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Pre-use checks, in-service inspections, through examinations and testing of cranes and equipment.

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  2. 2. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC1. SCOPE 2.NORMATIVE REFERENCE1. SCOPERecommendations for the pre-use checks, in-service inspection, thorough examintationand testing of cranes, including associated equipment.2. NORMATIVE REFERENCEBS 1757 Specification for power-driven mobile cranesBS 449-2 Structural for the use of structural steel in building (Part 2: Metric units)BS 5950-1 StructuraL use of steelwork in building-Part 1:Code of practice for design-Rolled and welded sectionsBS 6968 Guide for use and maintenance of non-calibrated roun steel lifting chain and chain slingsBS EN 473 Non-destructive testing-Qualification and certification of NDT personnel- General principlesBS EN 45004 General criteria for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspectionISO 3056 Non-calibrated round steel link lifting chain and chain slings- Use and maintenanceISO 4301 Cranes- Clasification
  3. 3. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONSThorough examination- competent person determinate if equipment is safe to continue in useCompetent person-practical and therorical knowledge and experience of LE (assess)Competent engineer- theorical knowledge of the design of LEInspection body -employer of the competent person(s) who provided examination and testingType A inspection body providing ―third-party‖ services-in accordance BS EN 45004, ANNEX AType B inspection body BS EN 45004 ANNEX BType C inspection body BS EN 45004 ANNEX C- see next page this annexTestingFunctional testing- operation of each motion without a load appliedPerformance testing- operation of each motion with the rated load appliedOverload testing-static- operation with a load exceeding the rated load applied withoutoperating the full range of motionOverload testing-dynamic- operation with a load exceeding the rated load appliedNon-destructive testing NTD- Testing on the estructure of the applianceUser-control of LO and crane operator, responsible maintenance and thoroughly examinedRated capacity indicator/limiter RCI/L-prevent crane from overloadCrane operator-operating crane- to position loads or erection of the craneLoad radius indicator-which the crane is operating and its rated capacityRadius-horizontal distance between centre of rotation and the vertical centreline load (CG)Rated capacity-maximum load-at specified position and conditions=SWLService conditions- In-sevice/Out-of-serviceLifting-movement of loads or personsLifting accessory-LE for attaching loads
  4. 4. INDEPENDENCE CRITERIA FOR TYPE A INSPECTION BODYA.1 The inspection body shall be independent of the parties involved.The inspection body, and its staff responsible for carrying out the inspection shall not be the designer, manufacturer,supplier, installer, purchaser, owner, user or maintainer of the items which they inspect, nor the authorizedrepresentative of any of these parties.A.2 The inspection body and its staff shall not engage in any activities that may conflict with their independence ofjudgement and integrity in relation to their inspection activities. In particular they shall not become directly involvedin the design, manufacture, supply, installation, use or maintenance of the items inspected, or similar competitiveitems.A.3 All interested parties shall have access to the services of the inspection body. There shall not be unduefinancial or other conditions. The procedures under which the body operates shall be administered in a nondiscriminatorymanner.INDEPENDENCE CRITERIA FOR TYPE B INSPECTION BODYB.1 A clear separation of the responsibilities of the inspection personnel from those of the personnel employed inthe other functions shall be established by organizational identification and the reporting methods of the inspectionbody within the parent organization.B.2 The inspection body and its staff shall not engage in any activities that may conflict with their independence ofjudgement and integrity in relation to their inspection activities. In particular they shall not become directly involvedin the design, manufacture, supply, installation, use or maintenance of the items inspected, or similar competitiveitems.B.3 Inspection services shall only be supplied to the organization of which the inspection body forms a part.INDEPENDENCE CRITERIA FOR TYPE C INSPECTION BODYC.1 The inspection body shall provide safeguards within the organization to ensure adequate segregation ofresponsibilities and accountabilities in the provision of inspection services by organization and/or documentedProcedures.BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  5. 5. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC4.GENERAL5. PESONNEL CARRYING OUT PRE-USE CHECKS, IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS AND THOROUGHEXAMINATIONS4. GENERALPre-use check are visual checks at the start of each shiftIn-service inspection- weekly intervals by the crane operatorThorough examination- by competent person at specifiec intervals, after installation, afteralteration or reparir or exceptional circumstancesTesting- is a part of thorough examination5. PESONNEL CARRYING OUT PRE-USE CHECKS, IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS ANDTHOROUGH EXAMINATIONS5.1 PRE-USE CHECKS AND IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONSShould be carried out by a person who is competent.Initial training and assessment of competencePeriodic reassessment of that competenceCrane operators-crane is out of use.5.2 THOROUGH EXAMINATIONSBy a competent person taking account of any instructionAn engineer should be make an assessment of the desig of the crane (NOinstructions available)Independient and imparcial to allow objective decisions to be made.
