2) Due to abrupt school change, loss of friends, and loss of community. Develop difficulties sleeping that may become lasting and severe sleep disturbances for life.
Parental Kidnapping and Custody Issues Presentation
Group 5Presented By: Colton Nash , Reina Connolly, KimberlyAnderson, Eric Church, Jake Discroll, Megan Griffith,Amanda Mansfield, and Albandari Alrayes
Scott Church : Parental Kidnapping Definitions and Laws Colton Nash : Domestic and International Kidnapping Albandari Alrayes : Statistics on Parental KidnappingJake Discrol – Economic Impacts On Parental Kidnapping Megan Griffith : Custody Issues and Psychological Affects Amanda : Parental Kidnapping and Psychological Affects Kimberley Anderson: Parental Kidnapping Narratives Reina Connolly: Intervention Steps and Resources
Scott Church 3 Types of Parental Kidnapping1. Parental Kidnapping - Basically Family Member Taking Child2. Custodial Interference - Non-biological person taking child3. Access Interference: Denying or blocking access.
13-1301. DefinitionsUnless otherwise stated1. "Relative" means a parent or stepparent, ancestor, descendant, sibling, uncle or aunt, including an adoptive relative of the same degree through marriage or adoption, or a spouse2. "Restrain" means to restrict a persons movements without consent, without legalauthority, and in a manner which interferes substantially with such persons liberty, byeither moving such person from one place to another or by confining such person.Restraint is without consent if it is accomplished by:
(a) Physical force, intimidation or deception; or(b) Any means including acquiescence of the victim ifthe victim is a child less than eighteen years old or anincompetent person and the victims lawful custodianhas not acquiesced in the movement or confinement.
13-1302. Custodial interference; child born out of wedlock; defenses;classificationA. A person commits custodial interference if, knowing or having reason to know that the person has no legal right to do so, the person does one of the following:1. Takes, entices or keeps from lawful custody any child, or any person who is incompetent, and who is entrusted by authority of law to the custody of another person or institution.2. Before the entry of a court order determining custodial rights, takes, entices or withholds anychild from the other parent denying that parent access to any child.3. If the person is one of two persons who have joint legal custody of a child, takes, entices orwithholds from physical custody the child from the other custodian.4. At the expiration of access rights outside this state, intentionally fails or refuses to return orimpedes the return of a child to the lawful custodian.
B. If a child is born out of wedlock, the mother is the legal custodian of the child for the purposesof this section until paternity is established and custody or access is determined by a court.C. It is a defense to a prosecution pursuant to subsection A, paragraph 2 if both of the followingapply:E. A violation of this section is:1. A class 3 felony if committed by a person other than the parent or agent of the parent orcustodian or agent of the custodian.
2. Notwithstanding paragraph 3 of this subsection, a class 4 felony if the child or incompetent person is taken,enticed or kept from lawful custody out of this state by the parent or agent of the parent or custodian or theagent of the custodian.3. A class 6 felony if committed by a parent or agent of the parent or custodian or agent of the custodian.4. A class 1 misdemeanor if the child or incompetent person is voluntarily returned without physical injury bythe parent or defendant or the agent of the parent or defendant no later than forty-eight hours after theparent or defendant takes, entices or keeps from lawful custody the child or incompetent person.
13-1305. Access interference; classification; definitionA. A person commits access interference if, knowing or having reason to know that theperson has no legal right to do so, the person knowingly engages in a pattern of behaviorthat prevents, obstructs or frustrates the access rights of a person who is entitled toaccess to a child pursuant to a court order.B. If the child is removed from this state, access interference is a class 5 felony.Otherwise access interference is a class 2 misdemeanor.
C. The enforcement of this section is not limited by the availability of other remedies foraccess interference.D. For the purposes of this section "access order" means a court order that is issuedpursuant to title 25 and that allows a person to have direct access to a child orincompetent person.
Regulates interstate kidnapping of a child by thenoncustodial parentCommon to get sympathy from another judge
In 2008, the U.S. Department of State handled 1,082 newcases of international parental abduction involving 1,615children.
