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U.S. Substate District-Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography 2011.06.07
 

U.S. Substate District-Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography 2011.06.07

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Abstract
States and their counties or equivalents are the two major political geographies in the United States. National and State data is collected for these boundaries. When it comes to regional analysis, the states are too large and the counties too small. Metropolitan statistical areas reflect major regional economic relationships, but that focus leaves out the non-metro counties. A longitudinal analysis for MSAs over decades is not fruitful, since the underlying composition changes.

A geospatial unit of analysis that is used in many states and could be used nation-wide is the sub-state district, generically known as the regional council. Over half of the states have a complete system where the regional council is organized and may be a political subdivision. Long term analysis can be done for these State standard regions. The analyses can be used by these regions for programmatic purposes, such as economic development.

Data solutions exist for States with an incomplete system or no system. The products of these base analyses would contribute to the analysis and planning by making the existing regional networks more visible, enabling greater use of existing data and, for data like County Business Patterns, overcome confidentiality concerns through multi-county datasets. It also enables aggregation to multi-region datasets that fit the issue at hand, be it a watershed, transportation corridor or other significant geography, in state or multi-state. Today, most regional science practitioners have no awareness of the regional council networks that represent a market for their work.

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    U.S. Substate District-Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography 2011.06.07 U.S. Substate District-Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography 2011.06.07 Document Transcript

    • The Sub-State District/Regional Council as a Geospatial Unit of Analytical Geography for the United States © Thomas J. Christoffel, AICP, FeRSA Editor, Regional Community Development News Regional Intelligence - Regional Communities, LLC Box 1444 * Front Royal, Virginia (VA 22630) Draft as of: 3/23/2011 4:23 PMSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Regional Science Association (SRSA) Annual Meeting, Regional Development Planning and Policy, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 25-28, 2011
    • Abstract - Introduction States and their counties or equivalents are the two major political geographies in theUnited States. National and State data is collected for these boundaries. When it comes toregional analysis, the states are too large and the counties too small. Metropolitan statistical areasreflect major regional economic relationships, but that focus leaves out the non-metro counties.A longitudinal analysis for MSAs over decades is not fruitful, since the underlying compositionchanges. A geospatial unit of analysis that is used in many states and could be used nation-wide isthe sub-state district, generically known as the regional council. Over half of the states have acomplete system where the regional council is organized and may be a political subdivision.Long term analysis can be done for these State standard regions. The analyses can be used bythese regions for programmatic purposes, such as economic development. Data solutions exist for States with an incomplete system or no system. The products ofthese base analyses would contribute to the analysis and planning by making the existingregional networks more visible, enabling greater use of existing data and, for data like CountyBusiness Patterns, overcome confidentiality concerns through multi-county datasets. It alsoenables aggregation to multi-region datasets that fit the issue at hand, be it a watershed,transportation corridor or other significant geography, in state or multi-state. Today, mostregional science practitioners have no awareness of the regional council networks that representa market for their work. Geo-Coding Problem and Solution Regional analysis in the United States is limited by the alphabetic FIPS codes which wereassigned in the 1960’s. The base codes were assigned alphabetically for states, thenalphabetically for counties and comparable geographies within states. This made it simple tolookup individual state or county data in a list, but there is no inherent relationship between thename of a political geographic unit and its location. See Figure 1. 2