  6. 6. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC6.PERIODIC PRE-USE CHECKS AND IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS6.1 GENERAL – the appoined person should ensure that inspection are carried out, and there isas system to rectify any defects6.2 DAILY PRE-USE CHECKS At the begining of each shift or working day:- Pre-use check required by the instructions for the crane- Check all ropes are correctly positioned on their sheaves and drum no displaced- Visually check no electrical equipment-by oil, grease, water or dirt- No loss of fluids/levels-oil, coolant- All limits switches, or cut-outs and dead man’s handle or lever function- Hydraulic system-hose and oil- RCI/L-manufacturer’s daily test- Load radius scale-jib configuration- Movement of the equipment- varying the radius no load- Air pressure- pneumatic control system-brakes- Lights, windscreen wiper(s) and washer operate efficiently- Wheels and condition tyres- All crane controls function correctly no load- Audible warning devices- Safety and fire prevention-areas are in tidy conditions, access and egress from cab- No obstruction in the path of the crane, prevent collisions
  7. 7. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC6.PERIODIC PRE-USE CHECKS AND IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS6.3 WEEKLY IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS -once a week- Instructions for the crane- RCI/L – operating instructions- cables, connectors and mounting- All wire ropes for broken wires, flattening, basket distorsion, excesive wear, corrosion- All rope terminations, swivels, pin and reating devices, and all sheaves –worm bushesor seizure- Structure- missing and bent bracings on bridges and strut jibs, bulges mark ontelescopic jib, cracked welds, and loose bolts and other fasteners- Hook, safety catch and swivel, free movement. –shank thread- Operation and adjustment of controllers- Hydraulic system-rams and hoses,, creep rate- Brakes and clutches- Tyre pressure, damge and wear- nuts, tread- Rails, end stops and ties if fitted- All guards- Slew lock if fitted- Steering, travel brakes, lights, indicators, horn, windscreen wipers and washers- Enter the results in the record of inspection6.4 RECORDS OF INSPECTION- Kept by the crane owner. Include:- DATE AND LOCATION- NAME PERSON CARRY OUT- TYPE OF EQUIPMENT INSPECTED- RESULT OF INSPECTIONS
  8. 8. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC7.THOROUGH EXAMINATION7.1 GENERALLoler and Merchant Shipping Act give specified periodSupplemented by: Overload testing, NDT, opening up of concealed or encased parts7.2 RESPONSIBLILITIES OF THE CRANE USERGENERAL-crane is taken out of use –time examinationPROVISION OF FACILITIES AND SERVICES- area cordoned off, operator, person toremove cover or open up parts, prepararion NDTPROVISION OF INFORMATION-rated capacities, alteratios, repair, renewals7.3 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COMPETENT PERSON-Identified defects, times to rectified.Lifting accessories or equipment-notified the user and owner7.4 RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS-User ensure these defects are rectified7.5 SPECIFIED PERIOD OF THOROUGH EXAMINATION6 MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION-crane lift person and LA12 MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION-crane
  9. 9. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC7.THOROUGH EXAMINATION7.6 EXAMINATION SCHEMEGENERAL-written schedule of the stepsDETAILS OF AN EXAMINATION SCHEME- contain at least :- Name and address owner- Name, qualificatins and address person drawing up (organization)- Make, model and identification number of the crane- Information references used in drawing up-instructions- Data logging system- The environment- Identification parts-deterioration, corrosion- Frecuency –parts- time, loading or duty cycles- Methods –dismantling, NDT techniques, time replacement- Resources required- qualified personnel, workshop facilities,…- Changes to equipment condition, operational or environmental- Date of drawing upThe mechanisms function correctly and are free from defect, crane is safe for use7.7 THOROUGH EXAMINATION PRIOR TO LOAD TESTINGFree from any defect (safely handling the test load), correct configuration and condition(instruction), equiped with sufficients falls of wire rope for the load. Ballats amount andweight, material used, all safety switches correct operations. LA, slinging arrangements aresafe.7.8 THOROUGH EXAMINATION AFTER LOAD TESTINGAfter a load testing, crane without sings of structural damage such as cracking,permanent deformation, paint flaking, loosening of or damage to structuralconnections.