On September 28, 2009, thirty-eight year old ChristopherSavoie made national news when he was arrested for childabduction just outside the U.S. Consulate in Fukuoka, JapanIn Japan, the emphasis following a divorce is on a "cleanbreak" for all parties involved
97 % of parents who participated in the survey hadmissing childrenThe children were suspected to be in forty-sixdifferent countries
Was signed on October 25th, 1980"to secure the prompt return of children wrongfully removed to or retained in anyContracting State; and to ensure that rights of custody and of access under the lawof one Contracting State are effectively respected in the other Contracting States”
A : Albania , Argentina , Australia, and AustriaB: Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, and BosniaC: Canada Chile China, People Republic of Costa Rica, Croatia Cyprus, and Czech RepublicD: DenmarkE: Ecuador ,Egypt, Estonia, and the European UnionF Finland and FranceG: Georgia, Germany, and GreeceH : HungaryI : Iceland ,India, Ireland, Israel, and Italy
J : Japan and Jordan K : Korea L: Latvia, Lithuania, and Luxembourg M : Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro and Morocco N : Netherlands , New Zealand, and Norway P: Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines , Poland, and Portugal R: Romania and Russia S :Serbia , Slovakia , Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, and Switzerland T: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey U: Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , United States of America, Uruguay V: Venezuela
The IPKCA makes it a felony to "remove a child fromthe United States or retain a child . . . outside theUnited States with intent to obstruct the lawfulexercise of parental rights."
a ne exeat clauseCustody agreements almost always need to bemodified for an international move
adopt a per se (in and of itself) ban on all contestedinternational relocations of a child for whom custody issharedadopt a per se ban on all contested international relocationsto non-Hague Convention countries
The problem of missing children iscomplex. Children may become missing due toabduction by nonfamily members or abductionby family members.Children may be missing as a result of runningaway from home. Also be missing involuntarilyfor reasons other than abduction, due tobecoming lost, injured or otherwise missing totheir parents.
800,000 children younger than 18 are missingeach year, or an average of 2,000 childrenreported missing each day.200,000 children were abducted by familymembers.
According to 1997 study, Case Management forMissing Children Homicide Investigation, themurder of an abducted child is a rare event; anestimated 100 such incidents occur in the UnitedStates each year. However, the study further foundthat 76.2 % of abducted children who are murderedare dead within 3 hours of the abduction.
According the FBI’s National Crime InformationCenter (NCIC)o 85% - 90% of the 876,213 persons reportedmissing to America’s law enforcement agencies in2000 were juveniles (persons under 18). That meansthat 2,100 times per day parents or primary caregivers felt the disappearance was serious enough tocall law enforcement.o 152,265 of the persons reported missing in 2000were categorized as either endangered orinvoluntary.
Of the 800,000 children reported missing annually,approximately 69,000 are abducted: Family members account for the majority ofthese reported cases (82%) Non-family abductions account for 12,000 ofthese reported cases (18%) Of non-family abductions, 37% are by a stranger.
Every 40 seconds in the United States, a child is reported missing or abducted. That translates to over 2,000 children per day (under 18 years) or 800,000 per year. About 74% of the victims of nonfamily child abduction are girls.References:1990 U.S. Justice Dept.http://www.klaaskids.org/pg-mc-mcstatistics.htmhttp://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/servlet/PageServlet?LanguageCountry=en_US&PageId=2816http://kidsfightingchance.com/stats.php
Legal Fees:- Average from $3,000- $5,000- Can cost as much as $35,000- Cost varies based on length of procedures, hiring of experts,- Usually paid in advance, retainer- Once retainer is used up based on firm/lawyer’s fees, then additional charges are billed to clientThe Economic Aftermath- Once thousands of dollars are invested the idea of “winning” becomes a priority- The best interest of the child can be lost- Legal battles usually end with one winner (sole physical custody)- Possible counseling/therapy for child- Child Support
Lawyer Fees:- $75-$400 an hour- Time in court charged at higher rate than officeconsultation- Legal support available for low income families
The Economic Aftermath- Once thousands of dollars are invested theidea of “winning” becomes a priority- The best interest of the child can be lost- Legal battles usually end with one winner(sole physical custody)- Possible counseling/therapy for child- Child Support
Child Support- Median of $280 per child a month (U.S. CensusBureau)- Configured based on several factors- Children’s date of birth- Gross income- Medical insurance- Extra education expenses- Parenting time days per years
Issues Regarding Custody:1. Physical Custody- Who the child lives with2. Residential Custody- Who makes decisions on behalf of the children concerning health, education, religion, and general welfare.Types:1. Joint Legal Custody2. Joint Physical Custody3. Sole Legal Custody
Parent Alienation SyndromeDefinition: Attempt to alienate a child against theother parent.