    • Figure1. FIPS and Geographic LocationCounty locations within states have similar relationship and county FIPS do not aggregateregionally. Regional aggregation was accomplished with the establishment of MetropolitanStatistical Areas (MSA) with specific codes. When introduced, most MSAs matched thegeography of early Metropolitan Councils of Government, as metropolitan planning wasencouraged in the 1950’s. In 2011 and perhaps for the last 20 to 30 years, MSAs expanded their geography basedon workforce commuting. Labor market regions broadened as housing costs and transportationnetworks encouraged and supported longer commuting trips. Job centers were located in oncesuburban areas, but often the workforce could not live nearby and had an extended commute. Widening patterns led to MSA overlap and designation of Combined and thenConsolidated MSAs (CMSA) where MSAs appeared to have grown together. While marketsmay overlap in a short period of time, political jurisdictions stick to their geography and perhaps,over time have become more comfortable with the neighboring jurisdictions that they wereobligated to join for a variety of Federal and State programs in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Although MSA information is widely used, because the geographic makeup has changedover time, there is little opportunity for long term analysis of change. Another issue with MSAdata is that the numbers used can obscure differences within the underlying territory. Lack of aframework for Non-metro county economic analysis is also an issue. Census County Businesspatterns are of little value because of suppression of data for confidentiality concerns. Multi-county regions, as in the case of Public Use Samples, could allow for more data and betteranalysis. There was no comparable national system to aggregate non-metropolitan counties intostandard regions, although most states established some form of multi-county regional councils.Some, like Virginia, used sub-state districts for data aggregation and use by other State agencies,allowing the region number to act like a FIPS code. 3
    • In the 1990’s, commerce, industry and even workforce commuting expanded alongInterstate and Primary routes, showing connections between MSAs and a broad range of non-metropolitan counties, often in adjoining states. To understand these relationships, there wasclear need for multi-regional analysis, but no data sets supported this. The author began work in1998 to promote the development of such a system, submitting a comment to the U.S. CensusBureau February 12, 1999 relative to: Alternative Approaches to Defining Metropolitan andNonmetropolitan Areas. Continued work on the issue and a review of other national and international systems ledto the conclusion that a global geo-code system was needed, since existing formats had tended tobe based on an alphabetic approach. Given the multiplicity of regional alignments, multi-national, multi-state, a global geo-code system appeared appropriate. The purpose of this paper isto present the prototype design for the purpose of further consideration by the user communities. The system is based on a geocode scheme set up for earth that focuses on establishedpolitical boundaries as a basis for regional grouping of nations, states and localities. It is decimalsystem based to take advantage of the sort criteria for numbers in computers. It utilized theSector Group and Region codes of the United Nations and ISO. The unpublished paper: “GlobalRegion-builder Geo-Code Prototype” was presented at the Regional Studies Association, Pecs,May 2010 and NARSC Denver Conference 2010.The basic geocodes are: 0000 Earth 0900 Arctic Ocean 1000 Europe 2000 Africa 3000 Atlantic Ocean 4000 Antarctica 5000 Americas 6000 Pacific Ocean 7000 Oceana 8000 Asia 9000 Indian OceanThe United States is in the Northern Grouping for the Americas, which contains five countrygeographies. Two digit numbers were assigned using the NSEW method as follows: 1 northern grouping 5 1 10 Greenland 1 northern grouping 5 1 20 Canada 1 northern grouping 5 1 30 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 1 northern grouping 5 1 40 United States of America 1 northern grouping 5 1 50 Bermuda 1 northern grouping 5 1 60 United States Minor Outlying IslandsIn the case of the U.S.A., the country has a region code of 5140 assigned as follows, Americas –5; northern grouping – 1; NSEW country code – 40. A two digit country code is provided forbecause some areas will have more than ten countries within a grouping. 4
