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Optical Lithography, Key Enabling Technology for our Modern World
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Optical Lithography, Key Enabling Technology for our Modern World

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In 1959, Richard P. Feynman initiated the Nano-age in his lecture “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. Feynman also had a clear vision about computers and asked: ”Why can’t we make them very small, …

In 1959, Richard P. Feynman initiated the Nano-age in his lecture “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. Feynman also had a clear vision about computers and asked: ”Why can’t we make them very small, make them of little wires, little elements - and by little, I mean little. For instance, the wires should be 10 or 100 atoms in diameter, and the circuits should be a few thousand angstroms across.”
At the same time, Jean Hoerni from Fairchild Semiconductors tried to get his “planar process” to production. Hoerni’s planar process using silicon substrates, so-called “wafers”, revolutionized semiconductor manufacturing and was widely adapted by the industry. The great success of the planar wafer process is also much related with tremendous improvements in optical lithography over all the years. From the early age dominated by mask aligners to highly sophisticated steppers and scanners, lithography was the key enabling technology, allowing now – 50 years after Feynman’s vision – nanostructuring down to the atomic scale on 300mm planar wafers. The evolutionary development of optical lithography is reviewed along with a brief discussion of options for the future.

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  • 1. OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHYKEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR OUR MODERN WORLDDr. Reinhard VoelkelCEO SUSS MicroOptics SASwitzerlandInvited Talk at DGaO Annual Meeting 2012, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
  • 2. SUSS MicroOptics is part of theSUSS MicroTec group,formerly known as Karl Suss,supplying lithography tools(mask aligners) since 1963.SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven2
  • 3. My talk is aboutîOptical Lithography -Key Enabling Technology for ourModern WorldîWhat is our Modern World?SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven3
  • 4. OUR MODERN WORLDSource: www.apple.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven4
  • 5. ONLY SOME 10 YEARS AGO5Source: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 6. 6http://www.itrs.net/Links/2011Winter/5_MEMS.pdfSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 7. LITHOGRAPHY IS KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGY7Christopher J. Progler:(CTO Photronics), at SPIE Advanced Litho, San Jose, Feb 2012Source: www.apple.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 8. 128GB MEMORY STICKS822 nm (half-pitch) lithographySUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 9. Lithography(Greek: λίθος = lithos, stone + γράφειν = graphein, to write)is a method for printing using a stone(limestone) or a metal plate with a smoothsurface.Invented in 1796 by Bavarian author JohannAlois Senefelder (1771 – 1834) as a cheapmethod of publishing theatrical works.Lithography can be used to print text orartwork onto paper or other suitable material.WIKIPEDIASUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven9
  • 10. JOHANN ALOIS SENEFELDER (1771 – 1834): LITHOGRAPHY10 Cheap method to publish his theatrical works? Paints ink as a resist on flat plates Solnhofen limestone Limestone is porous (hydrophilic) and absorbs ink => hydrophobic Gum Arabic solution absorbed at hydrophilic areas, hydrophobicdesign repels Rolling on an ink made of soap, wax, oil and lampblack, this greasysubstance coated the design but did not spread over the moist blankarea. Senefelder’s invention changed printing industry: Newspapers!Johann Alois Senefelder(1771 – 1834)Source: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 11. JOSEPH NICÉPHORE NIÉPCE (1765 – 1833): HELIOGRAPHY11 Photosensitive asphalt (bitumen of Judea) as photoresist Oiled paper with black ink as photomask Sun-exposure (several hours) hardens the resist Unexposed soft resist areas dissolved by solvents and removed Joseph Nicéphore Niépce(1765 – 1833)Original engraving by IsaacBriot (1633)Niépce’s heliography(1826)PortraitoftheCardinalGeorgesD’Amboise,archbishopofRouenSource: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 12. Still some more inventionsneeded to build my SmartPhone...SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven12
  • 13.  John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain Nobel Prize in Physics 1956INVENTION OF THE TRANSISTOR (1947)13Bardeen, Shockley and Brattainat Bell Labs (1948)1st transistor invented at Bell Labs byBardeen, Shockley and Brattain in 1947Source: www.computerhistory.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 14. Bell Labs Jules Andrus and Walter L. Bond Carl Frosch and Lincoln Derrick’s silicon diffusion processDOFL: U.S. Army’s Diamond Ordnance Fuse Laboratories Jay W. Lathrop and James Nall: First microscope-based “stepper” Jay W. Lathrop and James Nall invented the name “Photolithography”PIONEERS OF PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY IN SEMI RESEARCH14Jules Andrus Photoengravingfor PNPN (1957)Lathrop/Nall: Transistor integrally mount with a printed circuitplate by thin-film metal strips manufactured byphotolithography and vacuum deposition (1957).SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 15. Photoresist!