  10. 10. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC8.PRE-USE CHECKS AND IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS FOR CRANES ANDOTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IN USE FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OFTIMESpecial programme of pre-use checks, in-service inspections and thoroughexaminationsDepends on the length of the period, and the location of the crane.Weather and atmospheric pollution.Pre-use checks and in-service inspections should contain:- Checks recommended – instructions crane- Checking all ropes for signs of corrosion, degradation and damage- lubrication- Checking all control linkage for evidence of seizure- Checking for correct functioning of all the safety devices- Checking hoses or other components for evidence deterioration- Checking for corrosion on the structure, access, control linkages, etc- Checking for structural integrity- cracks, dents, missing components- Testing of every motion for several minutes without load, and with load
  11. 11. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC9. TESTING AS PART OF THOROUGH EXAMINATION9.1 GENERAL –includes testing- functional/performance/non destructive(NDT)/overload testings.9.2 FUNCTIONAL TESTING- without load applied-Operation of all controls (brakes, safetydevices,) correctly and smoothly and free from wear/damage9.3 PERFORMANCE TESTING-after functional testing and with the rated load applied.9.4 LOAD TESTING- determinate whether the equipment is stable, structurally sound and fit forthe use for which is was designed (include every load-bearing part)Extreme care, each motion singly- at the lowest possible speed.Overload keep close ground- 100-200mm9.5 CRANES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT WHICH HAVE BEEN ALTERED OR REPAIREDAny alteration or repair- the testing should be carried out in accordance with the originalcrane specification.9.6 OVERLOAD TESTING AS PART OF PERIODIC CHECKS AND INSPECTIONSTo prove the continued integrity of the equipment, taking into account its age, usage,condition and operating environment.9.7 OVERLOAD TESTING FOLLOWING MAJOR REPAIR OR MODIFICATIONAny testing in accordance with written instruction from manufactureror other appropriate design authority
  12. 12. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC9. TESTING AS PART OF THOROUGH EXAMINATION9.8 TESTING OF RATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LMITER (RCI/L)GENERAL-at least 12 months the calibration should be verified by suspension of calibratedweights. (after any major repair or modification)RATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LIMITER (RCI/L) CALIBRATION CHECK-Warning of approach to rated capacity- commence at not less than 90% of therated capacity and not more than 97.5%. Function until to below the value.- Warning of overload- clear and continuous warning of overload. Commence at notless than 102.5% and not more than 110%Guidance on how to calibrate an RCI/L is given in BS 7262.The crane is not loaded beyond 110%9.9 TEST SITE CONDITIONSGround well consolidated and capable of withstanding the load applied to it.No hidden dangers- cable ducts, drains, pipes,back-filled areas, cellars, other subterraneanweaknesses. No be tested in the vicinity of overhead power lines.Sufficient area- overhead- to move crane and load (slewing, derricking, travelling)Not test in high risk areas- public highway, railway, occupied buildings, fight path airportsRoped off areas- prohibiting unauthorized entry.
  13. 13. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC9. TESTING AS PART OF THOROUGH EXAMINATION9.10 WEATHER CONDITIONSGENERAL- Electric storms, strong wind, heavy rains, ice, snow or excessive sea state canimpose loads. Limitation s on visibility, or heavily coated with ice or snow. Not pulling against ananchor point (can introduce side loading)WIND SPEEDS- specified in the operating instructions. Gusting wind conditions. Beaufort scale.See state codes Annex B-C-next tables.9.11 TEST WEIGHTSWeights of proven accuracy to within +-1%Weights proven on a weighbridge- calibrated 12 mothsWeights suspended from a calibrated weighing device-12 moths
  14. 14. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC9. TESTING AS PART OF THOROUGH EXAMINATION9.12 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) TECHNIQUESCan assist in the detection of any materials cracks or defects.BS EN 473- Guidance on qualification and certification of NDT personnel.3 most common types of NDT:- MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION- examination-surface-flood with ferrousparticles liquid-cluster over the defect (See BS EN ISO 9934 and BS EN 10228-2).Magnetic materials.- DYE PENETRANT- flood with a liquid dye-penetrates, after time- cleaned off, andsurface sprayed-absorbent- draws the dye from any defects. Non-ferrous materials(aluminium alloys) (See BS EN 671-1 and BS EN 10228-2)- ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION- Pulse of high frequency sound waves are transmitedfrom the surface into its interior.-measure the time delay from the time of transmission-estimate defect’s depth.Required a skilled operator and specialist equipment. Wide range of materials.See BSEN 583-39.13 REPORT OF THOROUGH EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFICATES OF TESTAfter every test a report should be prepared. Annex A next pageAfter a load test-a certificate should be issued. Annex D next pageApply all possible variables- jib length, rope reeving, track width, short or longcrawlers, counterweight, blocked, free on wheels , jib locking pins.
