Gender issues in educational administration


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Gender issues in educational administration

  1. 2. Working towards change in educational setting Muhammad Rehman Siddique
  2. 3. What is Gender <ul><li>The academic discipline which analyses constructions of gender in society, often with reference to class, race, sexuality and other sociological characteristics. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Gender gap <ul><li>A measurable difference between the behaviors of men and women </li></ul>
  4. 5. Gender Disparity in educational system <ul><li>The Pakistan education system faces the gender disparity in enrollment levels. However in recent years some progress has been made in trying to fix this problem. In 1990-91, the female to male ratio (F/M ratio) of the enrollment was 0.47 for primary level of education. It reached to 0.74 in 1999-2000, showing the F/M ratio has improved by 57.44% within the decade. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Cont’d <ul><li>The gender disparity in enrollment at secondary level of education was 0.4 in 1990-91 and 0.67 in 1999-2000, showing that the disparity decreased by 67.5% in the decade. At the college level it was 0.50 in 1990-91 and reached 0.81 in 1999-2000, showing that the disparity decreased by 64%. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Education Expenditure <ul><li>Public expenditure on education lies on the firings of 2 percent of GDP . However, the government recently approved the new national education policy, which stipulates that education expenditure will be increased to 7% of GDP. An idea that was first suggested by the Punjab government. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cont’d <ul><li>Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP was actually reduced in 16 years and maintained in 5 years between 1972-73 and 2008-2009. Thus, out of total 37 years since 1972, public expenditure on education as percentage of GDP either decreased or remained stagnant for 21 year’s. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Role of Women In Islam <ul><li>The study of women in Islam investigates the role of women within the religion of Islam. The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Cont’d <ul><li>While men and women have different roles within Islam, many argue that the Qur'an makes it clear that they are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharia (Islamic law) provides for complementarianism, differences between women's and men's roles, rights, and obligations. Majority Muslim countries give women varying degrees of rights with regards to marriage, divorce, civil rights, legal status, dress code, and education based on different interpretations </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>According to the Sunni scholar Ibn Asakir in the 12th century, there were various opportunities for female education in what is known as the medieval Islamic world. He writes that women could study, earn ijazahs (academic degrees), and qualify as scholars (ulamā’) and teachers </li></ul>Cont’d
  11. 13. <ul><li>In nineteenth-century West Africa, Nana Asma’u was a leading Islamic scholar, poet, teacher and an exceptionally prolific Muslim female writer who wrote more than 60 works. Female education in the Islamic world was inspired by Muhammad's wives: Khadijah a successful businesswoman, and Aisha, a renowned hadith scholar and military leader. The education allowed was often restricted to religious instruction </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>While women accounted for no more than one percent of Islamic scholars prior to the 12th century, there was a large increase of female scholars after this. In the 15th century, Al-Sakhawi devotes an entire volume of his 12-volume biographical dictionary Daw al-lami to female scholars, giving information on 1,075 of them. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Reign of Caliphates’ <ul><li>The labor force in the Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities. Women were employed in a wide range of commercial activities and diverse occupations in the primary sector (as farmers. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>secondary sector (as construction workers, dyers, spinners, etc.) and tertiary sector (as investors, doctors, nurses, presidents of guilds, brokers, peddlers, lenders, scholars, etc Muslim women also held a monopoly over certain branches of the industry, he largest and most specialized and market-oriented industry at the time, in occupations such as spinning, dyeing, and embroidery. In comparison, female property rights and wage labor were relatively uncommon in Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries </li></ul>
  15. 17. View of Islamic Philosophers <ul><li>In the 12th century, the famous Islamic philosopher and qadi (judge) Ibn Rushd, known to the West as Averroes , claimed that women were equal to men in all respects and possessed equal capacities to shine in peace and in war, citing examples of female warriors among the Arabs, Greeks and Africans to support his case. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Difference between Male and Female (Genders)
  17. 19. Difference between Male and Female (Genders) <ul><li>On Basis of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Men and Women have different ways of showing support, interest and caring. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more likely to express caring by doing something concrete for or doing something together with another person. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Men desire to maintain autonomy and to not appear weak or incompetent. </li></ul><ul><li>Men tend to think that relationships jeopardize their independence. </li></ul><ul><li>For women, relationships are a constant source of interest, attention and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>For men, relationships are not as central. </li></ul><ul><li>Men feel that there is no need to talk about a relationship that is going well. </li></ul><ul><li>Women feel that a relationship is going well as long as they are talking about it. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Physical differences between Men and Women <ul><li>An average man is taller and heavier than average women. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more sensitive to sound than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Men show emotions to communicate dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Women express more love, fear, gaze and smile. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Employment of women
  21. 23. Employment of women <ul><li>Women’s apparently low participation in the work force can be explained by their substantial participation in unwaged work and in the informal sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Women continue to predominate as low-paid domestic workers, and in many jobs which are non-unionized, unregulated and not subject to a minimum wage. As has been found in many Export Processing Zones established in the developing world, women are often exploited as a source of cheap labor </li></ul>
  22. 25. Change <ul><li>It is a process of transformation , a flow from state to another either initiated by internal or external factors , involving individuals , groups or institutions , leading to a realignment of existing values, practices and outcomes. Change is regarded as a dynamic and continuous process of growth and development that involves reorganization in response to felt needs. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Nature of Change <ul><li>Its centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Its complexities </li></ul><ul><li>The communicability of the change </li></ul><ul><li>The visibility of the change </li></ul>
  24. 27. Why change is necessary? <ul><li>Change is inescapably and intensely personal because it requires people to do something different, to think something different and to feel something different. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Cont’d <ul><li>In other words when change arises it creates threat, stress, success promotion, recognition, opportunities’ for people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easy to say that bring change but it is difficult to stick with it. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Resistance to change <ul><li>Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals (male/female) and groups when the perceive that change that is occurring as a threat to them. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Four barriers to change <ul><li>Value barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Power barriers </li></ul>
  28. 31. Sources of Resistance <ul><li>Fear of unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to let to go </li></ul><ul><li>Strong peer group norms </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to power base </li></ul><ul><li>Historical factors </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to status </li></ul><ul><li>Poor relationships </li></ul>
  29. 32. Addressing resistance <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Build trust in employees, </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Give employees compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Being sensitive to all employees </li></ul><ul><li>Give employee leaves in case their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Male/Female equally </li></ul>
  30. 33. Change in Educational Setting
  31. 34. Change in Educational Setting
  32. 35. Change in Educational Setting <ul><li>Remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional support </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul>
  33. 36. Remuneration <ul><li>Monetary </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning salary </li></ul><ul><li>Regularity of payment </li></ul><ul><li>Merit Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Material allowance </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Living allowance </li></ul><ul><li>Travel allowance </li></ul>
  34. 37. Remuneration <ul><li>In kind supplement </li></ul><ul><li>Free or subsidized housing </li></ul><ul><li>Free or subsidized food </li></ul><ul><li>Plots of land </li></ul><ul><li>Low interest loans </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships for children </li></ul><ul><li>Free books </li></ul>
  35. 38. Remuneration <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Paid leave </li></ul><ul><li>Sick leave </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity leave </li></ul><ul><li>Medical leave </li></ul><ul><li>Pension </li></ul><ul><li>Life insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Additional employment </li></ul><ul><li>Additional teaching jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Developing projects </li></ul>
  36. 39. Instructional support <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Materials Teacher guides on time </li></ul><ul><li>Student text books on time </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom charts </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Training </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Material preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Test administration </li></ul>
  37. 40. Working conditions <ul><li>School facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Class room facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Number of students </li></ul><ul><li>Collegiality </li></ul>