LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESS WINDOW OPTIMIZATION FOR MASK
ALIGNER PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY
Reinhard Voelkela, Uwe Voglera, Arianna Br...
MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY EVOLUTION

New illumination system: MO Exposure Optics®
 better light uniformity & telecentric i...
MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY 1963 - 2014

 Proximity lithography – shadow printing


Resolution of 3 – 5 m (half-pitch) for...
DIFFRACTION RULES PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY

Side lobes

Off-Axis
Apodization

4

SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Adva...
MO EXPOSURE OPTICS: CUSTOMIZED ILLUMINATION

5

SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESS WINDOW FOR MASK ALIGNER

6
SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
CD UNIFORMITY

photomask

height

gap

half-pitch

resist pit
80%

resist

Θ

20%

CD

sidewall
angle

wafer

AZ® 1512 pho...
LINES & SPACES 5 MICRON (HALF-PITCH)
SUSS LGO Optics (±1.4°)
(proximity lithography settings)

8

SUSS MicroOptics, Reinha...
PROCESS WINDOW (CD)

B

A

C

photomask

height

gap

half-pitch

resist pit
80%

resist

Θ
sidewall
angle

wafer

9

SUSS...
PROCESS WINDOW (SIDE LOBE PRINTING)

photomask

height

gap

half-pitch

resist pit
80%

resist

Θ
sidewall
angle

wafer

...
PROCESS WINDOW (SIDEWALL ANGLE)

AZ® 1512 photoresist, 1m thick

photomask

height

gap

half-pitch

resist pit
80%

resi...
PROCESS WINDOW

photomask

height

gap

half-pitch

resist pit
80%

resist

Θ
sidewall
angle

wafer

12

SUSS MicroOptics,...
DEATH VALLEY OF PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY

Resolution = Proximity Gap

13

SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Li...
Parallel Illumination

OUTLOOK
4µm L&S

5µm L&S

7µm L&S

10µm L&S

PW for LGO

LGO

3µm L&S

≈ 10 µm

≈ 20 µm

≈ 30 µm

≈...
CONCLUSION

New illumination system: MO Exposure Optics®
 better light uniformity & telecentric illumination
 customized...
JOIN OUR WORKSHOP ON THURSDAY MORNING

16

SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
SUSS.
Our Solutions
Set Standards

SUSS MicroOptics SA
Rouges-Terres 61
CH-2068 Hauterive
Switzerland
Tel +41-32-564444
Fa...
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SPIE Advanced Lithography: "Lithographic Process Window Optimization for Mask Aligner Proximity Lithography"

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We introduce a complete methodology for process window optimization in proximity mask aligner lithography. The commercially available lithography simulation software LAB from GenISys GmbH was used for simulation of light propagation and 3D resist development. The methodology was tested for the practical example of lines & spaces, 5 micron half-pitch, printed in a 1 micron thick layer of AZ® 1512HS positive photoresist on a silicon wafer. A SUSS MicroTec MA8 mask aligner, equipped with MO Exposure Optics® was used in simulation and experiment. MO Exposure Optics® is the latest generation of illumination systems for mask aligners. MO Exposure Optics® provides telecentric illumination and excellent light uniformity over the full mask field. MO Exposure Optics® allows the lithography engineer to freely shape the angular spectrum of the illumination light (customized illumination), which is a mandatory requirement for process window optimization. Three different illumination settings have been tested for 0 to 100 micron proximity gap. The results obtained prove, that the introduced process window methodology is a major step forward to obtain more robust processes in mask aligner lithography. The most remarkable outcome of the presented study is that a smaller exposure gap does not automatically lead to better print results in proximity lithography - what the “good instinct” of a lithographer would expect. With more than 5'000 mask aligners installed in research and industry worldwide, the proposed process window methodology might have significant impact on yield improvement and cost saving in industry.