  15. 15. ANNEX A (Informative)Information to be contained in a report of a thorough examinationThe following is an extract from the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations [1].Schedule 1of Regulation 10 is quoted here in full. It details information to be contained in a report of athoroughexamination.1) The name and address of the employer for whom the thorough examination was made.2) The address of the premises at which the thorough examination was made.3) Particulars sufficient to identify the equipment including where known its date of manufacture.4) The date of the last thorough examination.5) The safe working load of the lifting equipment or (where its safe working load depends on theconfiguration of the lifting equipment) its safe working load for the last configuration in which it wasthoroughly examined.6) In relation to the first thorough examination of lifting equipment after installation or afterassemblyat a new site or in a new location:a) that it is such thorough examination;b) (if such be the case) that it has been installed correctly and is safe to operate.7) In relation to a thorough examination of lifting equipment other than a thorough examination towhichparagraph 6 relates:a) whether it is a thorough examination:i) within an interval of 6 months;ii) within an interval of 12 months;iii) in accordance with an examination scheme;iv) after the occurrence of exceptional circumstances;b) (if such be the case) that the lifting equipment is safe to operate.8) In relation to every thorough examination of lifting equipment:a) identification of any part found to have a defect which is or could become a danger topersons, and adescription of the defect;b) particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy a defect found tobe a danger topersons;c) in the case of a defect which is not yet but could become a danger to persons:i) the time by which it could become such a danger;ii) particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy it;iii) the latest date by which the next thorough examination must be carriedout.9) Where the thorough examination included testing, particulars of any test:a) the date of the thorough examination;b) the name, address and qualifications of the person making the report; that he is self-employed or, ifemployed, the name and address of his employer.10) The name and address of a person signing or authenticating the report on behalf of its author.11) The date of the report.BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC9. TESTING AS PART OF THOROUGH EXAMINATIONANNEX D (Informative)
  16. 16. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC10. DATA LOGGINGInformation that data loggers can record (example):— time, date and duration of lift;— configuration;— details of average and maximum load;— radius, angle and boom length;— number of lifts carried out;— rated capacity exceeded and percentage;— the number of times that manufacturer’s set limits are exceeded;— reeving changes;— operating mode;— road travel or on-site working;— distances travelled;— start and stop times in real time;— operator identification;— over speeding;— harsh braking;— idling time.
  17. 17. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC11. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CRANES FORLIFTING PERSONS AND SUSPENDED BASKETS11.1 GENERAL-thoroughly examined at least every 6 moths-11.2 THE CRANE- CHECK- RCI/L (1/2 rated for other load), motion control system (rest),anemometer (no excess 7m/s ).Free fall locked out. Hydraulic cylinders fit with load holdvalves to stop movement (in case of hose rupture or pipe fracture). Smooth transition of thecarrier , not exceeds 0.5 m/s on all motions. Access/egress .Wire rope used for hoistingand lowering the carrier at least 8mm diameter.11.3 THE CARRIER-safety harness, lanyard, emergency egress., marked with the numberof persons, and maximum load. Doors no open outwards and securely fastened. HandrailsAttachment points. Corrosion, cracks …Floor horizontal. Unique identification mark.11.4 BOSUN’S CHAIR-primary and secondary suspension point. Seat structure. Belt(s)11.5 HARNESSES –correct operation (buckles, adjuster, fasteners), suspension points. Theage.11.6 PRE-USE CHECKSTHE CRANE- hoist rope (no kinks or defects), no slack wire ropes, ropesproperly seated on drums and sheaves, lines no twised. A means detachesfrom hook.THE CARRIER- suspension system,, attachment points, motion controls.Annex E-in next page
  19. 19. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC12. ASSESSMENT OF WIRE ROPE CONDITION AND DISCARD CRITERIA12.1 GENERAL- figure shows some points to be considered as part of the assessment.Records shoul be kept of the examination and replacement of wire rope. Annex F. Pay atentionto the terminations, length run or stationary over drums, sheaves. (Details of crane wire rope-ISO 4309)
