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Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan
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Soil biology and Biodiversity of Pakistan

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  • 1. THEME ON SOIL BIOLOGY AND BASIC ELEMENTS Topic of Presentation: SOIL BIOLOGY AND BIODIvErSITY Of pAkISTAN BY rEHANA kHALIQ LuCIAN BLAGA uNIvErSITY SIBIu
  • 2. DEfINITION Of SOIL           Soil The upper layer of the earth which is composed of different thin rock particles is helpful in the growth of vegetation and plants that is called soil. Basic Components of Soil Soil has three basic components. 1.Solid particles like salt, mineral and organic matter.50% 2. Air ….25% 3.Water.25% Importance of Soil The kind of soil totally depends upon climate, location, vegetation and rock material. The agriculture of a country depends upon her soil’s structure and kinds. Soil is a gift of nature.
  • 3. SAND, SILT, AND CLAY ARE THE BASIC TYPES OF SOIL. MOST SOILS ARE MADE UP OF A COMBINATION OF THE THREE. THE TEXTURE OF THE SOIL, HOW IT LOOKS AND FEELS, DEPENDS UPON THE AMOUNT OF EACH ONE IN THAT PARTICULAR SOIL. THE TYPE OF SOIL VARIES FROM PLACE TO PLACE ON OUR PLANET AND CAN EVEN VARY FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER IN YOUR OWN BACKYARD. boltakarachi.blogspot.com/.../agriculture-tips-typesof-pakistans.html
  • 4. CLASSIfICATION Of SOILS  The soil of Pakistan may be classified according to the regional basis.   1. Indus basin Soils: The soils found along the current course of the Indus River    2. Bongar Soils: These soils are found in the historic Indus plain and are the best soils for agriculture   3. Khaddar Soils: It formed when, every year during flood, a new layer of salty clay was deposited.  4. Indus Delta Soils: Most of this soil is very clay and was developed under seasonal flood waters.  5. Mountain Soils: These rocky soils mostly cover the highlands of northern and western areas of Pakistan.  6. Sandy Desert Soils: These soils are made by the deposition of sand, layer by layer, year after year for thousands of years.
  • 5. SOIL TYpES Of pAkISTAN boltakarachi.blogspot.com/.../agriculture-tips-types-of-pakistans.html
  • 6. SOIL HOrIZONS
  • 7. SOIL BIOLOGY Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil.   Soil life or soil biota is a collective term for all the organisms living within the soil.  Bacteria and fungi play key roles in maintaining a healthy soil.  They act as decomposers that break down organic materials to produce detritus and other breakdown products. 
  • 8. SOIL HEALTH Soil health is an assessment of ability of a soil to meet its range of ecosystem functions as appropriate to its environment.  The term soil health is used to assess the ability of a soil to:  Sustain plant and animal productivity and diversity;  Maintain or enhance water and air quality;  Support human health and habitation 
  • 9. SOIL ORGANISMS  MAcROORGANISMS  MIcROORGANISMS The micro-organisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, algae and fungi. Macro-organisms include earthworms and arthropods such as insects, mites and millipedes. Each group plays a role in the soil ecosystem and can assist the organic farmer in producing a healthy crop. Micro-organisms can be grouped according to their function: free-living decomposers convert organic matter into nutrients for plants and other micro-organisms, rhizosphere organisms are symbiotically associated with the plant roots and free-living nitrogen fixers.
  • 10. Bacteria Actinomycetes Fungi
  • 11. DEcOMPOSERS •In an undisturbed soil, leaves and other organic debris accumulate on the surface, where they are broken down by the decomposers. •Aerobic bacteria and certain small animals begin the process. •These organisms are joined by actinomycetes and fungi. •Mites, springtails, small insects, other arthropods and earthworms assist the process by consuming, mixing and transporting materials. •The rate of decomposition is affected by soil temperature, moisture and food availability.
