SPIE 8169_12, Optical Design Conference Marseille, Wafer-Level Micro-Optics, Sept 7, 2011


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Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology (KET) for many applications today. The important role of micro-optical components is based on three different motivations: miniaturization, high functionality and packaging aspects. It is obvious that miniaturized systems require micro-optics for light focusing, light shaping and imaging. More important for industrial applications is the high functionality of micro-optics that allows combining these different functions in one element. In DUV Lithography Steppers and Scanners an extremely precise beam shaping of the Excimer laser profile is required. High-precision diffractive optical elements are well suited for this task. For Wafer-Level Cameras (WLC) and fiber optical systems the packaging aspects are more important. Wafer-Level Micro-Optics technology allows manufacturing and packaging some thousands of sub-components in parallel. We report on the state of the art in wafer-based manufacturing, testing and packaging.
Keywords: Micro-optics, microlens array, diffractive optical elements, wafer-level optics, wafer-level packaging, beam shaping, fiber coupling, array illumination, Shack-Hartmann, confocal microscope, slow-axis collimator.

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SPIE 8169_12, Optical Design Conference Marseille, Wafer-Level Micro-Optics, Sept 7, 2011

  1. 1. Wafer-Level Micro-Optics: Trends in Manufacturing, Testing and Packaging Reinhard Voelkel, Kenneth J. Weible, Martin Eisner SUSS MicroOptics SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland voelkel@suss.ch, www.suss.chSPIE 8169-12
  2. 2. SUSS MicroOptics – We Set The Standards  World leading supplier of high-quality Micro-Optics  More than 200 active customers  Part of the SUSS MicroTec Group (www.suss.com) Neuchâtel, Switzerland SUSS MicroOptics is “Preferred Supplier” for Carl Zeiss SMT DUV Laser Beam Shaping Solutions for ASML Litho Stepper
  3. 3. Industrial optics manufacturingstarted around 1840Source: www.wikipedia.org
  4. 4. Microscopy and photographywere the technology drivers.Cameras and binoculars were thefirst optical consumer products.Micro-Optics was not an issue.
  5. 5. Gabriel Lippmann (1845 – 1921) 1891 Interference Color Photography  Wavelength-selective volume holograms 1908 Integral photography  Auto-stereoscopic method to display 3D images for observation with the naked eye 1908 Nobel Prize Source: www.wikipedia.org, www.google.com/patents
  6. 6. Walter R. Hess: Stereoscope Images 1912 Parallax Panoramagrams  Array of cylindrical microlenses for 3D displays Working as a doctor (Ophthalmologist) Nobel prize for Physiology Source: www.google.com/patents
  7. 7. Microlens Arrays for Color Photography 1925 “Gaffered film” Paul Fournier  Microlens arrays on film to separate the color US Patent 1,746,584, Source: www.google.com/patents
  8. 8. Köhler Integrator – Fly‘s Eye Illumination Source: www.wikipedia.org, www.google.com/patents
  9. 9. Many Innovative Ideas for Micro-Optical Systems US Patent 1762932, Mihalyi, Fly‘s Eye Condensor for Projector, 1927 US Patent 2018592, Arnulf, 1932 US 2351034 Garbor „Superlens“, 1940 Source: www.wikipedia.org, www.google.com/patents
  10. 10. How tomanufactureMicro-Optics?Source: www.google.com/patents
  11. 11. Maurice Bonnet (1907 – 1994) ww2.cnam.fr Maurice Bonnet and the lathe used to engrave lenticular screens for integral photography* *Photo: Coll. Michèle Bonnet from Michel Frizot, “Lenticular screen systems and Maurice Bonnet’s process”, from catalog of exhibition “Paris in 3D” at Musée Carnavalet, ISBN: 1861541627 (2000) Source: www.wikipedia.org
  12. 12. Jean Hoerni (1924 – 1997): “Planar Process” 1959 Fairchild Semiconductor Jean Hoerni at Fairchild 1963 First Karl Süss Mask Aligner Source: www.wikipedia.org, www.google.com/patents
  13. 13. Computer Generated HologramsDigital OpticsPlanar OpticsSource: www.wikipedia.org
  14. 14. Micro-Optics Technology1971 Josef Hanak, dry etching of holograms1977 Mike Gale, multi-level diffractive optics1982 Kenichi, stacked planar optics Stacked planar micro-optics1985 Zoran Popovich, melting resist microlenses Melting resist microlenses Dry-etching of holograms in glass Multi-Level DOESource: www.google.com/patents
  15. 15. Ideas and micro-structuringtechnology developed inSemiconductor industry enabledMicro-Optics manufacturing.Wafer-Level Micro-Optics!
  16. 16. Wafer: SEMI Standards3-inch (76 mm)4-inch (100 mm)150 mm (referred to as "6 inch")200 mm (referred to as "8 inch") 8’’ Wafer-Technology300 mm (referred to as "12 inch") Mask Aligner Coater Plasma Etch Wafer Bonder
  17. 17. PHOTORESIST PROCESSING A thick resist layer Photolithography Resist cylinders Melting at  150°C.
  18. 18. REACTIVE ION ETCHING Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Profile shaping by changing etch ratio Aspherical profiles with high precision