  20. 20. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC12. ASSESSMENT OF WIRE ROPE CONDITION AND DISCARD CRITERIA12.2 ROKEN WIRESRANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED BROKEN WIRES-not exceed 10 % any length of wire of 8 ropediameters.LOCALIZED BROKEN WIRES IN THE VICINITY OF TERMINATIONS 3 or more visible brokenwiresWIRE ROPES OPERATING IN PLASTICS SHEAVES-wire breaks can occur internally. Drynessor denaturing of the lubrication. Crane or rope manufacturer’s advice. (or metal sheaves havingplastics lining)12.3 WEAR- can be uniform along or around the rope.Metal sheaves, 6 or 8 strand rope- discarded when diameter is reduced 90% nominaldiameter..If diameter falls to 97% or rises to 105% of nominal diameter-discard might be necessary..12.4 CORROSION AND CHEMICAL ATTACK- slight rusting- indication need lubrication.External and internal
  21. 21. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC12. ASSESSMENT OF WIRE ROPE CONDITION AND DISCARD CRITERIA12.5 LOCALIZED DAMAGE OR DISTORSION-WAVINESS-deformation in the longitudinal axis.BASKET DISTORSION (OR BIRDCAGE)-outer layer dislocated, or longer thaninner layer.STRAND OR CORE PROTRUSION- associated with basket distorsion. See 3examplesWIRE EXTRUSION-usually results from shock loading-LOCAL INCREASE IN DIAMETER OF ROPE-corrosion or to swelling of a fibrecore owing to moisture-LOCAL DECREASE IN DIAMETER OF ROPE-fracture of the core positions.BENDS AND KINKS-bend angular deformation/kink created by a loop in the rope-tightened without rotation about its axis.- See 3 picsFLATTENED PORTIONS-wire rope on a drum with insufficcient tensionDAMAGE DUE TO HEAR OR ELECTRIC ARCING-dryness or loss of lubrication,fusion wire surfaces- and presence of weld splatters
  22. 22. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC12. ASSESSMENT OF WIRE ROPE CONDITION AND DISCARD CRITERIA12.6 CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL CRITERIA- the competent person specifyperiod of time used, and recommend a reduction in time between inspections or thoroughexaminations.12.7 CHAINS- inspection in accordance with ISO 3056 and BS6968
  23. 23. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC13. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOBILE CRANES13.2 OVERLOAD TESTING OF MOBILE CRANESGENERAL- less 500t, overload tested every 4 years.+500t overload tested 12 monthly calibration RCI/LVARIATION OF MOBILE GRANESOutriggers-intermediate extension marked, manufacturer’s certificate –capacities to theoutrigger extension. Duty charts give specified intermediate extension. RCI/LCounterweight- manufacturer’s duty charts specify rating applicable for each counterweightJibs- jib configurations . The crane should be rigged in accordance with instructionsFly jibs –be erected and use – instructions. Variation in length and /or angle o offsetVariable length jibs- identify sections- to avoid mismatch (intermediate sections)LEVELLING- +- 0.5% slope, use a spirit level. Alterantively the hook block in the centreof the jib (0º-90º)LIFTING FREE ON WHEELS-higher pressure for free on wheels duties than for road travel.LIFTING CAPACITIES- capacity charts= weight hook+sling and lifting gear+loadOVERLOAD TEST-Crane to withstand a 25% overload. 1ºfunctional test without load. Brake, re-hoist, brake. Test load raised the crane derricked out the radius/angle 125% of the rated capacityand lowered to between 100-200mm-10 min, and be slewed at the lowest speed-both directions-withstand lateral loadings.MAJOR REPAIR OR MODIFICATION-mobile cranes be thoroughly examined and overload test.POST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION-appropriate certificate13.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) OF MOBILE CRANES- when cracks or other structural damaged
  24. 24. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC13. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOBILE CRANES13.1 THOROUGH EXAMINATION OF MOBILE CRANESGENERAL- clean- to remove all spoil/dirt. Be carried out in logical sequence (top to bottom)RATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LIMITER(RCI/l) CALIBRATION CHECK-12 months-GuideBS7262. Not loaded beyond 110 % of its rated capacity (radius/angle- mark)EXAMINATION SCHEME APPROACH- In accordance with usage- condition monitoring-Guide ISO 12482-1 cooperation manufacturer, owner and competent person. Limiting criteriabased on the crane design (number of load cycles,, critical part, exceptional circumstances.Complete record of crane usage.SPECIFIED PERIOD APPROACH6 monthly thorough examination- crane -to lift persons and lifting accessories12 montly thorough examination- crane not used to lift personsItems to check the specified period thorough examintation--Tyres for wear, damage, inflamation pressure-Crawler tracks for wear and adjustment-Axle locking system- correct operation, noleak/damage/corrosion/distorsion-Crane structure, chassis, - damage/distorsion/cracking/ corrosion-All bolts and fastening-Slewing mechanism-Pipework on crane- corrossion/damage/leakage/security and fretting-Hidraulic cylinders-Structure and jib-Pivoting joints on the jib and attachments-Telescopic extensions-Wire ropes-size, reeved, end terminations- BS7166-Pulleys/sheaves and drums turn freely-Braking mechanism-Any means of access- ladders, walkways, hand rails/hand holds-Outrigger jacks and beams-Fluid for conditions (oil)-Operator’s seat- Control levers are marked-Upper and lower hoist limit switches-Hooks, their attachment, safety catches-Fly jib and mounted attachment- host limit switch –working-Operator’s cabin showing the rated - capacities for all crane opertingconditions-All controls for smoothnes of operation- Warning signs-All motion operate smoothly and effectively(telescopic jib should be dismantled at leas one every 4 years to examine anyhidden mechanism parts-rope terminations, hydraulic cilinders)
