Question 3 on the case study revision sheet:“The technologies that have been produced in recent years at the levels of pro...
Questions you should answer at the end of this revision PowerPoint.Learning outcome 1<br />How has digital technology impa...
Link to question 4 on revision sheet“The significance of the proliferation of hardware and content for institutions and au...
Question timeLearning outcome 2<br />How has the increase and improvement in technology effected the way that films are pr...
Traditional Method of making and distributing films.<br />Someone has an idea for a movie. <br />They create an outline an...
Proliferation and negative distribution and exhibition<br />Downloading  from unofficial sources i.e. Limewire, Youtube gr...
Digital age: production, distribution and marketing and exchange<br />When it comes to distribution the digital age has sh...
Randle Culkin Argue:<br />The movie we see at out local multiplex may have been shown many times over and the wear and tea...
Summary<br />Digital technology offers new opportunities and the one way process of film making is now opened up to new ki...
EXHIBITION<br />Exhibition is the way in which the audience consume the product.  <br />Today their is aproliferationin th...
Film Exhibition<br />Independent cinema<br /> <br />Mainstream Cinema<br /> <br />DVD/Bluray<br /> <br />Internet download...
Film Exhibition-Cinema<br />Many countries including Britain did not have multiple cinemas until 1980s. Most were independ...
Independent <br />Owned by independent or small companies i.e lighthouse cinema Wolverhampton and the Electric in Birmingh...
The Exhibitor<br />The role of the exhibitor is the publicity and marketing of the film, they rent the film from the distr...
Digital technology and exhibition<br />Ben Walters suggested that film exhibitors are now more interested in 3-D film. The...
UK film council DSN<br />Look at the UK film council’s website and research DSN -Digital Screen Network) and digital exhib...
Exchange<br />Exchange: How has the audience exchanged information about this film consider the important of web2.0. <br /...
Proliferation (through technology)<br />Downloading – itunes, ipod, apple TV<br />Digital Piracy – DVD’s, filesharing<br /...
Web 2.0<br />Describes new phase of the internet where users can generate, distribute their own content.  Examples:<br />Y...
YouTube<br />As the name says this is about the audience interacting and generating their own content. YouTube is believed...
Web 2.0<br />Tim Berners-Lee was is believed to be the founder of the world wide web. He saw the web as being for everyone...
    Those who have supported the concept of WEB 2.0 <br />Web 2.0 is associated with Tim O’Reilly because of the O’Reilly ...
Who else supports it<br />The term “Web 2.0″ was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999. In her article “Fragmented Future,” she ...
Summary Proliferation hardware and impact of web 2.0<br />Proliferation of hardware and web 2.0 is important for the indus...
Key terms<br />Other important Issues and Key TermsProliferation – the increase of films in a genre or the use of technolo...
Technology and proliferation
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Technology and proliferation

  1. 1. Question 3 on the case study revision sheet:“The technologies that have been produced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange”<br />Learning outcome 1: You will be aware of how new technology has been used to improve the making, distributing, marketing and exhibition on film.<br />
  2. 2. Questions you should answer at the end of this revision PowerPoint.Learning outcome 1<br />How has digital technology impacted on production in film? Specifically your case studies?<br />How has digital technology impacted on distribution in film? Specifically your case studies?<br />How has digital technology impacted on the marketing of films specifically your case studies ?<br />How has digital technology impacted on exhibition of films, specifically your films/?<br />Links to question on case study revision sheet.<br />
  3. 3. Link to question 4 on revision sheet“The significance of the proliferation of hardware and content for institutions and audiences.”i<br />Proliferation is the increase in the amount of hardware and content available to both audience and institution through emergence of new and old media.<br />Learning outcome: You will become aware of how the increase and improvements made in technology are affecting the ways that films are made and distributed today. Also, be able to assess how technological improvements have impacted on the viewing experience, at home and in the cinema<br />
  4. 4. Question timeLearning outcome 2<br />How has the increase and improvement in technology effected the way that films are produced? Specifically your case studies?<br />How has the increase and improvement in technology effected distribution? Specifically your case studies?<br />How was technological improvements impacted on the way we view film at home and in the cinema? Specifically your case studies?<br />
