History taking in neurology 2012

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  • MGM - 2009
  • History taking in neurology 2012

    1. 1. HISTORY TAKING INNEUROLOGY 3rd Year Clinical Skills 2012 MGM Year 2
    2. 2. MGM Year 2
    3. 3. MGM Year 2
    4. 4. Components of Neurological History Understanding the biomedical perspective of the illness: Establish the main complaint – refer to various symptoms under detailed neurological enquiry Detailed history of main complaint – duration of symptoms is important Systematic neurological enquiry, with reference to specific areas, as follows: MGM Year 2
    5. 5. SYSTEMATIC NEUROLOGICALENQUIRY Headaches, blackouts, fits, LOC Cranial nerve dysfunction Motor dysfunction Sensory dysfunction Coordination + balance dysfunction Bladder, rectal and sexual dysfunction Mental or cognitive decline MGM Year 2
    6. 6. Components of Neurological History(cont) Relevant systems review Understanding the patient’s perspective of the illness - ideas and beliefs, concerns, expectations, feelings and effects on activities of daily living Background information - context Past medical and surgical history Medications and allergies Family history Social and personal history Paediatric history – important aspects in neurology: Perinatal history Nutritional, immunization and developmental history MGM Year 2
    7. 7. HISTORY OF HEADACHE A common neurological symptom Brain parenchyma is not sensitive to pain as it lacks pain receptors However, pain is caused by disturbance of pain-sensitive structures around the brain e.g extracranial arteries, large veins, cranial and spinal nerves, head and neck muscles, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, ears, sinuses and meninges Headache may be caused by traction and irritation of the meninges and blood vessels Pain-sensitive structures are supplied by branches of the trigeminal nerve and upper cervical nerves: this explains the pattern of pain referral seen in intracranial diseases MGM Year 2
    8. 8. HISTORY OF HEADACHE MGM Year 2
    9. 9. TYPES OF HEADACHE Examples of common headache types to follow e.g tension, cluster, migraine Other - trigeminal neuralgia, sinusitis, temporal arteritis MGM Year 2
    10. 10. MGM Year 2
    11. 11. TENSION HEADACHES Pain usually bilateral, fronto-occipital Throbbing in nature Mild to moderate pain Tight band sensation Pressure behind eyes Precipitants: worry, stress, noise, etc MGM Year 2
    12. 12. MGM Year 2
    13. 13. MIGRAINE More common in women Usually one sided Throbbing Mild to severe pain Nausea and vomiting Photophobia/phonophobia Visual aura or photopsia Lasts for several hours MGM Year 2
    14. 14. MGM Year 2
    15. 15. CLUSTER HEADACHES More common in men Excruciating unilateral pain around one eye Drooping eyelid Redness or tearing of one eye Nasal stuffiness Pain is brief, occurring repeatedly for weeks (in clusters) followed by a few months rest before another cluster occurs Attacks often provoked by alcohol MGM Year 2
    16. 16. MGM Year 2
    17. 17. MGM Year 2
    18. 18. MENINGITIS Headache Stiff neck Fever Nausea and vomiting Photophobia Drowsiness Confusion MGM Year 2
    19. 19. MGM Year 2
    20. 20. HEADACHE RELATED TO ↑ICP Dull ache Worse on waking in the morning, improves through the day Made worse by coughing, sneezing, straining, bending forward or lying down Worsens progressively Associated with morning vomiting MGM Year 2
    21. 21. MGM Year 2
    22. 22. HISTORY OF HEADACHE Duration of headache: Chronological history over days, weeks, months or years Frequency of headaches Location of pain Type of pain: Continuous, pulsating, stabbing, sharp, throbbing, dull, thunderclap pain MGM Year 2
    23. 23. HISTORY OF HEADACHE Onset and duration of headaches: Acute: minutes to hours – vascular problem such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, migraine Subacute: hours to days – infective/ inflammatory cause eg meningitis, cerebral abscess Chronic: weeks to months - neoplastic months to years – degenerative process Note: Other causes eg toxic – may be acute or chronic MGM Year 2
