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The Sub-State District/Regional Councilas a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography              for the United States    ...
The Regional Analysis Problem Regional analysis in the United States is limited bythe Federal Information Processing Stand...
Example: FIPS Code and SpatialRelationships for States Compared
Metropolitan Statistical Areas Regional aggregation was done in theestablishment of Metropolitan StatisticalAreas (MSA), w...
MSA Limitations The relationships which define MSAs, primarilyworkforce commuting, led to their widening overtime to inclu...
Virginia Planning Districts – Region Numbers Have Worked Like a FIPS Code Since 1968
United States Country Geo-code – 5140     In Global Geo-code Proposal    Next step is a geo-code for each State.    The U....
State Geo-codes – USA - What does this accomplish?Difference – Maine is 01 compared to FIPS 23; Alabama is                ...
Division                Geo-code         Region/State   Abr.   FIPS5. West SouthCentral                            South/ ...
Quick look at Substate Districts/RCs01. Maine         02. New Hampshire
03. Vermont   04. Massachusetts
05. Rhode Island   06. Connecticut
07. New York   08. New Jersey
09. Pennsylvania   10. Delaware
11. Maryland   12. District of Columbia
13. Virginia   14. West Virginia
15. North Carolina   16. South Carolina
17. Georgia   18. Florida
19. Kentucky   20. Tennessee
21. Alabama   22. Mississippi
23. Louisiana   24. Arkansas
25. Oklahoma   26. Texas
27. Michigan   28. Ohio
29. IndianaRC gaps (left) filled by MPO (right))
30. IllinoisLooks complex (left) but general alignment to DOT Districts (right)
31. Wisconsin   32. Minnesota
33. North Dakota   34. South Dakota
35. Iowa   36. Nebraska
37. Missouri   38. Kansas
39. Montana   40. Wyoming
41. Idaho   42. Nevada
43. Utah   44. Colorado
45. New Mexico   46. Arizona
47. Alaska   48. Washington
49. Oregon   50. California
51. Hawaii   U.S. All at once
How do geo-codes enable region-building for analysis?Example: Mid-Atlantic Region with Regional Councils as the Unit of   ...
Mid-Atlantic Change by Regional Council Region – Richmond     Region in its Mid-Atlantic Context, not just Virginia
% change – provides a different picture.
Loss of countryside –viewshed? Regionland area lessFederal and StateLands – includingUrban Areas
Overall density in 2005 drops when Urban areas pulled out – withtime series we could see better the sprawls as build out o...
Goals of this PresentationThe purpose of this paper is to:   Present this effort to researchers and practitioners   To fin...
Regional Intelligence – Regional Communities, LLC Tom (Thomas J.) Christoffel, AICP, FeRSA, Editor Regional Community Deve...
The Sub-State District/Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography for the United States
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The Sub-State District/Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography for the United States

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States and their counties or equivalents are the two major political geographies in the United States. National and State data is collected for these boundaries. When it comes to regional analysis, the states are too large and the counties too small. Metropolitan statistical areas reflect major regional economic relationships, but that focus leaves out the non-metro counties. A longitudinal analysis for MSAs over decades is not fruitful, since the underlying composition changes.

A geospatial unit of analysis that is used in many states and could be used nation-wide is the sub-state district, generically known as the regional council. Over half of the states have a complete system where the regional council is organized and may be a political subdivision. Long term analysis can be done for these State standard regions. The analyses can be used by these regions for programmatic purposes, such as economic development.

Data solutions exist for States with an incomplete system or no system. The products of these base analyses would contribute to the analysis and planning by making the existing regional networks more visible, enabling greater use of existing data and, for data like County Business Patterns, overcome confidentiality concerns through multi-county datasets. It also enables aggregation to multi-region datasets that fit the issue at hand, be it a watershed, transportation corridor or other significant geography, in state or multi-state.

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Transcript of "The Sub-State District/Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography for the United States"