  5. 5. Traditional Method of making and distributing films.<br />Someone has an idea for a movie. <br />They create an outline and use it to promote interest in the idea. <br />A studio or independent investor decides to purchase rights to the film. <br />People are brought together to make the film (screenwriter, producer, director, cast, crew). <br />The film is completed and sent to the studio. <br />The studio makes a licensing agreement with a distribution company. <br />The distribution company determines how many copies (prints) of the film to make. <br />The distribution company shows the movie (screening) to prospective buyers representing the theatres. <br />The buyers negotiate with the distribution company on which movies they wish to lease and the terms of the lease agreement. <br />The prints are sent to the theatres a few days before the opening day. <br />The theatre shows the movie for a specified number of weeks (engagement). <br />You buy a ticket and watch the movie. <br />At the end of the engagement, the theatre sends the print back to the distribution company and makes payment on the lease agreement. <br />Homework: read http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/movie-distribution1.htm<br />
  6. 6. Proliferation and negative distribution and exhibition<br />Downloading from unofficial sources i.e. Limewire, Youtube grabber and also other digital piracy including file sharing and technology to rip DVDs use new technology to do this.<br />Piracy – DVD’s recording films in cinemas<br />Accessibility – everywhere and anyone has ability to do this because of convergence of technology and affordability of this.<br />Control – moves from institution to the audience. But it is the smaller companies that are effected more why?<br />In what ways have institutions tried to stop or halt this? Think of ways they have used technology to stop this or initativesi.e cheap downloads.<br /> Piracy is major concern for industry see case study Disney and Alice Wonderland :http://www.filmstalker.co.uk/archives/2010/02/disney_pays_for_alice_in_wonde.html<br />
  7. 7. Digital age: production, distribution and marketing and exchange<br />When it comes to distribution the digital age has shaped how we distribute and receive films from downloading, piracy, file sharing to even the promotion of films using online advertising, viral games to also the production.<br />Digital technology has made life better for low budget film makers and distributors because it is cheaper and easier to distribute.<br />Now major companies like UK film Council, UK Media Desk have online submissions for short films.<br />For the major studios and distributors digital technology has potential to increase profits, but also presents dangers because once you can download films online you can bypass the cinema and no longer need multiple prints, and will offer views identical version of the film and save millions of pounds on distribution most importantly taking the power away from the companies technology. Again this comes back to the view of WEB 2.0<br />Some believe digital technology will stop piracy because there will be a simultaneous distribution of the film rather than it being a time gap in countries where it is being shown.<br />Some argue digital technology will give viewers a better viewing quality.<br />
  8. 8. Randle Culkin Argue:<br />The movie we see at out local multiplex may have been shown many times over and the wear and tear on it will be considerable: scratches, dust and fading-as a result of it having been exposed regularly to bright light will reduce the quality of the presentation. Even before wear and tear kicks in, what we are watching may be a third generation copy-a process similar to making a photocopy of a photocopy, where some of the original definition in inevitably lost. Some experts believe D cinema will overtake quality of the best conventional cinema within the next year or two and at the same time address age old industry problems. Prints are bulky and their manufacture ,distribution and exhibition are labour intensive and therefore expensive. And in an world where we are increasingly concerned with the impact on the environment, it is hard to justify the use of a technology (film manufacturing) which involves a high level of toxic process, when a cleaner alternative is available.<br />Culkin and Randle also suggest in the future film extras maybe replaced by digital generated synthespians.<br />Consider the changes to the digital remastered version of star wars.<br />UK film council funding the digital screen network which helps independent cinemas link http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/distributionandexhibition<br />
  9. 9. Summary<br />Digital technology offers new opportunities and the one way process of film making is now opened up to new kinds of people because the means to produce are cheaper, and has become interactive. With online media i.e. social networking, TV on demand, video games, means that the internet will play a role in the film distribution. This convergence of media through digital technology creates new opportunities for distributing and exhibition. Where power once held by the major studios is more accessible to a wider audience because of the cheaper cost of DV, with a place for short film via the internet, with phones now having HD video cameras with the ability to upload to the internet digital technology has transformed the film industry. <br />However, cinema has survived both TV and VCR by remodelling itself as a social experience, and offering the opportunity to watch blockbusters. The question is will cinema survive the digital revolution, because digital technology has transformed the distribution of film, but will it transform the way we view films as most people go to the cinema because of the big screen.<br />
