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Nature of Psychology

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  • D:\Sp Powerpoint\Chapter 1 Nature Of Psychology

    1. 1. The Nature of Psychology
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Be familiar with the definition of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why Psychology is a science </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with the historical roots of Psychology, both in the West and in the Phils. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different perspectives in psychology that will be used throughout the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different western and indigenous research methods used by psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the different fields of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Know the importance of studying psychology and develop a deeper interest in it. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Psychology? <ul><li>Psychology comes from the root words psyche , or mind, and logos , or study </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology is defined as the ‘ scientific study of behavior and mental processes ’. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why is Psychology a Science? <ul><li>Psychology is an objective and systematic study of how people behave and think. </li></ul><ul><li>Its goals are to describe , explain , predict , and control behavior and mental processes. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Some research topics in Psychology: <ul><li>What part of the brain is responsible for language? </li></ul><ul><li>What crises do adolescents experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we forget? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need to sleep? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors influence attraction to another person? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we control aggression? </li></ul><ul><li>Is fear of spiders abnormal? </li></ul><ul><li>How did I learn to study? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Western History of Psychology Early dates Greek philosophers: (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) Studied the nature of the mind, the soul, the body, and human experience 17 th Century Rene Descartes Nativist View: some ideas are innate John Locke Empiricist View: Knowledge is acquired through experiences & interactions with the world 1869 Sir Francis Galton of England Studied individual differences> dev’t of intelligence tests 1879 Wilhelm Wundt Father of Psychology Established the first psychological laboratory (Germany @ Leipzig Univ. ) Research: senses (vision), attention, emotion and memory
    7. 7. History continues… 1883 Granville Stanley Hall First American to finish doctoral studies in psychology Established the 1 st psychological laboratory (US @ John Hopkins Univ) Founded the 1 st American Journal of psychology 1888 James McKeen Cattell 1 st psychology professor in the US 19 th Century Titchener Structuralism: Specified mental structures & analyzed the basic elements of mental life. Introspection: the examination of one’s own emotional states & mental processes. William James Functionalism: Functions of the mind & behavior to adapt to the environment
    8. 8. 1920’s John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Behaviorism: Only observable behavior should be studied Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1912 Max Wertheimer Gestalt Psychology: “ Gestalt” means form or configuration “ the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” 20 th Century Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis : Human behavior is deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, & desires (sex & aggression) Recent dev’ts Herbert Simon Noam Chomsky Views humans as information processing systems Modern Linguistics: study of how mental structures are required to comprehend & speak a language Neuropsychology: studies the relationship between neurobiological events & mental processes
    9. 9. Philippine History of Psychology 17 th Century Taught in two Phil. Univ. Univ. of Sto. Tomas (1 st institution to offer undergraduate, master’s & doctoral degrees in Psychology) Univ. of San Carlos (Cebu) 1926 Agustin Alonzo Head of the 1 st Dept. of Psychology, at UP. 1932 Sinforoso Padilla, Ph.D. (Univ. of Michigan, 1928) Established the 1 st psychological clinic at UP. Jesus Perpinan, Ph.D. (Iowa State Univ, 1933) Set up the FEU psychological clinic Elias Bumatay, Ph.D. Educ Psych (Univ. of Texas, 1940) Dean of the College of Education at NU (National University) 1948 1962 Estefania Aldaba-Lim, Ph.D. Clinical Psych (Univ. of Michigan) Started the psychology program at PWU Set up the Phil. Psychological Corp.
    10. 10. Philippine History of Psychology 1955 Alfredo Lagmay, Ph.D. Experimental Psych (Harvard Univ., 1955) Headed the Psychology Dept. of UP (22 yrs) Mariano Obias, Ph.D. Comparative & Physiological Psych (Stanford Univ., 1955) Led the personnel dept. of Caltex Phils. 1961 Jaime Bulatao, S.J. Ph.D. Clinical Psych (Fordham Univ., 1961) Established the Dept. of Psych at ADMU 1962 All pioneers (except for Bumatay) and Alonzo Founded the PAP (Psychological Assoc. of the Phils.)