    • Sub-Nation Geo-codes Once a country code is established, the next task is to develop geo-codes based on thesub-national political geography. In the U.S. that began with the States. The alphabetic FIPScode do not enable geographic grouping. The U.S. Census Bureau has defined regions anddivisions and this framework was used to develop NSEW geo-codes. The goal is to use as muchof existing systems as possible. Beginning in the Northeast Region with the New England Division, a NSEW path wastaken to assign State code numbers, seeking to maximize the analytical benefit of having relativegeographic relationships be visible in data tables, as well as be available for geographicrelationships. The first document was produced November 28, 2002. States and County datasetshave adequate geographic information system geocoding so that that would analyticalrelationships can be mapped. The ultimate goal was to establish state and substate regional datasets that can be compiled for analysis in a similar way. Subsequent pages in this paper present proposed State geo-codes with reference maps andlinks for each of the 51 states, collectively offering a complete Sub-State District/RegionalCouncil system of geospatial units for analysis. Because there is a matching governmentalorganization for these regions, the analysis could be used and acted upon. This is rarely true forMSA geographies or any other current system in the U.S. An example of the use of regionalcouncil regions for multi-state analysis in the Mid-Atlantic is provided. 5
    • Table 1 – State Geo-Codes with Links to State Map of Regions Region/State linked toDivision Geo-code region map page Abr. State FIPS1. New England Division Northeast Region 1 Maine ME 23 2 New Hampshire NH 33 3 Vermont VT 50 4 Massachusetts MA 25 5 Rhode Island RI 44 6 Connecticut CT 92. Middle Atlantic Division Northeast Region 7 New York NY 36 8 New Jersey NJ 34 9 Pennsylvania PA 423. South Atlantic Division South Region 10 Delaware DE 10 11 Maryland MD 24 12 District of Columbia DC 11 13 Virginia VA 51 14 West Virginia WV 54 15 North Carolina NC 37 16 South Carolina SC 45 17 Georgia GA 13 18 Florida FL 124. East South Central Division South Region 19 Kentucky KY 21 20 Tennessee TN 47 21 Alabama AL 1 22 Mississippi MS 285. West South Central Division South Region 23 Louisiana LA 22 24 Arkansas AR 5 25 Oklahoma OK 40 26 Texas TX 486. East North Central Division Midwest Region 27 Michigan MI 26 28 Ohio OH 39 29 Indiana IN 18 30 Illinois IL 17 31 Wisconsin WI 557. West North Central Division Midwest Region 32 Minnesota MN 27 33 North Dakota ND 38 34 South Dakota SD 46 35 Iowa IA 19 36 Nebraska NE 31 37 Missouri MO 29 38 Kansas KS 208. Mountain Division West Region 39 Montana MT 30 40 Wyoming WY 56 41 Idaho ID 16 42 Nevada NV 32 43 Utah UT 49 44 Colorado CO 8 45 New Mexico NM 35 46 Arizona AZ 49. Pacific Division West Region 47 Alaska AK 2 48 Washington WA 53 49 Oregon OR 41 50 California CA 6 51 Hawaii HI 15 6
    • State Maps with Regional Councils and Alternatives 01. Mainehttp://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/techassist/regionalcouncillist.htm#map Return to Table 1 7
    • 02. New Hampshire Regional Planning Commissions http://www.strafford.org/rpclinks.htm1 - North County Council2 - Lakes Region Planning Commission3 - Upper Valley Lake Sunapee Regional Planning Commission4 - Southwest Region Planning Commission5a - Central New Hampshire Regional Planning Commission5b - Southern New Hampshire Planning Commission5c - Nashua Regional Planning Commission6 - Rockingham Planning Commission7 - Strafford Regional Planning Commission Return to Table 1 8
    • 03. Vermonthttp://www.vapda.org/index.html Return to Table 1 9
    • 04. Massachusettshttp://www.pvpc.org/resource_center/affiliate-agencies.shtml 10
    • 05. Rhode Island Counties as regionshttp://www.dlt.ri.gov/lmi/maps/county.htm 11
    • 06. Connecticuthttp://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2986&q=390892 12