  10. 10. EXHIBITION<br />Exhibition is the way in which the audience consume the product. <br />Today their is aproliferationin the way we can consume the content through both old and new media, and how these have converged i.e TV, Newspapers are now have converged online with the use of the internet. Where websites have video news and also people writing on the blogs with their view.<br />
  11. 11. Film Exhibition<br />Independent cinema<br /> <br />Mainstream Cinema<br /> <br />DVD/Bluray<br /> <br />Internet downloading<br />Film festivals.<br /> Are these the same audiences?<br /> How many of these involve new technology or convergence do you think? <br />
  12. 12. Film Exhibition-Cinema<br />Many countries including Britain did not have multiple cinemas until 1980s. Most were independent or part of a national specific chain.<br />Investments from American Studios came about because of the concern that there were not enough cinemas for the audience could view these films.<br />1980 Warner Bros and Universal started investing in multi screen complexes, but they could not just show their own films. This kind of monopoly was outlawed in 1948 in a paramount decree, but these cinemas could exhibit a substantial amount of their own films.<br />Multiplex cinemas are generally built on the outskirts of town and the visitors are also likely to eat there and go bowling.<br />These cinemas generally show mainstream films with the most recent technology to attract wider audience for the most profit.<br />
  13. 13. Independent <br />Owned by independent or small companies i.e lighthouse cinema Wolverhampton and the Electric in Birmingham.<br />Do exhibit some mainstream films, but also offer different USP they focus on niche films independent art house films and have different cliental.<br />Not the same about of choice as multiplexes this is because exhibitors rent the films.<br />These cinemas generally in old building.<br />Who are the types people that go to these places?<br />
  14. 14. The Exhibitor<br />The role of the exhibitor is the publicity and marketing of the film, they rent the film from the distributor for a period of time. They look for films that match their clientele, but also offer advertising space to distributors to promote their up and coming films. With promotional material, trailers between films to suit the target audience and even use promotions and competitions. They will advertise in local media. Importantly the distribution and exhibition are closely linked. Think about promotions for 3d films all released at the same time, also discounting films if you keep your glasses, ways to get you to come back.<br />How clever is Orange Wednesday?<br />Link: http://newsroom.orange.co.uk/2009/02/04/orange-launches-pound-7m-marketing-campaign-for-orange-wednesdays/<br />
  15. 15. Digital technology and exhibition<br />Ben Walters suggested that film exhibitors are now more interested in 3-D film. The number of 3-D screens in theatres is increasing (Real D company expects 15,000 screens worldwide in 2010). 3-D films encourage exhibitors to adopt digital cinema and provide a way to compete with home theatres. One incentive for 3-D screens is that although ticket sales decline, revenues from 3-D tickets grow because of growing use of Blue Ray at home.<br />IMAX is a system using film with more than ten times the frame size of a 35 mm film to produce image quality far superior to conventional film. IMAX theatres use an oversized screen as well as special projectors.<br />Revenue<br />Movie studios/film distributors in the U.S. traditionally drive hard bargains entitling them to as much as 100% of the gross ticket revenue during the first weeks (and then the balance changes in 10% increments at an undetermined time).<br />Some theaters (including those with IMAX stadiums) have detectors at the doors to pick up recording smugglers. At particularly anticipated showings, theatres may employ night vision equipment to detect a working camera during a screening. In some jurisdictions this is illegal unless the practice has been announced to the public in advance.<br />
  16. 16. UK film council DSN<br />Look at the UK film council’s website and research DSN -Digital Screen Network) and digital exhibition of film.<br />UK film council funding the digital screen network which helps independent cinemas link http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/distributionandexhibition<br />Some questions for you: Why is this important for British film, why are we investing in it, how will this benefit the smaller film makers?<br />
  17. 17. Exchange<br />Exchange: How has the audience exchanged information about this film consider the important of web2.0. <br />Due to the proliferation of new media with more options to communicate and specifically web 2.0 where there is more user generated content people can now exchange info about films. Think about YouTube clips of films fans have made, reviews on Amazon, Twitter. <br />Avatar is a good example as this was the most talked about film before it was even released. This exchange helped it to be a success.<br />