  • 16.  1935: Louis Minsk at Eastman Kodak developed first negativephotoresist for printed circuit board (PCB) applications Photoresist adherence was one of the major problems in the1950s research on transistors KPR (Kodak PhotoResist) did not stick well on germanium(HCL-etching) and silicon dioxide (BHF-etching) Research teams and industry used black or Carnauba wax In 1960 Kodak released the new KTFR (Kodak Thin Film Resist)invented by Martin Hepher and Hans WagnerPHOTORESIST PROBLEMS16Pioneers of photoresist development at Eastman Kodak: (from left) LouisMinsk, Martin Hepher, Hans Wagner and Armost ReiserSource: www.computerhistory.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 17. Integrated Circuits(IC)
  • 18.  Jack S. Kilby from Texas Instruments had the “Monolithic Idea”to integrate resistors, capacitors and transistors in a single chip.Kilby filed his patent for an “Integrated Circuit” on Feb 6, 1959. At the same time Robert Noyce from Fairchild invented the“Planar Integrated Circuit” and filed his patent on Jul 30, 1959. After a short patent-war they cross-licensed their patents.INVENTION OF THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (1958)18Jack S. Kilby(1923 – 2005)Integrated circuit (IC) built at TexasInstruments by Jack S. Kilby in 1958Robert N. Noyce(1927 - 1990)Noyce’s integrated circuit (IC) chip asmanufactured by Fairchild in 1961Source: www.computerhistory.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 19. Planar Process
  • 20.  Jean Hoerni invented in 1957 the revolutionary “Planar Process”,still the base of all semiconductor manufacturing today. Thin SiO2 film was photo structured and etched Fairchild starts production of planar transistors in 1959THE PLANAR PROCESS (1957)20Jean Hoerni(1924 - 1997)Source: www.computerhistory.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 21.  1957 the eight founders left Shockley and foundedFairchild in Palo Alto Fundamental inventions like the “Planar Process”and the “Planar Integrated Circuit” allowedindustrial manufacturing of transistors and ICs Fairchild licensed their process to other companies Silicon Valley Semiconductor equipment manufacturers Requirement for lithography tools!!!THE INCREDIBLE FAIRCHILD START-UP21The eight founders of Fairchild in 1960: (from left) GordonMoore, Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert Noyce,Victor Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean Hoerni, and Jay LastNoyce’s integrated circuit (IC) chip asmanufactured by Fairchild in 1961Jean Hoerni’s planar process aspatented in 1957Source: www.computerhistory.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 22. 1960 – 1980The Golden Age ofMask Aligner
  • 23. Mask Aligners Lithography is „Shadow Printing“ Mask illumination using UV light Resolution is related to the Proximity Gap23WaferMaskSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 24. LITHOGRAPHY IN 197625Semiconductor FeatureSizes (Half-Pitch)micron1957 1201963 301971 101974 61976 31982 1.51985 1.31989 1SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 25. Shrinkage inLithography
  • 26. In 1959, when computers filled rooms Feynman had the vision to miniaturizecomputers and chips towards their physical limits.”Why can’t we make them (computers) very small, make them of littlewires, little elements - and by little, I mean little. For instance, thewires should be 10 or 100 atoms in diameter, and the circuits shouldbe a few thousand angstroms across.”THERE IS PLENTY OF ROOM AT THE BOTTOM27Source: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 27. JACK S. KILBY’S NOBEL PRIZE LECTURE (2000)28Smaller features, lower costs, larger market,(from Jack S. Kilby’s nobel lecture in 2000)Jack S. Kilby(1923 – 2005)22nmSource: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 28. MOORE’S LAW29Source: www.wikipedia.orgSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 29. SHRINKAGE REDUCES ENERGY PER CHIP OPERATION31 SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 30. THE FUTURE OF SHRINKAGE?32 SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 31. Intel’s 22nm Tri-Gate transistor is a fundamentalchange: 37% faster and 50% power reductionChange from “Sandy Bridge” to “Ivy Bridge” in 2012INTEL’S 3D TRANSISTORS33source: www.intel.