For women: Women initiate divorce twice as often as men 90% of divorced mothers have custody of their children (even if they did not receive it in court) After divorce, women experience less stress and better adjustment in general than do men. The reasons for this are that (1) women are more likely to notice marital problems and to feel relief when such problems end, (2) women are more likely than men to rely on social support systems and help from others, and (3) women are more likely to experience an increase in self-esteem when they divorce and add new roles to their lives. Women who work and place their children in child care experience a greater stigma than men in the same position. Men in the same position often attract support and compassion.
For men: Men are usually confronted with greater emotional adjustment problems than women. The reasons for this are related to the loss of intimacy, the loss of social connection, reduced finances, and the common interruption of the parental role. Men remarry more quickly than women. As compared to "deadbeat dads," men who have shared parenting (joint legal custody), ample time with their children, and an understanding of and direct responsibility for activities and expenses of children stay involved in their childrens lives and are in greater compliance with child support obligations. There is also a greater satisfaction with child support amount when negotiated in mediation. Budgets are prepared, and responsibility divided in a way that parents understand. Men are initially more negative about divorce than women and devote more energy in attempting to salvage the marriage
3 Major Protective Psychological Factors forChildren going through a custody battle:1) A reasonably harmonious parental relationships where they support each other through parenting2) Sensitivity and commitment of each parent to the child3) Psychological intactness and morality of each parent
Children are at risk at several points along the family break down:1) Predivorce families may include violence and abuse2) Reaction to breakup is a wide range of symptoms depending on age, gender, and the degree of anger and depression in the adults3) Post divorce, single families have a lowered income, lowered standard of living, less educational opportunities, and changes in parent-child relationship4) New siblings5) Risk for developmental effects when confronting serious commitments and relationships
1) Denial2) Abandonment3) Preoccupation with Information4) Anger and Hostility5) Depression6) Immaturity/Hypermaturity7) Preoccupation with Reconciliation8) Blame and Guilt9) Acting Out
Studies in the early 1980’s showed that children in repeat divorcesearned lower grades and their peers rated them as less pleasant to bearound.Teenagers in single-parent families and in blended families are threetimes more likely to need psychological help within a given year.Compared to children from homes disrupted by death, children fromdivorced homes have more psychological problems.People who come from broken homes are almost twice as likely toattempt suicide than those who do not come from broken homes.Children of divorced parents are roughly two times more likely todrop out of high school than their peers who benefit from living withparents who did not divorce.
A. Amstetten, AustriaB. Captured by own father, Josef Fritzl, and held for 24 yearsC. Josef told Elisabeth’s mother, and all others, that Elisabeth had escaped home to join a cultD. Hidden in a concealed basement in the Fritzl homeE. Physical and sexual abuseF. Seven births—One deadG. Father arrested for incest, rape, and enslavement, among other charges—sentenced to life in prisonH. Elisabeth living with her children in an undisclosed location
Kidnapped by non-custodial father, Lee HermanWackerhagen, on December 26th, 1993 fromLockhart, TexasParents divorced three years prior; mother hadcustodyLeft mom’s home to spend Christmas with hisfather—given permission to stay a few extradaysLee’s girlfriend had been murdered a few daysbefore the kidnapping; Lee a suspectChance remains missing to this date
Abducted by her mother, following the divorce of herparentsName was originally Missy Sokolsky; mother changed hername to Melissa Hart—both assumed new identitiesFather took her back, and mother re-captured herLived with mother in a women’s shelter, surviving off ofdonated food and second-hand clothing; later moved intoa room in a house with a strangerMelissa kept secrets to protect her motherRan away at age sixteen and reunited with her father, whodied soon afterwardNow works as the executive director of Take Root, helpingrescued children recover from abduction
1999 kidnapped her two daughters and oneson; helped by brotherViolated custody rulingSon soon found abandoned in a hotel Discovered six years later during a traffic stopCharged with removal of minor children againstcustody ordersBrother will be charged, if found
International kidnappingIllegally took child from father and fled toJamaicaSeven months later, returned to US withoutchild; arrested by ICE HSIPled guilty to 3 charges of international parentalkidnapping; 3 max years in prison and $250,000fineChild still not found
Following a custody battle—father given full custody—Jennifer did not arrive at the father’s to give the childrento her now ex-husbandBought a car, moved to Aguascalientes, Mexico with newhusband, changed namesFew months after: sent letter to LA County DistrictAttorney’s Office, claiming she saved her kids from anabusive fatherFound in Mexicali having dinnerTaken to LACurrently in jail; children with CPS
1)Parental kidnapping affects individuals and institutions Individuals who are greatly affected by parental abductiona)Child that is kidnappedb)Parent that is missing his/her childc) The abductor (usually the parent of the child or a close family member)d)Siblings of the child who is kidnapped
Institutions which are impacted by child abductiona) Schools and Districts1. Teachers/Mentors of the Kidnapped Child2. Peers of the Kidnapped Child3. Friends of the Kidnapped Child4. Parents Who Knew the Kidnapped Child5. Other Staff and Faculty
b) Church Organizations 1. Church members 2. Religious leaders and clergyc) Law Enforcement1. Police officers assigned to child kidnapping cases2. Law enforcement who have experienced firsthandthe impact of child abduction on a family3. Police officers and investigators who have childrenthemselves (hits close to home)
d) The Family1. The child who was kidnapped2. The parent whose child is missing3. The abductor (spouse/other family members)4. Siblings of the kidnapped child
1) Psychological lens2) Social lens Through this information, one can see how recovery is important when one suffers from the repercussions of parental kidnapping. The recovery process is also crucial to start right after the child comes home after being abducted.
