THEME ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM
Topic of Presentation:
GMOS AND pAkISTAN
LuCIAN BLAGA uNIvERSITY SIBIu
What is gene?
Every plant and animal is made of cells, each of which
has a center called a nucleus. Inside every nucleus there
are strings of DNA.
Short sequences of DNA are called genes.
These genes operate in complex networks that are finely
regulated to enable the processes of living organisms to
happen in the right place and at the right time.
DNA DOuBLE HELIX
WHAT'S A GMO?
GMO (genetically modified organism) is the
result of a laboratory process of taking genes from
one species and inserting them into another in an
attempt to obtain a desired trait or characteristic,
hence they are also known as transgenic organisms.
This process may be called either Genetic
Engineering (GE) or Genetic Modification (GM);
they are one and the same.
Organisms that have been genetically modified
include micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast,
plants, fish, and mammals.
FIRST GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
SUNTORY BLUE ROSE
GMOS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
GMOs are the source of genetically modified food, and are
also widely used in scientific research and to produce goods
other than food.
The term GMO is very close to the technical legal term, 'living
modified organism' defined in the Cartagena Protocol on
Biosafety, which regulates international trade in living GMOs
(specifically, "any living organism that possesses a novel
combination of genetic material obtained through the use of
The general principle of producing a GMO is to add new
genetic material into an organism's genome. This is
called genetic engineering and was made possible through the
discovery of DNA and the creation of the first recombinant
DNA molecules by Paul Berg in 1972.
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE GMOS
multinational biotech companies
holding the GM market (Monsanto,
Novartis, Syngenta, Dupont, Bayer)
Main producers: USA, Argentina, Canada,
35 GMOs on market in European Union
GM food: tomato, potato, soybean, corn,
GMOS IN PAKISTAN
GMOs prepared in Pakistan: Tomato, sugarcane,
No standards for GM food in Pakistan
Insufficient scientific certainty about safety of
GM food mixed with non-GM food
No government policy for labeling
Presently, no government initiative for
awareness on GMOs
AGRICULTURE BASED COUNTRY
Pakistan is an agriculture based country with more than 47% of
its population dependant on agriculture as a means of
This sector contributes 24% to gross domestic product
(GDP). Agriculture alone contributes about 70% of its foreign
exchange. Unless it maintains stable growth rates, its economy
will suffer immensely.
Pakistan is an agricultural supplier that not only meets its
requirements but also exports crop to few countries which
involves our neighbor countries, as well as the Middle East and
several Central Asian Republics.
However, over the recent years, Pakistan is facing some serious
challenges on the horizon of which drought, salinity, stress and
climate changes are the most important ones.
All these issues have raised questions over the food
security issues in Pakistan and other parts of the world.
The population of Pakistan is about 180 million which is
estimated to rise to 240 million by the year 2035. To
tackle these challenges, one approach that has been used
in the world and to some extent in Pakistan is the
genetically modified organisms.
STATUS OF GMOS IN PAKISTAN
The only GM crop approved and grown in Pakistan is
the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton.
The regions in which Bt cotton was grown included
Bahawalpur, Multan, Muzaffer Garh and Karor Pakka,
and the farmers tested these crops against its resistance
and susceptibility to different insects high temperature,
drought and yield and then compared it with traditional
cotton varieties grown in similar areas.
There have been few benefits observed by the farmers of
these regions and it could be concluded from the results
that the GM crops may solve a few issues of Pakistan,
such as enhanced production and disease resistance.
cotton mainly grown in the southern Punjab.
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT)
GENETICALLY MODIFIED RICE
Recently a Pakistani scientist, Dr. Fida Abbasi has
developed a new rice strains which is able to increase the
rice production of the country.
By applying this technology the number of grains per
panicle of rice plant had been increased from 250 to 700.
According to him, the production had been increased
from 5 tons per hectare to 15 tons per hectare, while new
strains of rice was 6 feet tall with a thick stem, large and
heavy panicle of 50 centimeters and would bear 700
He claimed such kind of rice does not exist in the world
and this rice could be grown by using less water. It is to
be mentioned here that Pakistan is the world’s fourth
largest producer of rice after china, India and Indonesia.
CONVENTIONS AND PROTOCOL
National Bio-safety guidelines in Pakistan prepared in
November 1999 by National Biosafety Committee
Only one consultative meeting held in January 2001
Executive meeting held in January 2005 chaired by the
Pakistan has also notified the Pakistan Biosafety rules on
21st April, 2005 in order to get the maximum benefits
from the GMO technology but at the same time ensuring
the safety of humans and the environment.
These rules are responsible to govern the manufacture,
import and storage of genetically modified organisms.
Biosafety Guidelines is built on the
following three tiers;
(1) National Biosafety Committee (NBC)
(2) Technical Advisory Committee (TAC)
(3) Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC)
The secretary, Ministry of Environment, is responsible to
head the National Biosafety Center and looks after the
laboratory work, field trial, commercial release, export,
import, sale and purchase of GMOs and their products.
Pakistan has fulfilled all the documentation procedure at
the perspectives of Cartagena protocol. The Ministry of
Environment developed the guidelines for GMOs in May
2005 to organize laboratory research, field studies and
commercial release of GMOs and their products.
ADVANTAGES OF GMOS
There are certain benefits associated with growing GM
crops as compared to the traditional crops.
Drought tolerance/ salinity tolerance
Carbon sink and climate change
DISADVANTAGES OF GMOS
There are a number of risks associated with biotechnology:
Unintended harm to other organisms
Gene transfer to non-target species
Effect on population and ecosystem
Interaction with non-alien (natural) species
Loss of ecosystem services
Impact on agro industry production system
Market based dependency and food security
Economic / export loss concerns
Religious and ethical values
The genetically modified organisms can help in food
production, drought resistance, climate change mitigation and
disease resistance, but in addition it may produce number of
threats at gene, individual, population and ecosystem level.
They can also have an impact on the agro industry of
The GMOs can be complementary to the traditional crops but
by no means can they replace the traditional crops. The world
must ensure that the standards are followed in using the GMOs
and are being continuously monitored.
The developing countries like Pakistan should ensure strong
scientific capacity and research based approach in the field of
genetically modified organisms.
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency should fully
concentrate and equip their manpower in growing emerging
technology (biotechnology), and they must completely analyze
risk assessment before introducing GM from other countries.
Furthermore, Pakistan must concentrate on synthetic biology as
an alternative to the emerging field of biotech-nology, as it
poses least risk as compared to traditional biotechnology.
The European Union and USA also promote its expertise in
synthetic biology. Therefore, it is need of the hour to promote
the research in this area in Pakistan as a powerful replacement
to traditional biotechnology.