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 32.  Optical lithography made the most importantcontributions to allow the profitable continuation ofMooreís Law. However, providing leading-edge lithography toolswas always a very challenging and selectivebusiness. Those equipment suppliers who were not able toprovide next generation lithography (NGL) were oftenkicked out of business. Only the winners who provided the leading-edgelithography tools, achieved good margins and couldafford to continue their cost-intensive developmentof the next generation tool. But even for winners it was often very difficult tomake the right choices regarding the futuretechnology.MOORE’S LAW AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR SUPPLIERSSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven34
  • 33. LITHOGRAPHY IN 1980Semiconductor FeatureSizes (Half-Pitch)micron1957 1201963 301971 101974 61976 31982 1.51985 1.31989 1
  • 34. HISTORIC LITHO TOOL PRICE [US$]37Mask AlignerFront-End Litho ToolEUVLASML 1950iEvery 4 years the price doubles[1970 – 2010]SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 35. Scanner and Stepper
  • 36. SCANNER AND STEPPERSource: Perkin-Elmer, ASML, Zeiss, Herbert Gross: Handbook of Optical Systems
  • 37. X-Ray Lithography
  • 38. 1992: SUSS MASK ALIGNER XRS-200 (X-RAY)Source: www.suss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven41
  • 39. CustomizedIllumination
  • 40. CUSTOMIZED ILLUMINATION IN DUV LITHOGRAPHY43Source: www.zeiss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 41. ASML/ZEISS ILLUMINATION SYSTEM FOR DUV LITHOGRAPHYSource: EPFL/IMT, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbHSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven44
  • 42. FLEXRAY ILLUMINATION SYSTEMDiffractive Optical ElementsMEMS Mirror Arrays(FlexRay™)Source: EPFL/IMT, ASML, Carl Zeiss SMT GmbHSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven46SUSS MicroOptics SA is "Preferred Supplier" for Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
  • 43. 157nm Lithography?Next:Immersion Lithography
  • 44.  Mar 2002: Burn Lin (TSMC) suggested to considerimmersion lithography @SPIE in Santa Clara. Oct 2003: ASML and IMEC demonstrate feasibility Jan 2004: Industry shifts from 157nm to immersion End 2004: Multiple 0.85NA immersion scannersshipped to (TSMC, IMEC) 2011: ASML NXT:1950i Step and Scan In-line catadioptric lens design (1.35NA, TWINSCAN) Resolution 40nm (C-quad), 38nm (dipole), 2.5 nm overlay FlexRay (customized illumination) FlexWave (programmable wavefronts) Reticle Control (heating compensation)IMMERSION LITHOGRAPHYSource:IMEC,www.dnse.com,ASML,FabtechSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven48SUSS MicroOptics SA is "Preferred Supplier" for Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
  • 45. SUCCESS STORYSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven49SUSS MicroOptics SA is "Preferred Supplier" for Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
  • 46. THE FUTURE OF LITHOGRAPHY?50 SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 47. EUV Lithography
  • 48. EUV LITHOGRAPHY52Source!!Source: ASML, XTREMESUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 49. Tricks & Tweaks?Workarounds?