    24. 24. HISTORY OF HEADACHE Patterns of headache: recurrent, intermittent with pain-free intervals, continuous, progressively increasing Time of occurrence of headache (diurnal or seasonal variation) Precipitating factors (stress, menses, allergens, sleep deprivation, coughing, straining, bending forwards,etc) Relieving factors (sleep, stress management, etc) MGM Year 2
    25. 25. HISTORY OF HEADACHE Radiation of pain Associated symptoms: photophobia, phonophobia, sensory or motor complaints, GIT symptoms, other MGM Year 2
    26. 26. HISTORY OF SEIZURES MGM Year 2
    27. 27. SEIZURES Any clinical event caused by abnormal electrical discharge in the brain – note role of inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and various excitatory neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, amino acids such as glutamate and aspartate) Epilepsy is the tendency to have recurrent seizures (fits) MGM Year 2
    28. 28. SEIZURE CLASSIFICATIONDepending on the source of the seizure within the brain:Localized – Partial - seizures Simple partial - if consciousness not affected Complex partial - if consciousness is affectedGeneralized seizures All involve loss of consciousness Further divided according to the effect on the body -include absence, myoclonic, clonic, tonic, tonic–clonic, and atonic seizures. Partial seizure may spread within the brain. This is known as secondary generalization – see next slide MGM Year 2
    29. 29. MGM Year 2
    30. 30. SEIZURE TYPEGeneralised seizure (formerly grand mal) Tonic-clonic phases Cry and fall Tongue biting Frothing at the mouth during the clonic phase Cyanosis Urinary/faecal incontinence Rhythmic jerking movements of limbs LOC (+ drowsiness + post-ictal confusion, amnesia and headache) MGM Year 2
    31. 31. Generalised seizures MGM Year 2
    32. 32. MGM Year 2
    33. 33. SEIZURE TYPETypical absence attack (formerly petit mal) Always starts in childhood Activity ceases Staring + pallor Eyelids twitch Duration – brief (seconds) before normal activity is resumed May be very frequent – up to 20 or 30 per day MGM Year 2
    34. 34. SEIZURE TYPETemporal lobe seizures Simple or complex partial seizures May be preceded by an aura Olfactory aura (unusual smell) is characteristic Tingling limb Strange inner feeling Complex partial seizures may be associated with post-ictal confusion or drowsiness MGM Year 2
    35. 35. SYNCOPE Fainting or LOC resulting from recoverable loss of adequate blood supply to the brain Vaso-vagal syncope - provoked by emotionally charged event e.g venepuncture Cardiac syncope - sudden decline in cardiac output and hence cerebral perfusion e.g severe aortic stenosis or heart block MGM Year 2
    36. 36. SEIZURE AND SYNCOPE Features helpful in distinguishing the two: Seizure Syncope1) Aura + -2) Cyanosis + -3) Tongue-biting + -4) Post-ictal confusion,headache and amnesia + -5) Rapid recovery - + MGM Year 2
    37. 37. HISTORY OF SEIZURES Obtain a description of the seizure/s: From patient and witness (NB blackouts, faints, fits, loss of consciousness) What happens at the onset of the fit? What happens during the fit? Does the patient fall or remain standing or sitting? How does the fit end? Confusion or other post-ictal symptoms? MGM Year 2
    38. 38. HISTORY OF SEIZURES Is there incontinence, any injury or tongue biting? Frequency of seizures? When do the seizures occur? What medication is taken? History of past/ current medication, compliance and response to medication MGM Year 2
    39. 39. HISTORY OF SEIZURES Change in seizure pattern Family history of seizures Head trauma or brain illness (especially in adult onset epilepsy) Birth history (especially in early onset seizures) MGM Year 2
    40. 40. SYSTEMATIC NEUROLOGICALENQUIRY – A REMINDER Headaches, blackouts, fits, LOC Cranial nerve dysfunction Motor dysfunction Sensory dysfunction Coordination + balance dysfunction Bladder dysfunction Mental state or cognitive decline MGM Year 2
    41. 41. Symptoms of Cranial NerveDysfunction Loss of vision, smell, taste Alteration in facial feeling Double vision / visual symptoms Problems with swallowing / chewing Speech alterations Vertigo / hearing abnormalities Bulbar dysfunction Pain / difficulty with neck movements MGM Year 2
    42. 42. MGM Year 2
    43. 43. Symptoms of Motor Dysfunction Weakness – ask about ability to lift arms / objects, grip strength, getting up from a chair / bed, going upstairs Wasting / loss of muscle bulk Stiffness of limbs Gait abnormalities - limping or dragging of legs MGM Year 2
