Film Production


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key stages of film production

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Film Production

  1. 1. FILM PRODUCTION The Five Key Stages Of Film Production
  2. 2. The Key Stages <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-production </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Post-production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Finding Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Script development </li></ul><ul><li>Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>Other Key Crew </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Producer </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>SECURING FINANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Can be complex and very lengthy </li></ul><ul><li>Must attract potential investors </li></ul><ul><li>Generate confidence in film’s ability to create revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Returns can be enormous </li></ul><ul><li>But very risky </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the film’s profile, the more likely to attract investors </li></ul><ul><li>Blockbusters attract more than low budget </li></ul><ul><li>Only one in ten films make significant financial return </li></ul>
  5. 5. The package <ul><li>A script treatment - ten or more pages concerning storylines, characters and locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Generic profile of film - help investors to “place” film in marketplace (potential audience) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed budget - rough guide to price </li></ul>
  6. 6. The package continued <ul><li>Visual representation of key narrative moments </li></ul><ul><li>Key personnel - stars, director, DOP, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Potential spin-offs, merchandising and tie-ins - all its money making potential. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FINANCE <ul><li>100% financing - a studio or other backer gives 100% of the film’s budget in return for full ownership of the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-party financing - the independent producer typically raises finance from a host of sources. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXERCISE Titanic $200,000,000 Spiderman 2 $200,000,000 Waterworld $175,000,000 The,Wild,Wild West $175,000,000 Van Helsing $170,000,000 Terminator 3 $170,000,000 Troy $150,000,000 With a partner, look at the list of the biggest film budgets and discuss what factors do you think helped secure such huge amounts of investment in these films?
  9. 9. PRE-PRODUCTION <ul><li>Finalising Script </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Casting </li></ul><ul><li>Crew contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboarding </li></ul><ul><li>Location scouting </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment hire </li></ul>
  10. 10. PRODUCTION <ul><li>Cinematography – DOP and the camera crew </li></ul><ul><li>Production Design – Art direction and dressers </li></ul><ul><li>Actors – Method and typical day </li></ul><ul><li>Sound – Booms, fishpoles and DATs </li></ul>
  11. 11. PRODUCTION <ul><li>Costumes, Make-up and hair </li></ul><ul><li>Special FX – green screens and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Production Team </li></ul>
  12. 12. POST-PRODUCTION <ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Re-shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Sound mixing </li></ul><ul><li>ADR </li></ul><ul><li>Foley </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratories </li></ul>
  13. 13. DISTRIBUTION <ul><li>Launching a film in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Distributor acquires rights to film </li></ul><ul><li>Could invest in film at beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Buy rights after film made </li></ul><ul><li>Part of larger company and automatically distribute film </li></ul><ul><li>$60 billion global film entertainment business </li></ul>
  14. 14. RELEASE CYCLES 0 months Theatrical release 3 months Airline 4-6 months Hotel pay-per-view 6 months PPV/Video-on-demand 6 months DVD rental 6-12 months DVD sale 18 months Pay-TV (eg FilmFour, Sky) 36 months Free-TV (eg BBC1) Further revenues are available from soundtracks, merchandise, sponsorship and long term library sales.
  15. 15. POSITIONING <ul><li>How and when to release a film - a crucial decision. Want to avoid slow times or event films. Cinema release date important for DVD release. </li></ul><ul><li>Target right audience - test screenings, p&a campaign. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CIRCULATION AND RELEASE <ul><li>How many copies of film to circulate? </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation 700-1000 prints </li></ul><ul><li>Arthouse 20 prints </li></ul><ul><li>Timing - school holidays for blockbusters, Jan-March for potential award winners </li></ul><ul><li>Competition - too many blockbusters, too crowded </li></ul>
  17. 17. MARKETING <ul><li>Can cost as much as the film </li></ul><ul><li>Must create the “must see” factor - word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing mix - posters, trailers, media ads, internet, promotions, merchandising, premieres, press junkets, previews and festivals </li></ul>