Languages: • Bantu Family • Include 5 language clusters: –Kore Kore –Zesuru –Manyika –Nadau –Karangua United in early 19th century
Economy• Agricultural• Men & Women help on the farm
Gender Roles• Men hunt and fish to supplement the family’s diet• Women create and sell baskets and pottery to supplement the family income
Political Systems• National States led by a Head Chief who makes important decisions & is paid tributes• Traditionally organized in small groups – 1-2 elderly men & their extended families
Religion• Believe in 2 types of spirits – Vadizimu Spirits: ancestoral • Ancient heroes/ recent ancestors • All that is good in society – Shave spirits:Wandering spirits • Foreigners/ animals • Inspire talent/ cause harm through witchcraft
Shona Built Great Zimbabwe• Built in approximately 400 A.D.
Aime Cesaire, Communist and• Negrity. Other Important Books on the Anti- Colonialism include• W.E.B. DuBois Color and Democracy (1945) and The World and Africa (1947)• Frantz Fanons Black Skin, White Masks (1952)• The Wretched of the Earth. (1961)• George Padmores Pan-Africanism or Communism?: The Coming Struggle for Africa (1956),• Albert Memmis The Colonizer and the Colonized (1957),• Richard Wrights White Man Listen! (1957),• Jean-Paul Sartres essay, "Black Orpheus" (1948),• Their works were boosted by journals such as Présence Africaine and African Revolution.
Quote from Fanon; “The Wretched of the Earth.”