  25. 25. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC13. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOBILE CRANES13.4 MOBILE CRANES MOUNTED ON WATER-BORNE CRAFTGENERAL- consider modification required the assembly of the crate and the vesselINFORMATION-rated capacity, and overload conditons-Barge or pontoonVERIFICATION- calculate angle of heel and trim of the vessel when crane is in operation/manufacturer’s allowable rated capacity whilst working on the pontoon or barge/ Amount andposition of any ballast/ depht of water bellow the vessel’s keel/ Limiting weather and sea state.ANCHORING-anchor the vessel to the shore, if it not possible- vessel be anchorage to a craftalongsideRATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LIMITER (RCI/L)- to ensure that the rated capacity reductionTHOROUGH EXAMINATION BEFORE TESTING-verification in accordance with the craneinstructions. Fuctional test with no load applied- correct operation of control, switches,contactor… brakes, limit switchesSTABILITY MARGIN- competent person, the marging should be the maximun overturningmoment of the crane does not exceed 2/3 of the restoring moment of the crane/vesselcombinationOVERLOAD TEST- jib set at its maximum working radius the rated capacity should be appliedcheck all motions. Raise load 100-200 mm and held on the brake, and overload should beapplied- increasing 25% capacity an again all motions, hoist and derrick brakes.Repeated withthe maximum rated capacity and then the 25%overload. Repeated with the minimum radius.Cranes designed -BS 1757.In case of grabbing crane mounted on a vessel- contents notexceed 75 % of the hook load and a further 25% reduction should be made- suction effect- Theweight of the grab not exceed 56.25% of the water-borne hook load rating.POST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION- report- certificate
  27. 27. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC13. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOBILE CRANES13.5 OVERLOAD TEST FOR JIB ARRANGEMENTSGENERAL- All jib and mast/tower configuration in Table3-4-5. Tested with a 25% overload, excep where theprevious test certificate specifies a lower test load. Crane has duties on outriggers, free on wheels, crawlertracks, lift and travel- repeat test for each condition.LONG JIB LENGTHS- 25% overload for max, radius and slew. Maximum rated-test, and be derricked in tothe minimum radius. Increased 25% held for 10 min clear of the ground. and derricked out to max radius. Loadbe slewed (structure to withstand lateral loadings)SHORT JIB LENGTHS- 25% overload for max radius and slew. Load be slewed 360º. Maximum ratedcapacity be assembed at minimum radius, raised, crane all motions. Increased 25% and lowered to 100 mm to200 mm above the ground. Test the derrick brakes with 25% overload suspended no more than 100mmabove the ground.
  28. 28. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC14. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OVERHEAD TRAVELLINGCRANES14.1 ITEMS TO CHECK AT THE SPECIFIED PERIOD THOROUGH EXAMINATIONVerify the identification and rated capacity marked on the crane-compabible- records-test certificates, EC,…Any history of defects or malfunctions, repairs, alterations or additions.All the motions operateCrane safe by isolation powerExamine Structure- damage, cracks, wear, distorsions, corrosion or missing parts (end carriages, briggegirders, crab, gantry rails, bolts and gastening, end stops and buffers)Examine the long travel mechanism for damage, cracks, wear, alignment, distortion, corrosion, missing parts,lubrications (motor, gearing, transmission machinery, bearing, brakes, wheels, gear cases, cover and guards)Examine the cross travel mechanism (=the same before)Examine the hoist mechanism(=)Examine all the wire ropes/chains, anchorages and theri fittings. Bull dog grips NO usedExamine the hook/bottom/return block assemblyExamine the cab and seatingExamine controls for marking on their function and mode of operationFunctionally test all control for smoothness and freedom from damageExamine the audible and visual warning devicesExamine all limit switches- hoist, lower, long travel, cross travel and proximity,Examine the platforms and access ladders.Examine fire extinguishers (date, seal intact, appropriate type, weight)Examine the electrical system including (isolators, motors, lead and collectors, lighting, wiring, catenaries,trailing cables)
