design of jobs. Discuss the various job characteristics that motivate Can a firm’s managers control the process of job crafting? What5 employees. challenges does it present for them? Describe the different group techniques used to broaden a Describe the types of teams you have worked in. Were some more6 firm’s job functions and maximize the contributions of successful than others? If so, why? How might what you have learned employees. from being a team member be applied in an HR context? Identify the different types of work schedules organizations Name some of the jobs people do at your school. Which of the jobs do7 are using today to motivate their employees. you think could effectively incorporate flexible work schedules? Which could not?