  • 12. DIVERSITY OF SELEcTED MIcROBES AND THEIR ROLE Nodules The best known and most exploited symbiotic N2 fixing The best known and most exploited symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria belonging to family Rhizobiacea include the genera bacteria belonging to family Rhizobiacea include the genera such as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium etc. They form nodules such as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium etc. They form nodules with roots of leguminous plants with roots of leguminous plants
  • 13. Frankia is the genus of N2 fixing actinomyctes capable of fixing N2 similar to rhizobial symbiosis Frankia Frankia
  • 14. CYANAOBACTERIA ANABAENA AZOLLAE IS A SYMBIOTIC HETEROCYST NITROGEN FIXING CYANAOBACTERIA WHICH LIES IN FRONDS IN THE PORES OF THE AZOLLA Blue green algae
  • 15. AZOSPIRILLUM
  • 16. VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM)
  • 17. PARISON OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE WITH ENDOMYCORRHIZA
  • 18. BIODIVERSITY The soil is the home to a large proportion of the world's biodiversity.  Biodiversity is the diversity of life in an area.  Biodiversity increases ecosystem productivity; all of the species in that ecosystem, no matter their size, have a big role.  A diverse ecosystem can prevent and recover from lots of disasters.  The nutrients stored in the bodies of soil organisms prevent nutrient loss by leaching.  
  • 19. STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY       Pakistan spans a number of the world’s ecological regions with its latitudinal spread and immense variations in altitude. These regions include the coastal mangrove forests of the Arabian Sea as well as some of the highest mountains of the world, where the western Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakoram ranges meet. This diversity encompasses a variety of habitats that support a rich biodiversity. A number of animals and plants have become endangered due to overexploitation and loss of natural habitat. Deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, salinity and water logging have become major threats to Pakistan’s remaining biodiversity. The continuing loss of forest habitat, with its associated fauna and flora, will have serious implications for the nation’s other natural and agricultural ecosystems.
  • 20.  MEDICINAL HERBS AND WILD PLANTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS
  • 21. MOUNTAIN PLANTS
  • 22. TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM There are many types of ecosystems on earth.  Major classes of relatively contained ecosystems are called Biomes.  There are 3 Major classes of ecosystems  Freshwater Ecosystems  Terrestrial Ecosystems  Ocean Ecosystems 
  • 23. ECOSYSTEM
  • 24. GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN •Pakistan lies in Southern Asia, •bordering the Arabian Sea, •between India on the east and •Iran and Afghanistan on the •west and China in the north •total: 803,940 sq km •land: 778,720 sq km •(Cultivated, Rangeland, Protected areas) •water: 25,220 sq km
  • 25. VEGETATION COVER www.pakistanpaedia.com/land/GEO_7.html
  • 26. PROTECTED AREAS IN PAKISTAN     The national system of protected areas includes national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves, and covers an area of 9.17 million hectares (10.4 per cent of total land area). These protected areas were designated by wildlife expeditions in the late 1960s. Many are too small and isolated to be effective; further, most ecological zones, including many of the critically threatened ecosystems, are not adequately represented within the protected area system. Wildlife sanctuaries provide greater protection than national parks, while game reserves afford no protection to habitat but merely regulate hunting. The three categories of protected areas are inadequate for contemporary needs. Most of the remaining unprotected areas of biodiversity significance are currently used and managed by local communities in one way or another.
  • 27. PROTECTED AREAS IN PAKISTAN Region/ National Province Parks Azad Jammu Kashmir 1 Baluchistan Wildlife Sanct. Game Not Res. classified Total parks Total area conserved (ha) % of total land area 8 — 9 51,998 3.91 15 2 — 7 7 31 1,837,704 5.29 Punjab 2 37 19 — 58 3,315,803 16.14 NWFP 3 6 38 5 52 470,675 6.30 Sindh 1 35 14 4 54 1,307,575 9.27 Federal Territory 1 1 1 — 3 94,186 100 Northern Areas 4 5 9 — 18 2,092,180 2.97 14 99 96 16 225 9,170,121 10.4 Totals www.icem.com.au/documents/biodiversity/bioplan/pakistan
  • 28. POLICIES AND REGULATION      Protected areas have been established for in-situ conservation of biodiversity. A wide range of laws also exists relating to conservation of various components of biodiversity. The key to protecting the biological diversity of Pakistan is involving local communities and obtaining support from relevant institutions in sustainable use initiatives. The Government of Pakistan recognized the importance of these measures in the preparation of the National Conservation Strategy (1992) and in becoming a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994. The Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), endorsed by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) in 1999, calls for government agencies, local communities and NGOs to work together as partners in biodiversity conservation.
  • 29. THANKS!!! THE END

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