  29. 29. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC14. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OVERHEAD TRAVELLINGCRANES14.2 OVERLOAD TESTING OF OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANESOVERLOAD TESTFor overhead traveling cranes- gantry and supporting structure- examined,tested and certificatedVisual examination of gantry and track prior testBefore any load- functional test with no load appliedCrane be positioned – measure deflection—load raised, then lowered to 100-200 mm above theground, 10 min, to check the brake. Raised again and lowered (crab be traversed to mid span anddeflection), load lowered and raised, determinate the deflection remains constant.Load should be traversed to the opposite gantry- allong the track, and returned to its original liftposition.Maximum deflection- not exceed 1/750 of the spanOverload test- load increased by 25 % and repeated the test- the lowest speed possible for thecrane.2 or more hoists, separete test.POST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION-report like Annex D(see point 9)OVERLOAD TESTING OF CRANE GANTRIESOVERLOAD TESTS -1º test unloaded crane- be travelled the full length of the gantryLoad be lifted 100 to 200 mm above the ground-traveling the complete lengthAn overload of 25% in excess of the rated load- full lengthGantries built in accordance with BS 449-2 the maximum deflection not exceed 1/360 of the span.Gantries built in accordance with BS5950-1 the maximum deflection not exceed 1/600 of the span.POST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION-report like Annex DANNEX D (Informative)
  30. 30. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC15. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOWER CRANES15.1 THOROUGH EXAMINATION OF TOWER CRANESGENERAL- before first erection examined on the ground.Clean.Logical sequence top to bottomRATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LIMITE (RCI/L) CALIBRATION CHECK-within the tolerancesgiven, BS 7262- guidance on how to calibrate. Each 12 months. No loaded beyond 110 % of itsrated capacity.- mark radius/angle and not take load beyond that point.EXAMINATION SCHEME APPROACH- Condition monitoring ISO 12482-1. Accordance withusage. (condition monitoring)SPECIFIED PERIOD APPROACHSIX MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION- to lift person and lifting accessoriesTWELVE MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION-not used to lift personsITEMS TO CHECK AT THE SPECIFIED PERIOD THOROUGH EXAMINATION-Visual examine-Tower structure-cast-in anchors/cruciformbase/chassis/internal collar/grillage-distorsion, cracking, corrosion.-Travelling base rail track-Central ballast –mass and positioning-All bolts, pins others fastenings- no loose-Slewing mechanism- full range of movement-All electrical cables-All electrical enclosures-All pipework on the crane-All hydraulic cylinders-Counter jib, slewing platform, a frame, trolley and jib-Trolley rope breaks safety devices- check any bearingand pivots freedom of action-Counter ballast-All pivoting joints on the jib and attachments-All wire rope- reeved- end termination- BS7166-All pulleys/sheaves and drums-guards-Whole length of wire ropes-All motors, drive coupling, gearboxes-Braking mechanisms-Access, ladders, hoops, walkways, rest platforms,han rails/hand holds and safety line anchorages-Oil and other fluid for condition-Operator’s cab-Fixing for the operator’s seat-Cab windows-All control are marked-Upper and lower hoist limit switches-Hook, their attachments and safety catches-Rated capacities table showing in the cab-Test all controls for smoothness-Warning signs other important instructions- ratingplate for load lifting-Checks all motions, limiters and safety devicesThe minimum inspection criteria for examination ofclimbing frame is given in Annex G-see next page
  32. 32. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC15. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOWER CRANES15.2 OVERLOAD TESTING OF TOWER CRANESGENERAL- should be carried out after each erection, after reconfiguration (every 4 years for crane in samesite)LEVELLING-the mast –vertical- Annex H gives typical foundation, pre-erection inspection certificateLIFTING CAPACITIES- load ratings marked on tower crane- loads include weight of hook, not slings and liftinggear.OVERLOAD TESTPREPARATION- checks withstand 25% overload/ position -level(rail-mounted-track,tyres, jacks)/ safe state andconditionTEST PROCEDURE- functionally testd without load-Trolley or jib at maximum radius-raise and lower load 100-200 mm above the ground-all motions-Then load increase 25 %, hoisted and lowered 100-200mm – all motions- Horizontal jib cranes- trolley at the maximum radius for the maximum capacity-Travel on rail tracks- overload should be travelled the appropriate lengthMAJOR REPAIR OR MODIFICATION- after-should be thoroughly examinedPOST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION – like Annex D-reportNON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) OF TOWER CRANE-identification cracks or structures damaged by fatigue,corrosion or overloading15.3 INDICATOR TESTGENERAL-not loaded beyond 110% of its rated capacity-Radius markedHORIZONTAL JIBS WITH TROLLEYS- Test trolley brake, not less than 80% max rated capacity, clear the ground atminimum radius and travelled slowly until indicator –warning. Radious between 90-97% of the rated capacity for that radius.When radius is measured- load should be between 102.5-110% of the rated capacityDERRICKING JIBS- 80-90% maximum rated capacity suspended at the minimum radius of the crane.The radius increase untilindicactor warning- When radius is measured- load 90-97.5%. Radius reduced slightly and the load increased until the loadcause an oveload warning-carfully hoisted from the ground. Load should be between 102.5-110%REPEAT TEST- using weight midway between the maximum and minimum rated capacity for thatconfiguration of the crane.