    • 07. New Yorkhttp://www.nysarc.com/ 13
    • 08. New Jerseyhttp://www.state.nj.us/dep/parksandforests/parks/maps/index.html http://www.newjerseyvisitorsnetwork.com/regions/ 14
    • 09. Pennsylvania http://www.ncentral.com/index.php?page=luted Northwest Pennsylvania Regional Planning & Development Commission Southwestern Pennsylvania CommissionNorth Central Pennsylvania Regional Planning and Development Commission Southern Alleghenies Planning & Development Commission Central: SEDA Council of Governments Northern Tier Regional Planning & Development Commission Central Region – no commission Lehigh Valley Planning Commission Northeastern Pennsylvania Alliance Southeast: Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission 15
    • 10. Delaware Counties as regionshttp://dedo.delaware.gov/information/demographic_data/community_profile.shtml 16
    • 11. Maryland Regional Planning Councils listing at MDOT1 - Tri-County Council for Western Maryland2 – Suburban Maryland - Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments3 - Tri-County Council for Southern Maryland4 - Baltimore Metropolitan Council5 - Upper Shore Regional Council6 - Mid-Shore Regional Council7 - Tri-County Council for the Lower Eastern Shore of Maryland http://www.mdot.maryland.gov/Planning/Resources.html 17
    • 12. District of ColumbiaMetropolitan Washington Council of Governments http://www.mwcog.org/about/jurisdiction/ 18
    • 13. Virginia01 - LENOWISCO PDC02 - Cumberland Plateau PDC03 - Mount Rogers PDC04 - New River Valley PDC05 - Roanoke Valley-Alleghany RC06 - Central Shenandoah PDC07 - Northern Shenandoah Valley RC (formerly Lord Fairfax)08 - Northern Virginia RC09 - Rappahannock-Rapidan RC10 - Thomas Jefferson PDC11 - Region 2000 LGC (Formerly Central Virginia)12 - West Piedmont PDC13 - Southside PDC14 - Commonwealth PDC (Formerly Piedmont)15 - Richmond Regional PDC16 - George Washington RC (Formerly RADCO)17 - Northern Neck PDC18 - Middle Peninsula PDC19 - Crater PDC22 - Accomack-Northampton PDC23 - Hampton Roads PDC (combination of 20 Peninsula and 21 SoutheasternVirginia) http://www.vapdc.org/aboutpdcs.htm 19
    • 14. West Virginia Online map http://www.region9wv.com/1 - Region I Planning & Development Council2 - Region II Planning & Development Council3 - Regional Intergovernmental Council4 - Region IV Planning & Development Council5 - Mid-Ohio Valley Regional Council6 - Region VI Planning & Development Council7 - Region VII Planning & Development Council8 - Region 8 Planning & Development Council9 - Eastern Panhandle Regional Planning and Development Council-Region 910 - Belomar Regional Council - Region X11 - Brooke Hancock Jefferson Metropolitan Planning Commission/RegionPlanning & Development Council http://www.regionvi.com/regionalcouncils.cfm 20
    • 15. North Carolina http://www.ncregions.org/A: Southwestern CommissionB: Land-of-Sky Regional CouncilC: Isothermal Planning and Development CommissionD: High Country Council ofE: Western Piedmont Council of GovernmentsF: Centralina Council of GovernmentsG: Piedmont Triad Council of GovernmentsH: has been merged into other regionsI: Northwest Piedmont Council of GovernmentsJ: Triangle J Council of GovernmentsK: Kerr-Tar Regional Council of GovernmentsL: Upper Coastal Plain Council of GovernmentsM: Mid-Carolina Council of GovernmentsN: Lumber River Council of GovernmentsO: Cape Fear Council of GovernmentsP: Eastern Carolina Council of GovernmentsQ: Mid-East CommissionR: Albemarle Commission North Carolinas Regional Councils Association http://www.ncregions.org/regcouncils.htm 21
    • 16. South Carolinahttp://www.centralmidlands.org/sccogs.asp 22
    • 17. Georgia Georgia Association of Regional Commissionshttp://garc.ga.gov/main.php?Regional-Commissions-2 23
    • 18. FloridaFlorida Regional Councils Association http://www.ncfrpc.org/state.html 24
    • 19. Kentucky01 Purchase Area Development District02 Pennyrile Area Development District03 Green River Area Development District04 Barren River Area Development District05 Lincoln Trail Area Development District06 Kentuckiana Regional Planning and Development Agency07 Northern Kentucky Area Devlopment District08 Buffalo Trace Area Development District09 Gateway Area Development District10 FIVCO Area Development District11 Big Sandy Area Development District12 Kentucky River Area Development District13 Cumberland Valley Area Development District14 Lake Cumberland Area Development District15 Bluegrass Area Development District http://www.kcadd.org/District_Contacts.html 25