  1. 1. The Sub-State District/Regional Councilas a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography for the United States by Thomas J. Christoffel, AICP, FeRSA Regional Intelligence – Regional Communities, LLC 50th Annual meeting of the Southern Regional Science Association New Orleans, Louisiana March 25, 2011
  2. 2. The Regional Analysis Problem Regional analysis in the United States is limited bythe Federal Information Processing Standards(FIPS) codes created in the 1960’s. State FIPS codes were assigned alphabetically forstates beginning with 01 for Alabama. Within states, counties and comparablegeographies were also done alphabetically beginningwith 01 then 03 – new county option. Tyranny of the Alphabet – Easy to find individualstate or county data in a list, but not to relate onejurisdiction to another in a table or spreadsheet.
  3. 3. Example: FIPS Code and SpatialRelationships for States Compared
  4. 4. Metropolitan Statistical Areas Regional aggregation was done in theestablishment of Metropolitan StatisticalAreas (MSA), which were codedseparately. Many of these regions matched thegeography of the Metropolitan Councilsof Government of that time. That is no longer true. And the non-metro counties are out in the analyticcold.
  5. 5. MSA Limitations The relationships which define MSAs, primarilyworkforce commuting, led to their widening overtime to include more jurisdictions. Since the geographic base changes over time,there is no option for long term analysis ofchange on a standard multi-jurisdictional regionalgeography. MSA totals obscure differences within theunderlying territory, which has lead to faultyanalysis. Development of Micropolitan Areas is not asolution.
  6. 6. Virginia Planning Districts – Region Numbers Have Worked Like a FIPS Code Since 1968
  7. 7. United States Country Geo-code – 5140 In Global Geo-code Proposal Next step is a geo-code for each State. The U.S. Census Bureau has defined regions and divisions. This framework was used to develop NSEW State geo-codes beginning in the Northeast and moving south.
  8. 8. State Geo-codes – USA - What does this accomplish?Difference – Maine is 01 compared to FIPS 23; Alabama is 21 compared to 01 Division Geo-code Region/State Abr. FIPS 1. New England Northeast/ 01 Maine ME 23 02 New Hampshire NH 33 03 Vermont VT 50 04 Massachusetts MA 25 05 Rhode Island RI 44 06 Connecticut CT 09 2. Middle Atlantic Northeast/ 07 New York NY 36 08 New Jersey NJ 34 09 Pennsylvania PA 42 3. South Atlantic South/ 10 Delaware DE 10 11 Maryland MD 24 12 District of Columbia DC 11 13 Virginia VA 51 14 West Virginia WV 54 15 North Carolina NC 37 16 South Carolina SC 45 17 Georgia GA 13 18 Florida FL 12 4. East South Central South/ 19 Kentucky KY 21 20 Tennessee TN 47 21 Alabama AL 01 22 Mississippi MS 28
  9. 9. Division Geo-code Region/State Abr. FIPS5. West SouthCentral South/ 23 Louisiana LA 22 24 Arkansas AR 05 25 Oklahoma OK 40 26 Texas TX 486. East North Central Midwest/ 27 Michigan MI 26 28 Ohio OH 39 29 Indiana IN 18 30 Illinois IL 17 31 Wisconsin WI 557. West NorthCentral Midwest/ 32 Minnesota MN 27 33 North Dakota ND 38 34 South Dakota SD 46 35 Iowa IA 19 36 Nebraska NE 31 37 Missouri MO 29 38 Kansas KS 208. Mountain West/ 39 Montana MT 30 40 Wyoming WY 56 41 Idaho ID 16 42 Nevada NV 32 43 Utah UT 49 44 Colorado CO 08 45 New Mexico NM 35 46 Arizona AZ 049. Pacific West/ 47 Alaska AK 02 48 Washington WA 53 49 Oregon OR 41 50 California CA 06 51 Hawaii HI 15
  10. 10. Quick look at Substate Districts/RCs01. Maine 02. New Hampshire
  11. 11. 03. Vermont 04. Massachusetts
  12. 12. 05. Rhode Island 06. Connecticut
  13. 13. 07. New York 08. New Jersey
  14. 14. 09. Pennsylvania 10. Delaware
  15. 15. 11. Maryland 12. District of Columbia
  16. 16. 13. Virginia 14. West Virginia
  17. 17. 15. North Carolina 16. South Carolina
  18. 18. 17. Georgia 18. Florida
  19. 19. 19. Kentucky 20. Tennessee
  20. 20. 21. Alabama 22. Mississippi
  21. 21. 23. Louisiana 24. Arkansas
  22. 22. 25. Oklahoma 26. Texas
  23. 23. 27. Michigan 28. Ohio
  24. 24. 29. IndianaRC gaps (left) filled by MPO (right))
  25. 25. 30. IllinoisLooks complex (left) but general alignment to DOT Districts (right)
  26. 26. 31. Wisconsin 32. Minnesota
  27. 27. 33. North Dakota 34. South Dakota
  28. 28. 35. Iowa 36. Nebraska
  29. 29. 37. Missouri 38. Kansas
  30. 30. 39. Montana 40. Wyoming
  31. 31. 41. Idaho 42. Nevada
  32. 32. 43. Utah 44. Colorado
  33. 33. 45. New Mexico 46. Arizona
  34. 34. 47. Alaska 48. Washington
  35. 35. 49. Oregon 50. California
  36. 36. 51. Hawaii U.S. All at once
  37. 37. How do geo-codes enable region-building for analysis?Example: Mid-Atlantic Region with Regional Councils as the Unit of Analysis State Codes 5140-08 NJ to 5140-14 WV
  38. 38. Mid-Atlantic Change by Regional Council Region – Richmond Region in its Mid-Atlantic Context, not just Virginia
  39. 39. % change – provides a different picture.
  40. 40. Loss of countryside –viewshed? Regionland area lessFederal and StateLands – includingUrban Areas
  41. 41. Overall density in 2005 drops when Urban areas pulled out – withtime series we could see better the sprawls as build out occurs.
  42. 42. Goals of this PresentationThe purpose of this paper is to: Present this effort to researchers and practitioners To find people who may be interested in this project for analysis of other multi-jurisdictional regions in state or multi-state geographies and To increase visibility of regional council geography and organizations in the U.S. As geo-political regions, they can also be used as regional communities to be taken into account for redistricting for State Houses and Congressional Districts. Thank you!
  43. 43. Regional Intelligence – Regional Communities, LLC Tom (Thomas J.) Christoffel, AICP, FeRSA, Editor Regional Community Development News P.O. Box 1444 Front Royal, Virginia (VA 22630), USA E-mail: Tom.Christoffel@gmail.com Phone or fax: 1-540-635-8582 Web: http://ri-rc.com The “Regions Work” Initiative © 1998
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