  • 50. Moore’s Law: Double function every 2 years! Reduce cost per function Making chips more powerful for same cost, or Making chips of a given capability cheaperLitho Tools: Prices doubles every 4.4 years!RULE: Cost per function must decrease about 30%per year - a factor of 2 every two years - to stay ontrack!THE LAWS OF SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY54Source: Chris Mack, www.lithoguru.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 51. Tricks & Tweaks:Double-PatterningSelf-Aligned ...
  • 52. DOUBLE PATTERNING, MULTIPLE PATTERNING, SELF ALIGNEDSelf-aligned spacerSource: Wikipedia, SPIELitho-Etch-Litho-EtchSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven56
  • 53. The End of Shrinkage?
  • 54. CRUSING SPEED OF COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT59Source: Chris Mack, www.lithoguru.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 55. 16-CORE CPU?60Source: www.amd.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 56. Less-Litho-Intensive-Approach?
  • 57. Yes & More Tricks:3D Integration3D IC, 3D Memory
  • 58. 3D INTEGRATION, STACKING632D Integration 3D IntegrationSource: www.yole.frSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 59. MORE 3D INTEGRATIONSource: www.yole.fr
  • 60. Where is the MaskAligner?
  • 61. LITHOGRAPHY FOR LED MANUFACTURING66Market Share LED Exposure ToolsSUSSMask AlignerASMLStepperBeta Squareused Perkin ElmerDNKAlignerNikonUsed StepperUltratechStepperUshiofull-fieldEVGMask AlignerELSAlignerChina 102 23 3 12880% 18% 2%Europe 6 1 1 875% 13% 13%Japan 22 22100%Korea 14 9 25 1 2 5127% 18% 49% 2% 4%Malaysia 4 1 580% 20%Singapore 20 20100%Taiwan 23 75 23 14 9 14416% 52% 16% 10% 6%USA 11 11100%Worldwide 182 20 2 107 48 14 1 6 9 389Source: www.yole.frSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven
  • 62. MASK ALIGNER 2012ICs &Components End Products End UserEquipmentSupplierResearchInstitutesSource: www.suss.com
  • 63. New Mask Aligner?
  • 64. Mask Aligner technology changed tremendously overthe last 50 yearsMask Aligners 1963 - 2012The optics did not for 30 years!1969: MJB3 1985: MA150 2010: MA200 CompactSource: www.suss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven69
  • 65. NEW: MO EXPOSURE OPTICS®SELF CALIBRATING MASK ALIGNER ILLUMINATIONMicrolens Optical Integrators Lamp readjustment required Uniformity change over lamp lifetime Daily uniformity test required Variation of illumination light over mask(angular spectrum)NONONONOSource: www.suss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven70
  • 66.  Illumination technology from Stepper in Mask Aligner Microlens Integrators for light homogenization Self-calibrating light source, telecentric illumination Illumination filter plates allow customized illumination Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) in Mask AlignerMO EXPOSURE OPTICS®Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)Source: www.suss.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven71
  • 67. - Self-calibrating light source- Source-Mask Optimization (SMO)- Customized Illumination- Optical Proximity Correction (OPC)- Full 3D Litho Simulation in LAB software (GenISys)ADVANCED MASK ALIGNER LITHOGRAPHY(AMALITH)Source: www.suss.com, www.genisys-gmbh.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven72
  • 68. ENJOY THE MODERN WORLD!Source: www.apple.comSUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven73
  • 69. SUSS.Our SolutionsSet StandardsSUSS MicroOptics SARouges-Terres 61CH-2068 HauteriveSwitzerlandTel +41-32-564444Fax +41-32-5664499info@suss.ch, www.suss.ch74 SUSS MicroOptics SA, R. Voelkel, Optical Lithography, DGaO 2012, Eindhoven