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  • 1. Editing
    •  
      • Editing in film is a process of cutting and assembling film footage to produce a finished product. 
    •  
      • The role of the film editor involves organising transitions between shots making decisions about shot duration and maintaining continuity .
    •  
  • 2. Transition
    • The process of cutting from one shot to another usually involves a simple straight cut. However there are other means of transition available to a film editor such as –
      • Fade to black
      • Dissolve/cross fade
      •  
      • Wipe
  • 3. Fade –  the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
  • 4. Fade –   the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
  • 5. Fade –   the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
  • 6. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
  • 7. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
  • 8. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
  • 9. Shot duration The duration of a shot will usually reflect the narrative context. Click here for a chase sequence from Die Another Day (Tamahori, 2002) What is the effect of the fast cutting in this sequence? Click here   for a dialogue scene from Secrets and Lies (Leigh, 1996) What is the effect of the very long duration of shot in this sequence?
  • 10. Shot duration
      • A shot can be further lengthened or shortened by using either slow motion or fast motion
      • Click here to see the use of slow motion in Blade Runner (Scott,1982)
    • What is the effect of the slow motion in this sequence?
  • 11. Continuity
      • I n Classic Hollywood cinema the purpose of editing is to maintain continuity within the narrative. In other words the editing process is smooth and does not detract from the story. There are various techniques used by editors in order to maintain continuity including:
      • 180 degree rule – this convention helps to maintain continuity by ensuring that the action within a sequence takes place in front of an imaginary 180 degree line. If the line is crossed the change in perspective can be disorientating and confusing for the audience.
  • 12. In this example, the two characters appear to have swapped places when the 180 degree line is crossed. Click here to see this ‘rule’ explained further.
  • 13. 30 degree ‘rule’ This convention dictates that when film is cut the camera should move more than 30 degrees otherwise it creates an awkward abrupt cut known as a jump cut . What is the effect jump cutting in this scene from Erin Brokovich (Soderburgh, 2000) ?
  • 14. Match on action The Maltese Falcon (Huston,1941) In this scene a cut  is used on a point of action as the the female character enters the room.  This is called  match on action
  • 15. Shot/reverse shot
      • Where the camera cuts from one subject to another back and forth to follow the flow of a dialogue or interaction.
      • Eye line match during a shot/reverse shot sequence The Maltese Falcon (Huston, 1941)
    Click here to watch this sequence in full
  • 16. Other continuity devices
      • Crosscutting -   a devise used to convey the impression that two or more events are occurring simultaneously. This involves cutting back and forth between different locations.
      • Split screen -  where the frame is split into sections so that we can see different events occurring at the same time. This technique was used recently on the TV series 24.
      • Sound bridge -  playing the same soundtrack over two or more shots is sometimes used to aid continuity. Sometimes a cut may coincide with a particular sound and then a similar sound occurs in the next shot.
  • 17. Montage
      • Montage involves a rapid succession of shots used in conventional cinema to show specific detail within a context, show a rapid passage of time or to convey frenzy or panic.
    •  
      • Sometimes used in alternative filmmaking to break continuity , or to build thematic and/or symbolic links between shots
    •  
      • Click here for a humorous take on montage sequences from Team America (Parker/Stone, 2004)