1) age2) family history (mental/physical health problems)3) emotional/physical abuse experienced4) mental state (through a psychiatric evaluation)5) how much information the child discloses after the kidnapping More intense therapy if child does not disclose information and less intense therapy if child does disclose information and is open to talk about it6) state of parent-child relationship
However, there are professionals, organizations, and foundations that specializein parental kidnapping cases through a sociological and psychological perspectivewhose main goals are to:1) Educate parents on parental kidnapping2) Educate parents and child caretakers on the signs and prevention techniques for families who might be at risk for child abduction3) Educate parents who are victims of child abduction4) Provide counseling techniques and recovery strategies to children who have been kidnapped5) Provide recovery and counseling techniques to parents who have had their child abducted6) Provide recovery and counseling techniques for abductors7) Include other family therapies/foundations focused on recovery
Academic research and peer review journals have recently published information oncounseling and intervention techniques to aid individuals in parental kidnappingincluding: a) Child (Victim) b) Parent (Victim) c) Abductor d) The Overall Family*The above information is crucial when finding the right intervention for each individualso they can restore their emotional and physical well-being.
A) Art Therapy 1) Def.: Therapy in which creative projects and activities through art is a tool used to help the therapist aid the development of an individual’s emotional and physical health. (http://www.goodtherapy.org/art-therapy.html) 2) In the Context of Child Abduction: “Art produces tangible insight into the child’s world, which may lead to communication and also the alleviation or resolution of dysfunctional behavior, anger, hurt and pain. This is a prime example of the importance of the involvement of a trained professional in these cases.” (http://www.parentalabduction.org/counseling_services.htm)
3) Art therapy can allow children of parental abduction: Be creative Be successful in art or other creative hobbies Illustrate positive associations with the parent and abductor Heal through art when illustrating what he or she might be feeling Communicate through art so therapists and parents can collaborate to help the child psychologically and socially Use art as a healthy intervention when life gets stressful or they think about the abduction
B) Anger Management 1) Def.: Therapy which stops and alleviates triggers which make the client burst out in rage or get very angry. Coping methodology is also used within this therapy to identify these triggers which causes a client’s rage. In addition, these coping methods help clients to cope and successfully handle these triggers and their emotional responses through control and other mental health strategies. (http://www.goodtherapy.org/anger-management.html) 2) In The Context of Child Abduction: “Children who have suffered neglect or abuse may bury their emotional wounds for years and suffer from anger issues which can be treated by anger management therapy sessions. “ (http://www.goodtherapy.org/anger-management.html)
3) Positive Outcomes of Anger Management Therapy For Child a) Could come to peace with their angry or bitter feelings toward both of their parents b) Have some sort of resolution concerning the child abduction and why they were the victim c) Helps children move on with their lives living a productive and healthy lifestyle d)Helps children socially with establishing and maintaining friendships and relationships without jeopardizing these with anger. e) Provides a sense of calm and relief once a child incorporates anger management techniques into his/her daily life.
C) Play Therapy 1) Def.: Therapy which incorporates a combination play and imagination in order for the therapist to help an individual resolve an issue, conflict, or trauma that they faced in the past or present. (http://www.goodtherapy.org/Play_Therapy.html) 2) In the context of child abduction: “A play therapist uses a child’s internal healing mechanism to transform current life issues by accessing past, present, conscious, and unconscious experiences through play” (http://www.goodtherapy.org/Play_Therapy.html)
C) Benefits of Play Therapy1) Develops a child’s imagination2) Creates playful scenarios to describe how the child is feeling3) The child feels safe and secure interacting through play4) The child does not have feelings of neglect or abuse since they are concentrating on playing5) Child has a visual representation of their current life issues through a fun method of playing and sees what healing mechanisms they can apply in his/her real lives.