    11. 11. Perspectives in Psychology <ul><li>Psychodynamic Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Biological or Behavioral Neuroscience Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Sociocultural Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolutionary Psychology Approach </li></ul>
    12. 12. Psychodynamic Approach <ul><li>Developed by Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>States that “ much of our behavior stems from unconscious processes, conflict between biological instincts & society’s demands, and early family experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for the therapeutic approach called psychoanalysis </li></ul>
    13. 13. Behavioral Approach <ul><li>John B. Watson : father of Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors are activities of people or other organisms that can be observed by others. </li></ul><ul><li>States that “ when we attempt to understand an event, we need to look at the observable behaviors & their environmental determinants ”. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Concerned with mental processes, such as perceiving, remembering, reasoning, deciding, and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>States that “ Only by studying mental processes can we fully understand what people do .” </li></ul>
    15. 15. Biological Approach <ul><li>Concerned with how the brain and nervous system underlie behavior & mental processes . </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to relate behavior to electrical and chemical events taking place inside the body </li></ul><ul><li>The Nervous System (brain) and the Endocrine System are studied to determine the biological causes of behavior. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Focuses on the subjective and personal experience of events (Individual Phenomenology) , and on the need for personal growth . </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with describing the inner life and experiences of individuals, rather than developing theories or predicting behaviors. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sociocultural Approach <ul><li>Studies the ways by which social and cultural environments influence behavior </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s cultural context should be considered in order to understand behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on comparing behaviors across countries as well as across cultures within a country. </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in explaining behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the conditions that allow people to fail or survive. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Research Methods of Psychology <ul><li>Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi-experimental Method </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational Method </li></ul><ul><li>The Naturalistic Observation Method </li></ul><ul><li>The Survey Method </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Archival Research </li></ul>
    20. 20. Experimental Method <ul><li>The main objective of an experiment is to discover the effect of an independent variable (IV) on a dependent variable (DV). </li></ul><ul><li>IV: variable to be manipulated; independent of what the participant does </li></ul><ul><li>DV: variable being measured; depends on the IV </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Effect of Music on Memory </li></ul>
    21. 21. Quasi-Experimental Method <ul><li>Similar to the experimental method except that random assignment of participants is not possible. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Correlational Method <ul><li>The objective of this method is to determine whether two or more variables are associated or related to each other . </li></ul><ul><li>The variables are first measured, after which a correlational analysis or technique (e.g. Pearson r) is conducted to determine the relationship. </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Naturalistic Observation Method <ul><li>Involves observing the phenomenon of interest as it occurs naturally . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Observing primates in their natural environment, systematically observing the behavior of newborn babies, and observing couple’s public display of affection (PDA) in the school campus. </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Survey Method <ul><li>Employs either a written questionnaire or an interview schedule . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Political opinions, sexual attitudes, or product preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to gather data about experiences, feelings, thoughts, and motives that are hard to observe directly. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Standardized Tests <ul><li>Respondents are required to answer a series of questions and their responses scored to reflect something about their persons . A respondent’s score is compared with those of the others who took the same test. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Otis Test, Stanford-Binet Test (IQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Tests: Panukat ng Pagkataong Pilipino (PPP) , Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao (PUP) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Case Studies <ul><li>Descriptive record of an individual’s experiences or behavior, or both, as kept by an observer. </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective is to obtain a case history of the person being studied. </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Written records (i.e. public and private documents), statistical archives , and physical traces of human beings are systematically studied in lieu of actual behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Exs. Diaries, letters, paintings, books, poems, newspaper or magazine articles, movies, and speeches. </li></ul>Archival Research
    28. 28. Fields/Specializations in Psychology <ul><li>Clinical Psychology : deals with the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral problems. (e.g. mental illness, drug addiction, marital & family conflicts) </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling Psychology: concerned with personal issues (academic, social, or vocational problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial-Organizational Psychology: deals with the application of psychological principles and research methods in the workplace, in the interest of improving productivity & the quality of worklife. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Psychology: involves the study of psychological, cognitive, and social dev’t & the factors that shape behavior from birth to old age (i.e. a person’s life span) </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Social Psychology: focuses on how people think, influence, and relate with one another, and on the ways interactions with other people influence attitudes and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Psychology: employs the behavioral and cognitive perspectives, as well as the experimental method in studying how people react to sensory stimuli, perceive the world, learn and remember, and respond. </li></ul><ul><li>School and Educational Psychology: deals with the evaluation of learning and emotional problems of individuals in schools. </li></ul>Fields/Specializations in Psychology
    30. 30. Psychology specialties: <ul><li>Consumer Psychology: deals with the activities directly involved in selecting, obtaining, and using products, services, and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology: study of human thinking and information-processing abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Psychology: study of culture’s role in understanding behavior, thoughts, and emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering/Human Factors Engineering Psychology: study of how people and machines are related and how to improve this relationship. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Environmental Psychology: deals with the relationship between humans and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Psychology: applies psychology to the law and legal proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Health Psychology: study of cognitive, affective, behavioral, & interpersonal factors affecting health & illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuropsychology: deals with the diagnosis and rehabilitation of brain disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Psychology: study of the psychological aspects of violence, social inequalities, peacemaking, and the pursuit of social justice. </li></ul>Psychology specialties:
    32. 32. <ul><li>Personality Psychology: study of individual differences & the development of personality theories and tests for assessing personality traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological/Biological Psychology: employs the biological perspective & seeks to discover the relationships between biological processes & behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Psychology: interdisciplinary field studies the influence of psychological processes on political behavioral & the effect of the political system on the thoughts, feelings, and motives of individuals. </li></ul>Psychology specialties:
    33. 33. <ul><li>Psychology of Women: emphasizes the importance of promoting research on women. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Psychology: applies theories and knowledge in psychology to enhance the performance of athletes and coaches. </li></ul>Psychology specialties: