SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography - AMALITH

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MO Exposure Optics (MOEO), is a novel mask aligner illumination system for all SUSS MicroTec Mask Aligners. Self-calibrating light source (no lamp alignment after lamp exchange), improved light uniformity, telecentric illumination and the possibility of freely shaping the angular spectrum are main advantages. Full control of the illumination allows to reduce diffraction effects, enhance resolution, improve CD uniformity and yield. It is now possible to fully simulate the lithography process by using LAB software from GenISys. Well known lithography techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC) and source-mask optimization (SMO) are now available for mask aligner lithography. Mask aligner lithography has entered a new era.

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SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography - AMALITH

  1. 1. ADVANCED MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY (AMALITH)Photolithography Enhancement for SUSS Mask AlignersSÜSS MicroTec AG, www.suss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, www.suss.ch, info@suss.ch
  2. 2. 1969: MJB3 1985: MA150 2013: LithoPack Gen2Mask Aligners are the loyal work horse in research and industrysince more than 50 years!SUSS MASK ALIGNERS 1963 - 2013SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)2
  3. 3. LITHOGRAPHY IN 1980Min. Feature Size[Half-Pitch]Year Micron1957 1201963 301971 101974 61976 31982 1.51985 1.31989 1SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)3
  4. 4. HISTORIC LITHO TOOL PRICE [US$]Mask AlignerFront-End Litho ToolEUVLASML 1950iEvery 4 years the price doubled[1970 – 2010]SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)4
  5. 5. LITHOGRAPHY FOR LED MANUFACTURINGMarket Share LED Exposure ToolsSUSSMask AlignerASMLStepperBeta Squareused Perkin ElmerDNKAlignerNikonUsed StepperUltratechStepperUshiofull-fieldEVGMask AlignerELSAlignerChina 102 23 3 12880% 18% 2%Europe 6 1 1 875% 13% 13%Japan 22 22100%Korea 14 9 25 1 2 5127% 18% 49% 2% 4%Malaysia 4 1 580% 20%Singapore 20 20100%Taiwan 23 75 23 14 9 14416% 52% 16% 10% 6%USA 11 11100%Worldwide 182 20 2 107 48 14 1 6 9 389Source: www.yole.frSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)5
  6. 6. „Shadow Printing“ Lithography Mask illumination using collimated UV light Resolution  proximity gapMASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHYWaferMaskSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)6
  7. 7.  Diffraction effects Proximity artifacts SidelobesSHADOW PRINTING LITHOGRAPHYParallel Light(sidelobes)ApodizationParallel Light Diffuse LightSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)7
  8. 8.  Customized Illumination Reduce diffraction effects (apodization) Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) Improve critical resist structures Source Mask Optimization (SMO) Customized Illumination and OPC Alternating Aperture Phase Shift Mask (AAPSM) ...PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY ENHANCEMENTIN FRONT-END-OF-LINE WAFER STEPPERSwww.asml.comwww.zeiss.comSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)8
  9. 9. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS®The new Illumination System for all SUSS Mask Aligners
  10. 10.  Lamp readjustment required Uniformity change over lamp lifetime Daily uniformity test required Variation of illumination light over mask(angular spectrum)CONVENTIONAL MASK ALIGNER ILLUMINATIONForgot to control lightuniformity this morning.SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)10
  11. 11. KEY COMPONENTS: MICROLENS OPTICAL INTEGRATORSMicrolens Optical IntegratorFlat-Top IlluminationLight SourceSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)11
  12. 12.  2x Microlens Integrators in the Mask Alignerillumination system Light homogenization in both Fourier planes Self calibrating light source Illumination filter plate (IFP)MO EXPOSURE OPTICS®SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)12MO Exposure Optics in SUSS MA8 Gen3 Mask AlignerQuick Plug & Play installation and IFP illumination filter exchange
  13. 13. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS®SELF CALIBRATING MASK ALIGNER ILLUMINATIONMicrolens Optical Integrators Lamp readjustment required Uniformity change over lamp lifetime Daily uniformity test required Variation of illumination light over mask(angular spectrum)NONONONOSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)13
  14. 14. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS® : QUICK INSTALLATIONQuick Installation in Mask AlignerMicrolens Optical IntegratorsSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)14
  15. 15.  Conventional Mask Aligner Illumination Optics (HR or LGO) Daily light measurement (9 or 12 points)  5 min x 365 day ~ 30 hours per year 12x lamp exchange per year  30 min x 10 ~ 6 hours per year 36 hours less productive time & labor costs per year MO Exposure Optics Self-calibrating light source No periodic uniformity and no lamp adjustment required No lamp adjustment, no issues with light uniformitySELF CALIBRATING LIGHT SOURCEForgot to control lightuniformity this morning.SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)MO Exposure Opticsinstalled!15
  16. 16.  MO Exposure Optics® No uniformity measurements No lamp alignment Improved uniformity Telecentric illumination CD uniformity improvement = Yield! Process stability assurance = Yield! Convenience!SELF CALIBRATING LIGHT SOURCE – SAFES TIME & MONEYSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)16Forgot to control lightuniformity this morning.MO Exposure Opticsinstalled!