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SPIE Advanced Lithography: "Lithographic Process Window Optimization for Mask Aligner Proximity Lithography"

  1. 1. LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESS WINDOW OPTIMIZATION FOR MASK ALIGNER PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY Reinhard Voelkela, Uwe Voglera, Arianna Bramatia, Andreas Erdmannb, Nezih Ünalc, Ulrich Hofmannc, Marc Hennemeyerd, Ralph Zoberbierd, David Nguyene, Juergen Bruggere a) SUSS MicroOptics SA, Rouges-Terres 61, CH-2068 Hauterive, Switzerland, voelkel@suss.ch, www.suss.ch b) Fraunhofer Institut IISB, Schottkystr. 10, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany c) GenISys GmbH, Eschenstr. 66, D-82024 Taufkirchen, Germany d) SÜSS MicroTec Lithography GmbH, Schleissheimerstrasse 90, D-85748 Garching, Germany e) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL STI IMT, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
  2. 2. MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY EVOLUTION New illumination system: MO Exposure Optics®  better light uniformity & telecentric illumination  customized illumination  LAB: lithography simulation full 3D resist development photomask gap half-pitch height Process window optimization  visualize and optimize mask aligner lithography  find robust process  improve yield resist pit 80% resist Θ sidewall angle wafer 2 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 20% CD 200nm
  3. 3. MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY 1963 - 2014  Proximity lithography – shadow printing  Resolution of 3 – 5 m (half-pitch) for 30 – 50 m proximity gap  Resolution  proximity gap Mask Wafer 3 SUSS MicroTec, LAB – 3D Workshop, April 24, 2013
  4. 4. DIFFRACTION RULES PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY Side lobes Off-Axis Apodization 4 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  5. 5. MO EXPOSURE OPTICS: CUSTOMIZED ILLUMINATION 5 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  6. 6. LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESS WINDOW FOR MASK ALIGNER 6 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  7. 7. CD UNIFORMITY photomask height gap half-pitch resist pit 80% resist Θ 20% CD sidewall angle wafer AZ® 1512 photoresist, 1m thick Simulation in LAB software from GenISys GmbH Resist prints in SUSS MA6 MOEO Data analysis in Matlab 7 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 200nm
  8. 8. LINES & SPACES 5 MICRON (HALF-PITCH) SUSS LGO Optics (±1.4°) (proximity lithography settings) 8 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  9. 9. PROCESS WINDOW (CD) B A C photomask height gap half-pitch resist pit 80% resist Θ sidewall angle wafer 9 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 20% CD 200nm
  10. 10. PROCESS WINDOW (SIDE LOBE PRINTING) photomask height gap half-pitch resist pit 80% resist Θ sidewall angle wafer 10 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 20% CD 200nm
  11. 11. PROCESS WINDOW (SIDEWALL ANGLE) AZ® 1512 photoresist, 1m thick photomask height gap half-pitch resist pit 80% resist Θ sidewall angle wafer 11 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 20% CD 200nm
  12. 12. PROCESS WINDOW photomask height gap half-pitch resist pit 80% resist Θ sidewall angle wafer 12 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15 20% CD 200nm
  13. 13. DEATH VALLEY OF PROXIMITY LITHOGRAPHY Resolution = Proximity Gap 13 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  14. 14. Parallel Illumination OUTLOOK 4µm L&S 5µm L&S 7µm L&S 10µm L&S PW for LGO LGO 3µm L&S ≈ 10 µm ≈ 20 µm ≈ 30 µm ≈ 55 µm >100 µm 𝐶𝐷2 𝐶𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐺𝑎𝑝 ≅ 0.44 λ Broad band illumination 14
  15. 15. CONCLUSION New illumination system: MO Exposure Optics®  better light uniformity & telecentric illumination  customized illumination  LAB: lithography & full 3D resist simulation Process window optimization  visualize and optimize mask aligner lithography  find robust process, improve yield 15 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  16. 16. JOIN OUR WORKSHOP ON THURSDAY MORNING 16 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15
  17. 17. SUSS. Our Solutions Set Standards SUSS MicroOptics SA Rouges-Terres 61 CH-2068 Hauterive Switzerland Tel +41-32-564444 Fax +41-32-5664499 info@suss.ch, www.suss.ch 17 SUSS MicroOptics, Reinhard Völkel, SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014, 9052-15

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