  33. 33. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC15. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOWER CRANESANNEX H (Informative)- Tower crane foundation pre-erection inspection certificate
  34. 34. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC16. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LOADER CRANES16.1 THOROUGH EXAMINATION OF LOADER CRANESGENERAL-clean-an effective examination. Logical sequence, f.e. top to bottom- nothing is overlooked.RATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/LIMITER (RCI/L) CALIBRATION CHECK- it is not part of overload testing. Nomore than 12 momthly intervals. A load 10% overload at maximun extension lifted from the ground jib fullyextension and telescopic less than 90% of rated capacity. Increase radius until indicator warning-Radiusmeasured- load 90-97.5%, radius increase-overload warning. Load 102,5-110%. Then radius increased untilthe telescopic extension fully- overload protection have operatedEXAMINATION SCHEME APPROACH-regular assessments in accordance with usage.SPECIFIED PERIOD APPROACHSIX MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION-lift persons and lifting accessoriesTWELVE MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATIONITEMS TO CHECK AT THE SPECIFIED PERIOD THOROUGH EXAMINATION-Sub frame-for damage, distortion, cracking and corrosion-Tightness, all bolts and fastenings to attack crane to the sub frame, and sub frame to the lorry chassis-Functional check- hand brake interlock– power disengages-Functional check-height warning- prevention of collisions with bridges-There is a label visible from operator’s seat displaying the travelling height-Pipe connections between pump and crane, crane and oil tank (chafing,leakage,..)-Level and condition of fluid in oil tank-Visually crane control valve-All control valve levers and marked with their function and mode of operation-Functionally test all controls- smoothness of operation, and retur to neutral-release-All manufacturers’ load plate(s) are firmly attached and readable-control position-Check deploy stabilizers-cam locks and automatic latches on the beams-Pipework on the loader crane-Hydraulic cylinders for alignment, leakage, corrosion..-Pivoting points. Structure.-Telescopic extensions.-Access.-Operator’s seat and restraintADDITIONAL CHECKS FOR LOADER CRANES FITTED WITH WINCHES-Hoist rope and reeved- instructions-Pulleys/sheaves and drums- lubricated, damage.. And idler-all guards in place-Entire length of the hoist rope-Hoist limit switches-Operate the loader crane to check all motions- If loader crane capacity excess 1t or load moment 40.000 N·m it should be fitted with loading control, should be tested.
  36. 36. BS 7121-2 CoP for SUoC16. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LOADER CRANES16.2 TESTING OF LOADER CRANESGENERALRecommendations for periodic testing see Table 6Test area.Test the integrity of the crane and its mountingTo establish the stability of the loader crane.Check the rated capacity quotedHydraulic oil be at normal operating temperatureA functinal test (no load) all controls operate correctlyLEVELLING-firm level ground, slope of no greater than +- 5%STABILIZERS-fully extended to maximum spread, tyres correct pressureLIFTING CAPACITIES- the weights of all additonal lifting equipment as part to the test loadLIFTING OF VEHICLE WHEELS AND STABILIZERSTEST CONDITIONS- order overload test and after dynamic functional test16.2.7-OVERLOAD TEST-according to the following formulaL= (KcP)+(0.1 Gb) L=test load/P=rated load/Gb=mass of the boom system point of loadattachment/Kc=test factorTest at the following radii: max radius with special extensions/max radius attainable with hydraulic outreach/ oneintermediate radius/smallest practical radius. Each radius-should be slewedRated capacity indicator and overload protection system- be overriden or disconnected16.2.8-DYNAMIC FUNCTIONAL TEST- system hidraulic and structural members to dynamic conditios andfluctuating loads. Full range of travel. Test load rated 1.1 max. radius. Without interruption-speed range.Decelerating valves- sudden arrest of moving suspended load. Audible and visual warnings occur-radius and load.Temperature of the hydraulic oil. Overload protection.The main relief valve.STRUCTURAL REPAIR OR MODIFICATION-be thoroughly examinedPOST TEST EXAMINATION AND CERTIFICATION- Annex D, reportNON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) OF LOADER CRANES-crack or damage in structural parts.