Parents Who Are Victims - Counseling Techniques and StrategiesResearch has suggested that during child abduction, parents who are “leftbehind”:A) Do not take care of themselvesB) Do not seek the proper help (therapy/counseling) for themselvesC) Sacrifice their mental and physical health to find their missing childD) Deprive themselves From eating and sleepingE) Feel despair and helplessness – which could be agents that threatens aparent’s mental health(http://traversecityfamilylaw.com/Documents/WhenYourChildIsMissing.pdf
Some techniques which parents should follow when their child is kidnapped in order tomaintain emotional and physical stability include: Forcing Yourself To Eat Or Sleep: Most parents in the context of a child abduction case deprive themselves from eating and sleeping due to stress, fear, depression, and anxiety. However, it is crucial to eat and sleep in order to not make their stress, fear, anxiety, and depression more severe, therefore interfering with their daily lives and activities. Finding Time For Physical Exercise: Exercise is proven to increase serotonin which is a chemical in the brain that creates feelings of happiness and joy. Individuals with a lack of serotonin have a chemical imbalance which could lead to depression and other psychological issues. It is important to exercise in order for the parent to feel better and shift to a more positive and optimistic state of mind. Create A Space For Yourself : Sometimes having quiet time allows parents to be in check with their emotions and release any anxiety they have through healthy methods like breathing or doing an activity alone in a peaceful, serene environment. This promotes mental health and it also lets the parent separate from people who he/she shares a bond with (friendships or relationships) for a short time. In this way, the parent will not hurt or push away the person he/she loves or who cares about him/her.
Find Ways To Release Negative Emotions: When releasing negative emotions, it isimportant for the parent to find healthy ways in which they can complete this task.Healthy ways and strategies parents of missing children can release their negativeemotions include pursuing hobbies or doing various activities including: painting,writing, drawing, singing, dancing, yoga classes, etc. Other ways to release negativeemotions that parents might hold in include doing techniques such as: Writing a letter to the abductor or anyone they are angry at and ripping the letter into shreds Screaming into or punching a pillow Doing breathing exercisesDon’t Blame YourselfGuilt can affect one’s social and psychological well-being. It is important for everyindividual not to dwell on blaming him/herself. When a parent blames him/herself,he/she has less self-esteem, which could create or feed into depression or anxieties.Instead of parents blaming them, they should focus on the future and create ways inwhich they can parent better and spend more time with their child when he/shereturns.
6) Don’t Blame OthersParents who place the blame on others tend to drive away their family, friends, andother support networks. The key for any parent to get through parental abduction is tohave support systems and not to jeopardize them by instilling hate or guilt in thepeople who care about or love them.7) Keep A JournalWriting exercises, including journaling, is incorporated into many different therapies tohelp one with their psychological and social struggles. A journal helps an individual, notonly with depression, but it also can make a parent in this type of situation:1) Uncloud his/her perspectives on life2) Feel uplifted and inspired3) See glimmers of hope through their writing4) Help them to communicate effectively5) Feel a closer connection to the therapist in terms of communication if thejournal is shared6) Learn lessons from past entries7) Experience self-healing through writing
8) Stay Away From Alcohol and Other Harmful Medications:Parents who have their child abducted go through unimaginable stresses. However,some cope by using alcohol in excessive amounts. Excessive alcohol use puts a parent atmore risk to have brain damage, liver damage, depression and manic episodes,delusions, and to commit suicide. Others might cope by self-medicating or overdosing.Therefore, removing alcohol and drugs from the place of residence is a good idea.9) Stay United In Your Fight For Your Child: Many moms and dads do not realize in orderto be effective parents; they must take care of themselves first. It is important to takecare for yourself so your efforts are concentrated on the child and finding them as soonas possible. In fact, in most crime and kidnapping cases, “the first 48 hours is critical”.
10) Seek Professional Counseling for Yourself and Your Family: It is important to have family and individual counseling ASAP (more specifically as soon as the parental abductions start continuing to the aftermath.) Professional counselors and therapists have a vast knowledge on coping methodologies, how to work with different populations, the art of communication, and other resources from social agencies they know of. A counselor is not only a professional to help alleviate a stressful situation, but also provides another insight and perspective outside yourself and your family so you can get the best guide to lead a healthy and productive life even under these stresses. Family counseling is also very important since during a case of child abduction,the foundation of this institution is destroyed. Therefore, family counseling could helprestore dynamics and bonds. In addition, family counseling can be a platform in whicheveryone in the family can communicate effectively and understand techniques bywhich each family member can contribute. As a result, the family in questions is notdysfunctional and once again functions as a whole.