  17. 17.  Excellent light uniformity No lamp misalignment No uniformity change due to degradation oflamp electrode during lifetime cycleBETTER UNIFORMITY – INDEPENDENT OF LAMP POSITIONDeviation from mean value in [%] for Ø200mm inMA200 CompactSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)17
  18. 18. TELECENTRIC MASK ILLUMINATION Uniform angular spectrum of maskillumination light over full mask area Better resist sidewalls Improved CD uniformitySUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)18
  19. 19. ILLUMINATION FILTER PLATES (IFP)IFP HRPupil Fill Ratio (PFR) 130%IFP " More Light"SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)19
  20. 20. CONTACT OR PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY?Changeover fromHR-Optics to LGO-Opticsin less than5 minutes!IFP-HR„High Resolution“IFP-LGO„Large Gap“SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)20
  21. 21. COMPARISION: RESOLUTION FOR 100µM PROXIMITY GAPComparision of HR, LGO and MO Exposure Optics in MA6Coating AZ 4110, Thickness = 1.2µmExposure MA6 (1KW lamp house), Proximity Gap 100µmDeveloping Manual Developed. AZ400K (1:4 DI), 60secLines 7µmLines 6µmLines 7µmLines 6µmLines 7µmLines 6µmSUSS High-ResolutionOptics (HR)SUSS Large Gap Optics(LGO)SUSS MO Exposure OpticsIFP Circle 20SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)21
  22. 22. COMPARISION: RESOLUTION FOR 300µM PROXIMITY GAPLines 20µmLines 10µmLines 20µmLines 10µmLines 20µmLines 10µmComparision of HR, LGO and MO Exposure Optics in MA6Coating AZ 4110, Thickness = 1.2µmExposure MA6 (1KW lamp house), Proximity Gap 100µmDeveloping Manual Developed. AZ400K (1:4 DI), 60secSUSS High-ResolutionOptics (HR)SUSS Large Gap Optics(LGO)SUSS MO Exposure OpticsIFP Circle 20SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)22
  23. 23. SHADOW PRINTING: PINHOLE CAMERAGraph: Lorenz Stürzebecher, FhG-IOFPinhole CameraCamera ObscuraSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)23
  24. 24. SHADOW PRINTING: PINHOLE CAMERA!Graph: Lorenz Stürzebecher, FhG-IOFPinhole CameraCamera ObscuraLight source(Object)Image of thelight sourcein resistSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)24
  25. 25. ADVANCED MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY (AMALITH)Pushing the limits!
  26. 26. OPTICAL PROXIMITY CORRECTION (OPC)CHANGING THE PINHOLESquare10µm x 10µm, Proximity Gap 50µm, Photoresist AZ4110, 1.2um thickSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)26
  27. 27. Light Source• Self-Calibrating• CustomizedIlluminationPhotomask• Binary• OPCExposure• Exposure Time• Proximity GapPhotoresist• Negative/Positive• Chemical EnhancedProcessResistExposureMaskSourceWet Process• Developer• Prebake/PostbakeSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)27
  28. 28. Light Source• Self-Calibrating• CustomizedIlluminationPhotomask• Binary• OPCExposure• Exposure Time• Proximity GapPhotoresist• Negative/Positive• Chemical EnhancedProcessResistExposureMaskSourceWet Process• Developer• Prebake/PostbakeSimulationHolistic Litho• Simulation ofLithographyProcess ChainSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)28
  29. 29. PROCEDURE Iterative simulations of different OPC mask layers Export of the aerial image for the differentsimulated settings Matlab data elaboration LayoutLAB resist (calibrated) simulation for theresulting best profilesLITHOGRAPHY SIMULATION: OPC DESIGNMask LayoutsLayoutLAB FLOWResultsSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)29
  30. 30.  Optimization of the mask pattern (Optical Proximity Correction, OPC)LITHOGRAPHY SIMULATION: OPC DESIGNMask Layout Mask Layoutwith OPCfeaturesResist Profile Resist Profile LayoutLAB™ software from GenISys Fraunhofer IISBSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)30
  31. 31. SOURCE MASK OPTIZATIONSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)31
  32. 32. ITERATIVE OPTIMIZATION: LOOP FUNCTIONSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)32
  33. 33.  Simulation enables significant process improvements Customer purchased five MA200 Compact Mask Alignersequipped with MO Exposure Optics®INDUSTRY EXAMPLE:REDUCTION OF PROXIMITY ARTIFACTS BY SMOProximity artifacts in redistribution lanes:Deformations in lane edges.Simulation LayoutLAB softwareCorrected: 30µm Exp Gap, SB 90°C, 300sec, 650mJin MA200 Compact with MO Exposure OpticsFillet reduces erosionSource Mask Optimization (SMO)Proximity artifact: Deformation(protrusion) due to diffraction effects(simulation in LayoutLAB)SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)33