  18. 18. Proliferation (through technology)<br />Downloading – itunes, ipod, apple TV<br />Digital Piracy – DVD’s, filesharing<br />Social Networking Sites – marketing and buzz<br />Accessibility – everywhere???<br />Control – industry/audiences<br />
  19. 19. Web 2.0<br />Describes new phase of the internet where users can generate, distribute their own content. Examples:<br />Youtube-created by former PayPal employees. <br />Myspace-Tom<br />Second Life-online world?<br />
  20. 20. YouTube<br />As the name says this is about the audience interacting and generating their own content. YouTube is believed to be one of the first port of calls for amateurs to upload their work, blog and share idea.<br />Before the launch of YouTube in 2005, there were few easy methods available for ordinary computer users who wanted to post videos online. With its simple interface, YouTube made it possible for anyone with an Internet connection to post a video that a worldwide audience could watch within a few minutes. The wide range of topics covered by YouTube has turned video sharing into one of the most important parts of Internet culture. <br />YouTube was bought by Google for $1.65 billion, and is now operated as a subsidary of Google. <br />Youtube had problems with copyright infringements, defermation and pornography problems Google knew all this when it brought it.<br />How has Google made YouTube work for them, why would Google want to own Youtube?<br />Think about How Google makes money from Youtube?<br />How is Google similar to social networking, why is this a feature?<br />
  21. 21. Web 2.0<br />Tim Berners-Lee was is believed to be the founder of the world wide web. He saw the web as being for everyone so with no patent and no royalties or royalty-free technology, so that they could easily be adopted by anyone.<br />Is the web like this?<br />
  22. 22. Those who have supported the concept of WEB 2.0 <br />Web 2.0 is associated with Tim O’Reilly because of the O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. <br />Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specifications, but rather to cumulative changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. <br />Whether Web 2.0 is different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor <br />Tim Berners-Lee who called the term a “piece of jargon”.<br />
  23. 23. Who else supports it<br />The term “Web 2.0″ was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999. In her article “Fragmented Future,” she writes the Web we know now, which loads into a browser window in essentially static screenfuls, is only an embryo of the Web to come. <br />The first glimmerings of Web 2.0 are beginning to appear, and we are just starting to see how that embryo might develop.<br /> The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens. It will [...] appear on your computer screen, [...] on your TV set [...] your car dashboard [...] your cell phone [...] hand-held game machines [...] and maybe even your microwave.<br />
  24. 24. Summary Proliferation hardware and impact of web 2.0<br />Proliferation of hardware and web 2.0 is important for the industry as it means that not only can users generate their own content, but also can also distribute it. This can be seen with Youtube, Facebook, Twitter etc. Although this is taking power from the media institutions becomes the audience are not having to rely just on the media institutions for production, distribution and even exhibition as users can exhibit them online, it is the institutions that own most of these companies i.e. YouTube owned by Google, Myspace owned by News Corps. So although their is a proliferation of content i.e more choice, which is aided by convergence in technology making it more possible for users to generate own content and distribute content, the hardware is still owned by these companies. <br />Although corporations are concerns about new technologies causing piracy, the media companies also are fighting back to stop this. Look at how Lost was simultaneously released to stop piracy. And little companies are the ones who suffer most.<br />Finally , with the advent of web. 2.0 whether you do or do not agree, it is clear Facebook , Youtube and other user generated content gives the audience the opportunity to exchange information about films and promote or destroy films. How the industry can fight back we will have to wait and see.<br />
  25. 25. Key terms<br />Other important Issues and Key TermsProliferation – the increase of films in a genre or the use of technology, etc.Are your focus films in a particular genre? Are they benefitting from new technology, including software in their production, editing and distribution? Are they available for downloading from the Net.Synergies – the involves the benefits of working within a larger organisation or working in co-operation with other companies. Does, for instance, how does Film4 benefit from being part of being Channel 4?Cross media convergence – how does the institution and its film(s) benefit from the coming together of other technologies, i.e. the internet, digital downloading, television, cinemas, mobile phone promotions, Youtube, play-station 4, digital games, etc.Other terms and words you think are important for production issues and are topic specific.<br />
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