    44. 44. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE Stroke – cerebrovascular accident or CVA - is a rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain (refer transient ischaemic attack or TIA) Types: 1) Ischaemic -e.g blockage of blood flow as in cerebral venous thrombosis, cerebral arterial embolism 2)Haemorrhagic - accumulation of blood in the brain tissue (intraparenchymal or intraventricular haemorrhage) or between the brain and the skull vault (epidural haematoma, subdural haematoma and subarachnoid haemorrhage) MGM Year 2
    45. 45. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE(cont) Clinical assessment provides an estimate of the site (i.e which arterial territory is involved) and size of the lesion Lesion in cerebral hemisphere - unilateral motor deficit (hemiplegia), higher cerebral function deficit (aphasia or neglect), hemisensory loss or a visual field defect. Lesion in brain stem or cerebellum - ataxia, diplopia, vertigo and/or bilateral weakness Large volume lesion in cerebral hemisphere -reduced level of consciousness MGM Year 2
    46. 46. Symptoms of Sensory Dysfunction Numbness Loss of feeling Altered feeling eg paraesthesia dysaesthesia (tingling, pins-and- needles) MGM Year 2
    47. 47. MGM Year 2
    48. 48. Symptoms of Co-ordinatoryDysfunction or Balance disturbance Difficulty in walking Unsteadiness Falls Staggering Loss of balance in the dark MGM Year 2
    49. 49. COORDINATION AND BALANCEDYSFUNCTION MGM Year 2
    50. 50. GAIT ABNORMALITIES MGM Year 2
    51. 51. Symptoms of Bladder Dysfunction Urinary retention (spinal cord compression or trauma) Loss of awareness of bladder distension (damage to the frontal lobe as in frontal tumours, bifrontal subdural haematomas) Frequency, urgency and urge incontinence (damage to the pons or spinal cord resulting in an upper motor neuron lesion) Overflow incontinence (damage to the pudendal nerve leading to flaccid paralysis of the detrusor muscle of the bladder, resulting in a lower motor neurone lesion) MGM Year 2
    52. 52. Symptoms of changes in mentalstate or cognitive decline Changes in memory State of alertness / drowsiness Changes in mood and affect, loss of spontaneity Loss of spatial orientation Language changes Diminished ability to carry out routine activities of daily living MGM Year 2
    53. 53. Components of Neurological History- a reminder of what we havecovered!BIOMEDICAL PERSPECTIVE Establish the main complaint/s Detailed history of main complaint/s and symptom analysis, chronological history Systematic neurological enquiry – in all neuro pts, irrespective of the main complaint MGM Year 2
    54. 54. Components of Neurological History(cont) Enquiry re other systems – co-existing disease, risk factors for cerebro- vascular disease eg HT, DM, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia – see also SH and FH Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastro-intestinal Genito-urinary MGM Year 2
    55. 55. Components of Neurological History(cont)CONTEXTUAL Past medical and surgical history - e.g meningitis, encephalitis, head or spinal injury, epilepsy, STDs Medications and allergies - past and current medications e.g anti-convulsants, OC, steroids anti-hypertensives, anti-coagulants MGM Year 2
    56. 56. Components of Neurological History(cont) Family History NB - neurological eg FH of CVA or other disease eg Huntington’s chorea Social and Occupational History - habits, alcohol, tobacco/drug use, exposure to toxins e.g heavy metals MGM Year 2
    57. 57. Components of Neurological History (cont)PATIENT PERSPECTIVE Neurological illnesses and trauma have a profound effect on patient’s lives – it is essential to use a patient-centred approach and explore the patient’s perspective – associated psych problems such as depression are common MGM Year 2
    58. 58. References Past protocols from departments Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine Original Power Point by Dr Matthews and clinicians Revisions and additions in 2012 by Dr R Abraham and clinicians MGM Year 2
    59. 59. And finally…. Scenario for history-taking Thank you for your attention! MGM Year 2

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