  19. 19. Metrology for Micro-OpticsManufacturingPhase profile of a densely packed array of 16-level DOEsmeasured in white light profilometer Wyko NT3300
  20. 20. Aspherical Microlenses in Fused Silica Asphere, conic constant k = -1 Comparison of measured lens profile (blue line) to ideal lens profile (dotted line) for a microlens of 1.08mm lens diameter and 93µm sag height etched in Fused Silica.
  21. 21. Aspherical Microlenses in Fused Silica Deviation of measured lens profile, expressed by a 12th degree polynomial fit, versus the ideal lens profile. A deviation of 154.8nm (rms) from ideal lens profile is obtained.
  22. 22. Uniformity of Photoresist ±0.61% (p-v)
  23. 23. High-Quality Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE)  8‘‘ wafer scale  190nm to 10µm wavelength range  0.5 μm min feature size  < 50nm overlay accuracy  Binary, 8-level, 16-level  Upto 98% diffraction efficiency
  24. 24. Hybrid Micro-Optics on Wafer-Level  Refractive Microlens Arrays  Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE)  Trenches, posts, grooves, holes  Full wafer-level integration
  25. 25. Hybrid Micro-Optics for Fiber Communication  Micro-Optical Fiber Coupler for communication industry (ROADM, WSS, Transceiver...)  High-quality Micro-Optics for most competitive prices due to 8’’ wafer manufacturing
  26. 26. Packaging concepts for systems!Wafer-Level Packaging (WLP)Wafer-Level Camera (WLC) Scheme: Patent WO 2007 030226Source: Fraunhofer IOF (Jena), www.wikipedia.org, www.google.com/patents
  27. 27. Wafer-Level Camera (WLC) Thin wafer handling Lens Imprint Litho (SMILE) Wafer-Level Packaging (WLP) SUSS MicroTec Mask Aligner: MA/BA8 Gen3 © IOF Lens Master Thin Wafer Handling Imprint Lithography Wafer-Level Packaging Wafer Dicing Reinhard Voelkel, Martin Eisner, SUSS © Awaiba
  28. 28. Micro-Camera for CMOS imagersWafer-Level Packaging (WLC) NanEye WLC Camera (Awaiba) for disponible endoscopesGerman Research Project COMIKA (2008-2011)Source: COMIKA, www.awaiba.com
  29. 29. Ultra-Flat Cluster Cameras WALORI (2002 – 2005) ?Jacques W. Duparre, Peter Schreiber, Peter Dannberg, Toralf Scharf, Petri Pelli, Reinhard Voelkel, Hans-Peter Herzig andAndreas Braeuer, "Artificial compound eyes: different concepts and their application for ultraflat image acquisition sensors",Proc. SPIE 5346, 89 (2004); doi:10.1117/12.530208Source: Fraunhofer IOF (Jena), www.wikipedia.org
  30. 30. Micro-Optics in Front-End Lithography Customized Illumination Pupil Shaping (DOE) Now: FlexRay™ programmable illumination technology from ASML Customized Illumination Excimer Laser (193nm) Laser Beam Shaping Laser Beam Homogenizing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) MEMS Mirror Arrays (FlexRay™) Key Enabling Technology Microlens Köhler Homogenizer Source: ASML, Nikon, Canon; www.google.com/patents
  31. 31. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH) Library of Illumination Filter Plates (IFP) Microlens Array MO Exposure Optics (patent pending) Microlens Optical Integrators Optical System MA 200
  32. 32. AMALITH: Pinhole Talbot Lithography IFP Simple pattern change with pixelated Illumination Filter Plate (IFP) SUSS Mask Aligner MA6 + MO Exposure Optics + Customized Illumination + Pinhole Mask + Proximity Gap 66µm Pinhole Lithography Multiple „Camera Obscura“ Full-wafer proximity lithography suitable for periodic structures.33
  33. 33. AMALITH: Pinhole-Talbot Lithography Flowers 4 µm Pitch 5 µm Resist 2 µm thick Etching RIE (Bosch) Silicon Proximity Gap 102 µm Mask Aligner MA8/BA6 0.8 µm34
  34. 34. AMALITH: Half-Tone LithographySUSS Mask Aligner MA6 T. Harzendorf, L. Stuerzebecher, U. Vogler, U.D. Zeitner, R. Voelkel, “Half-tone proximity lithography”, Photonics Europe, Conf. on Micro-+ MO Exposure Optics optics Fabrication Technologies, 7716-34, April 12-16, 2010+ Customized Illumination+ Half-tone photomask*+ Proximity Litho, Gap 10µm*Half-tone photomask (dot-size 450nm), E-Beam written
  35. 35. AMALITH: Blazed Gratings on Wafer-Level T. Harzendorf, L. Stuerzebecher, U. Vogler, U.D. Zeitner, R. Voelkel, “Half-tone proximity lithography”, Photonics Europe, Conf. on Micro- optics Fabrication Technologies, 7716-34, April 12-16, 2010
  36. 36. Solutions for Semiconductor Technology Industrial Optics & Vision Healthcare & Life Science Metrology Laser & Material Processing Optical Communication
  37. 37. High-Quality MicroOptics in Wafer-Technology Refractive (ROE) Key Enabling Equipment Technology Semiconductor, Microlens Arrays Photolithography, Fiber Coupler Illumination Systems Diffractive (DOE) Communication Telecom, Datacom, Fiber Beam-Shaping Elements Optics, Transceiver, Mode Scrambler Switches, Camera, MEMS Packaging Optics, Life Science Optical Instruments, 8’’ Wafer Technology Confocal Microscopy, Wafer-Level Packaging Healthcare, Laser Systems, Pin-Holes, Crosses, Marks Sensors, Metrology
  38. 38. SUSS.Our SolutionsSet StandardsSUSS MicroOptics SARue Jaquet-Droz 7CH-2000 NeuchâtelSwitzerlandTel +41-32-720-5104Fax +41-32-720-5713info@suss.ch