  34. 34. Aspect Ratio is the ratio ofthe width of a shape to itsheight.HIGH ASPECT RATIOPhotomaskWaferPhotoresistGapHeightWidthSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)34
  35. 35. MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHYAirGap0 µm15 µm30 µm100 µm0 µm15 µm30 µm100 µm10µm 10µm4µm10µmSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)35
  36. 36. STRUCTURES AND GEOTMETRIES FOR LITHOGRAPHYbars with differentwidthrectangles withdifferent shapecrossed bars innear contactdifferent cornerstructuresthree barsneighboringcontact holesseven barscontact hole nearto a barsingle barcontact holeSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)36
  37. 37. SINGLE LINE, 5UM WIDTH IN 5UM THICK AZ9260 RESISTSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)37
  38. 38. 2D AERIAL IMAGE CROSS SECTION100 µm0 µmGAPBroad Band illumination (g-, h- & i-line)±3.5° 0.8° <  < 1.6°100 µm0 µmGAPSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)38
  39. 39. SIMULATION – EXPERIMENT: KNIFE EDGE AT 100UM GAP±0.7° circular illuminationBroad band illuminationGap: 100µmResist: AZ9260, 10 µm thickLight distribution in the resistResist after developmentDevelopedNot Developed83.3°71.3°Dose 200Dose 400Assit Feature: Frensel Zone Plate Sub Resolution AssistFeatures (SRAF) basedon analytic approach Increase the sidewallsteepnessSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)39
  40. 40. 2D AERIAL IMAGE CROSS SECTIONBroad Band Illumination(g-, h- & i-line)100 µm0 µmGAP10µm 4µm±3.5°10µm 4µm0.8° <  < 1.6°±3.5° 0.8° <  < 1.6°SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)40
  41. 41. FRESNEL ZONE PLATE (FZP): HIGH ASPECT RATIO VIASMOEO ±0.7° circular illuminationGap: 30µmResist: AZ9260, 10 µm thick3µmBroad band illumination, dose 0.3 i-line illumination, dose 0.11.8µm20 µm40 µmGAPLight17µmAERIAL IMAGEConventional mask(3µm opening)TSVMaskResist after developmentDevelopedNotDevelopedSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)41
  42. 42. EXAMPLE: PACKAGING, TSV & 3DICResulting Aerial ImageIlluminationFilter Plates (IFP)Depth of focus(DOF)DOFOPC Structure(Fresnel-type)11µm via at 800 µm proximity gapTopviewSideviewSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)42
  43. 43. EXAMPLE: PACKAGING, TSV & 3D IC Benefits Very large proximity gap Via shaping possible Extended Depth of Focus (DOF) Very short exposure time (focussing)Gap Ø Via DOF100 µm 2 µm 5 µm200 µm 3 µm 15 µm300 µm 5 µm 30 µm400 µm 7 µm 60 µm500 µm 10 µm 100 µm700 µm 14 µm 200 µmTypical parameters for via printingusing OPC Fresnel TechnologyResulting AerialImageDepth of focus(DOF)DOF11µm via at 800 µm gapSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)43
  44. 44. PHOTOMASKS: PHASE SHIFT MASKS (PSM)Source: PKL, Mask Technology & http://www.photomask.com/products/phase-shift-masksBinary Chrome Mask Alternating Aperture Phase-Shift Mask (AAPSM)SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)44
  45. 45. ALTERNATING APERTURE PHASE SHIFT MASK (AAPSM)30um gapIFP HRAir stack: 50um0 µm50 µmGAP0 µm50 µmGAP0 µm50 µmGAPPSMBinary MaskPSM+OPCBroad Band illuminationSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)45
  46. 46. ALTERNATING APERTURE PHASE SHIFT MASK (AAPSM)AZ1512, 2µmGap: 30µmPSMBinary Mask PSM+OPCSimulationExperimental resultsSimulationExperimental resultsSimulationExperimental resultsBroad Band illuminationSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)46
  47. 47. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS: SU-8SUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)47
  48. 48. SU-8: IMPROVEMENT OF FOOTING & SIDEWALLS 300µm thick SU8Improvement of footing and sidewallswith thick SU-8 using MO ExposureOptics on SUSS MA56SU8: 300µm thick, soft contact,resolution 25µmCourtesy: micro resist technology BerlinSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)48
  49. 49. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS FOR SU-8SUSS MA6 MOEOSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)49
  50. 50. Light Source• Self-Calibrating• CustomizedIlluminationPhotomask• Binary• OPCExposure• Exposure Time• Proximity GapPhotoresist• Negative/Positive• Chemical EnhancedProcessResistExposureMaskSourceWet Process• Developer• Prebake/PostbakeSimulationHolistic Litho• Simulation ofLithographyProcess ChainSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)50
  51. 51. www.suss.comwww.suss.chSUSS MicroTec, Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)51

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