Cultural and sacred places in pakistan
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Cultural and sacred places in pakistan Cultural and sacred places in pakistan Presentation Transcript

  • CULTURAL and sacred PLACES IN PAKISTAN BY REHANA KHALIQ Lucian Blaga University Sibiu
  • CULTURAL and Sacred PLACES IN PAKISTAN
  • INTRODUCTION Pakistan is the center of various religions. Pakistan is formed of four large provinces – Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan. Four territories – Islamabad Capital Territory, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. K-2, is the second-highest mountain in world. Indus River, which is 1,800 miles (2,896 kilometers) long. Pakistan also has several deserts, in Punjab and Sind. Pakistan is also home to Taxila, the oldest known university in the world. In the north, leading from China, through Tammu and Kashmir, is a famous ancient silk road.
  • ISLAMABAD  Islamabad is also home to the famous Shah Faisal Mosque  Islamabad also has a sports complex, art galleries, a museum of natural history, and four universities.  Other sites in and near Islamabad include Rawal Lake; the Rose and Jasmine Garden, the Murghzar Mini Zoo and Children's Park; and the Shakarparian Hills  The ancient city of Rawalpindi, on the border of Islamabad, has a history that dates back three thousand years.  It is well known for its bazaars that specialize in handicrafts. Rawalpindi is home to Linquat Memorial Hall with a large auditorium and library; Ayub National Park; and the Rawalpindi Golf Course, which was completed in 1926 but is still in regular use.
  • The Faisal Mosque as the National Mosque of Pakistan and named after the late King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia who supported and financed the project, located in the national capital city of Islamabad. Completed in 1986, it was designed by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay to be shaped like a desert Bedouin's tent.
  • LAHORE       Founded four thousand years ago. Lahore was the cultural center of the Mogul Empire, which glorified it with palaces, gardens, and mosques. It is the second-largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Punjab. Some of its historical sites include the Royal Fort, which was built in 1566 by Akbar the Great, and Wazir Khan's mosque, which was built in 1683 and is still considered one of the most beautiful mosques in all of South Asia. Another ancient but still famous site in Lahore is the Shalimar Gardens. The garden is used as the site of regular special state receptions. Lahore is also home to several other well-known mosques, museums, and parks.
  • PUNJAB: LAHORE The Badshahi Mosque , the 'Royal Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and Sout Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world. Epitomising the beauty, passion and grandeur of the Mughal era. In 1993, it was included in World Heritage Site in UNESCO's World Heritage List
  • The Alamgiri Gate is the fortified main entrance to the Lahore Fort. It was built in 1637. Origins of the fort go as far back as antiquity, however, the existing base structure was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar between 1556–1605 and was regularly upgraded by subsequent Mughal, Sikh and British rulers. It cannot be said with certainty when the Lahore Fort was originally constructed or by whom, since this information is lost to history, possibly forever. In 1981, the fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Shalimar Gardens.
  • PUNJAB: LAHORE Sacred Heart Cathedral was consecrated by Bishop Fabian Eestermans, Bishop of Lahore on 19 November 1907. The design of this Cathedral was made according to the Roman Byzantine style. The Cathedral is the principal church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese.
  • Minar-e-Pakistan, literally "Tower of Pakistan“ is a public monument located in Iqbal Park in Lahore, Pakistan.The tower was constructed during the 1960s on the site where, on 23 March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, the first official call for a separate homeland for the Muslims living in the Indian subcontinent, in accordance with the two nation theory. The tower reflects a blend of Mughal, Islamic and modern architecture. The minar is an estimated 197 feet (60 meters) high.
  • PUNJAB: MULTAN The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam was built between 1320 and 1324, is an unmatched pre-Moghul masterpiece. The Mausoleum of Rukn-i-Alam could possibly be considered as the glory of Multan. Besides its religious importance, the mausoleum is also of considerable archaeological value as its dome is reputed to be the second largest in the world.
  • Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by Sher Shah Suri, located about 16 km from Jhelum in Punjab, Pakistan. The fort is an exceptional example of Islamic military architecture, integrating artistic traditions from Turkey and the Indian subcontinent. It was built at a strategic location on a small hill alongside Kahan River to control the Ghakkars. Its name is derived from Rohtasgarh, the site of Sher Shah's victory in 1539 over a Hindu ruler.
  • KARACHI  It was the first capital of Pakistan.  Karachi is in the south of the nation and in addition to being a modern city on the shores of the Arabian Sea.  It has a number of interesting sites, including the Masjid-e-Tooba which is said to be the largest single-dome mosque, and several art galleries and bazaars.  It has a wide variety of water sports and remains the center of commerce and industry.