11) Rely on Peer Support Groups and Family When You Are Struggling to Cope:Peer and support groups are very important for the parent left behind to takeadvantage of. It is also important for parents to ask for help in order to getthrough this stressful time. Therefore, it is a bad thing if the child never reachedout for anything from their parents, family, friends, and loved ones. It isimportant in order for the parent to stay sane to have support groups and familysurround them during unbearable moments or when he/she struggles to cope.12) Seek Peace and Solace within Yourself: Solace seeking and peace seeking areso important when it comes to forgiving yourself. Peace and solace not onlymake you empowered, hopeful, and energetic, but are also part of the process ofletting go and moving on in baby steps, not letting the abduction shape a parent’s life. In this way, the parent regains his/her self-worth. Note: The above underlined techniques and strategies were taken from When Your Child Is Missing PDF File published by Traverse City Family Law pgs. 61 – 63.
Even though there is not much research on therapies and counseling strategies gearedtoward child abductors, there are certain organizations that are specifically for criminals(since parental kidnapping in some states is a criminal offense). They teach offendershow to:a) Learn their mistakesb) Integrate into societyc) Realize their actionsd) Take responsibilitye) Make positive changes in their life
1) http://www.criminon.org/ : “Criminon (which means “no crime”) is an international non-profit public benefit corporation dedicated to addressing the causes of criminality and restoring the criminal’s self-respect through effective drug detoxification, education and common sense programs.”2) http://www.ehow.com/list_6638745_types-rehabilitation-treatment- criminal-justice.html : Types of Rehabilitation and Treatment Article (Depending on the Criminal Offense)3) http://www.rehabilitations.org/prisoner-rehabilitation.html An organization focused on rehabilitation techniques and practices within a prison and criminal population.
Family Therapy and Intervention ProcessesThe family unit is one of the most important institutions within society. However, justlike any institution, it faces struggles and triumphs, sometimes occurring on a frequentbasis. Crises and tragedies families face sometimes can destroy the institution from theinside out. In other words, these crises that destroy the fabric by which families are heldtogether are derived from different categories including: social, economic, and politicalrealms. Parental kidnapping can cause chaos, disharmony, and fear in families, shakingtheir foundations.Therefore, it is important for parents of the child to use family therapy and interventionresources to:a) Prevent parental abductions in the familyb) Lessen the chaos, disharmony, and fear in the family if parental kidnapping alreadyoccurredc) Become a stronger family unitd) Make the child (the kidnapped) feel safe again in his/her own home and feelcomfortable when among family members (either the parent who was left behind andthe abductor)e) Establish closure between the parent that was left behind and the abductorf) Provide counseling and other forms of therapy to siblings of the kidnapped
Some organizations that are focused on family intervention, therapies and strategiesinclude:http://www.fsisc.org/topic.asp?pid=26 – Family Violence InterventionProgramhttp://www.st.annshome.org/site/Programs/OutpatientServices/IntensiveFamilyInterventionProgram/tabid/164/Default.aspx - St Anne’s Schooland Home (The Intensive Family Intervention Program http://www.fisnj.org/center-for-family-success/about-center-for-family-success.htm - National Institute For Family Success
Alanen, J.. Family abduction prevention and response.Charles B. Wang International Children’s Building, 2009.Web. 9 Apr 2012.http://www.missingkids.com/en_US/publications/NC75.pdf. "Counseling / Psychological Services." . Parental Abduction Inc., n.d.Web. 9 Apr 2012. http://www.parentalabduction.org/counseling_services.htm"International Child Abductions: A Manual for Parents ." Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr 2012. http://www.voyage.gc.ca/publications/child-abductions_enlevements-enfants-engOffice of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Dept. of Justice, Washington,D.C.. Risk Factors and Preventative Intervention . Print.http://childabductions.org/prevention2.html Office of Victims of Crime. U.S Department of Justice. Library & Multimedia Publications: Parental Kidnapping. Web.http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/Publications.aspx?TopicID=103"Parental Kidnapping Resources and Other Family Law Links.”. Jeanne M. Hannah, 2005. Web. 9 Apr 2012. http://www.parental-kidnapping.com/Pages/FAQs.htm