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdioces of Karachi, is situated on Shahrah-e-Iraq, formerly known as Clarke Street, located near the Empress Market in Karachi, Pakistan. The first church in Sindh (except for possibly one in Thatta was initially built on the grounds of this cathedral in 1845, and was called St. Patrick’s Church. It was in April 1881 that the present cathedral was opened, since the Christian community grew in number, and the need for a larger place of worship became apparent.
  • PESHAWAR  It is the northernmost major city and is home to the gateway to the Khyber Pass.  Peshawar is a city of Pathan tribals. Alexander the Great and parts of his army stayed in this city for forty days in 327 B.C.E.  Balahissar Fort is on both the eastern and western approaches to the city, and it is from near here that one can take a train along the mountain routes of the Khyber Pass.  While the city is centuries old, the modern Peshawar is well known for its bazaars and for several colleges and a university.
  • Gandhara civilization was not only the centre of spiritual influence but also the cradle of the world famous Gandhara culture, art and learning. It was from these centers that a unique art of sculpture originated which is known as Gandhara Art all over the world. Today the Gandhara sculptures occupy a prominent place in the museums of England, France, Germany, USA, Japan, Korea, China, India and Afghanistan, together with many private collections world over, as well as a vast collection in the museums of Pakistan. Buddhism left a monumental and rich legacy of art and architecture in Pakistan. Despite the vagaries of centuries, the Gandhara region preserved a lot of the heritage in craft and art. Much of this legacy is visible even today in Pakistan. Taxila, the main centre of Gandhara, is over 3,000 years old. Taxila had attracted Alexander the great from Macedonia in 326 BC, with whom the influence of Greek culture came to this part of the world.
  • The Chaukhandi tombs are remarkable for the elaborate and exquisite stone carving. The style of architecture is typical only to the region of Sindh, and unique in that it is found nowhere else in the Islamic world. Generally, the elements are attributed to Jokhio (also spelt Jokhiya) also known as the family graveyard of Jokhio tribe.
  • Nankana Sahib is a holy place where the founder of Sikh religion, the dispeller of darkness, the most enlightened global Guru, Guru Nanak Dev ji was born early in the morning to Mata Tripta Ji and Mehta Kalu Ji on 15th April, 1469. At present there are 25-30 Sikh families residing in Nankana Sahib and as a result of this, daily service is performed and bani is recited. Bhai Partap Singh is functioning as the Granthi. At the occassion of Guru Nanak's anniversary, about three thousand Sikh devotees from India visit Nankana Sahib. Sikhs from all over the world come there too.
  • Ancient Indus Valley Civilization, Harappan Civilization Mohenjo-daro (Mound of the Dead) is one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, Built around 2600 BCE and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements. It is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. However, the site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.
  • Katasraj Mandir is a Hindu mandir or temple complex situated in Katas village in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan, were built around 900 years or so ago. It has always been the site of holy pilgrimage for people of various faiths. Even nowadays, worshippers perform pilgrimage to the mandir. The pilgrims bathe in the sacred pool and seek forgiveness as Hindu belief holds that bathing in the pond (especially on certain occasions) leads to the forgiveness of sins and helps attain salvation.
  • Takht-i-Bhai is a Buddhist monastic complex dating to the 1st century BCE. The complex is regarded by archaeologists as being particularly representative of the architecture of Buddhist monastic centers from its era. Takht-i-Bhai had a wealth of ancient Buddhist remains. A long range of different sized Buddha and Buddhistav vas from Takht-i-Bhai fill many museums. Some of the best pieces of Gandhara sculpture, now to be found in the museums of Europe, were originally recovered from Takht-i-Bhai.
  • Baltit Fort or Balti Fort is an ancient fort in the Hunza valley in GilgitBaltistan, Pakistan In the past, the survival of the feudal regime of Hunza was ensured by the impressive Baltit fort, which overlooks Karimabad. The foundations of the fort date back to 700 years ago, with rebuilds and alterations over the centuries. The architectural style is a clear indication of buddhist Tibetan influence in Baltistan at the time.
  • The Noor Mahal is a palace in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. It was built in 1872 like an Italian chateau on neoclassical lines, at a time when modernism had set in. It belonged to the Nawab of Bahawalpur princely state, during British Raj.
  • The Mohatta Palace is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was built by Shivratan Chandraratan Mohatta, an ambitious self-made businessman from Marwar as his summer home in 1927. The architect of the palace was Agha Ahmed Hussain. He built the Palace in the tradition of stone palaces in Rajasthan, using pink Jodhpur stone in combination with the local yellow stone from Gizri.
  • REFERENCES • • • • • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Pakistan www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/pakistan. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Pakistan. www.everyculture.com . www.tourism.gov.pk/gandhara_civilization.html