    • 20. TennesseeMAAG Memphis Area Association of GovernmentsNWTDD Northwest Tennessee Development DistrictSWTDD Southwest Tennessee Development DistrictSCTDD South Central Tennessee Development DistrictGNRC Greater Nashville Regional CouncilUCDD Upper Cumberland Development DistrictSETDD Southeast Tennessee Development DistrictETDD East Tennessee Development DistrictFTDD First Tennessee Development District http://www.discoveret.org/etdd/tdda.htm 26
    • 21. Alabama Alabama Association of Regional Councils1 Northwest Alabama Council of Local Governments2 West Alabama Regional Commission3 Regional Planning Commission of Greater Birmingham4 East Alabama - Regional Planning & Development Commission5 South Central Alabama Development Commission6 Alabama-Tombigbee Regional Commission7 Southeast Alabama RP & DC8 South Alabama Regional Planning Commission9 Central Alabama Regional Planning and Development Commission10 Lee-Russell Council of Governments11 North Central Alabama Regional Council of Governments12 Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments http://www.alarc.org/ 27
    • 22. MississippiNDPDD North Delta Planning and Development District - 1SDPDD South Delta Planning and Development District - 2NEMPDD Northeast Mississippi Planning and Development District - 3TRPDD Three Rivers Planning and Development District - 4GTPDD Golden Triangle Planning and Development District - 5NCPDD North Central Planning and Development District - 6CMPDD Central Mississippi Planning and Development District - 7ECPDD East Central Planning and Development District - 8SMPDD Southern Mississippi Planning and Development District - 9SWMPDD Southwest Mississippi Planning and Development District – 10Mississippi Association of Planning and Development Districts (MAPDD)Map of Districts and information in Directory and PowerPoint PDFs at site. http://www.cmpdd.org/mapdd.php 28
    • 23. Louisiana Map and links at Louisiana.gov http://wwwprd.doa.louisiana.gov/census/plandist.htm1 PDC Regional Planning Commission2 CRPC Capital Region Planning & Development Commission3 SCPDC South Central Planning & Development Commission4 ARDD Acadiana Regional Development District5 IMCAL Imperial Calcasieu Regional Planning & Development Commission6 KDRP Kisatchie Delta Regional Planning & Development District, Inc.7 CDC The Coordinating & Development Corporation8 NDRP North Delta Regional Planning & Development District Louisiana Association of Planning and Development Districts http://www.lapdd.org/index.php 29
    • 24. Arkansashttp://www.aiea.ualr.edu/research/pdd/default.html Arkansas Planning and Development Districts Central PDD East PDD Northwest EDD Southeast EDD Southwest PDD West Central PDD Western PDD White River PDD 30
    • 25. Oklahoma Map from Department of Human Services1 Grand Gateway Economic Development Association - GGEDA2 Eastern Oklahoma Economic Development District - EODD3 Kiamichi Economic Development District - KEDDO4 Southern Oklahoma Development Association - SODA5 Central Oklahoma Economic Development District - COEDD6 Indian Nations Council of Governments – INCOG – Tulsa7 Northern Oklahoma Development Association - NODA8 Association of Central Oklahoma Governments - ACOG9 Association of South Central Oklahoma Governments – ASCOG10 South Western Oklahoma Development Authority - SWODA11 Oklahoma Economic Development Association - OEDA Oklahoma Association of Regional Councils http://www.oarcok.org/ 31
    • 26. TexasRegion Name Number AbbreviationAlamo Area Council of Governments 18 AACOGArk-Tex Council of Governments 5 ARK-TEXBrazos Valley Council of Governments 13 BVCOGCapital Area Council of Governments 12 CAPCOGCentral Texas Council of Governments 23 CTCOGCoastal Bend Council of Governments 20 CBCOGConcho Valley Council of Governments 10 CVCOGDeep East Texas Council of Governments 14 DETCOGEast Texas Council of Governments 6 ETCOGGolden Crescent Regional Planning Commission 17 GCRPCHeart of Texas Council of Governments 11 HOTCOGHouston-Galveston Area Council 16 H-GACLower Rio Grande Valley Development Council 21 LRGVDCMiddle Rio Grande Development Council 24 MRGDCNortex Regional Planning Commission 3 NORTEXNorth Central Texas Council of Governments 4 NCTCOGPanhandle Regional Planning Commission 1 PRPCPermian Basin Regional Planning Commission 9 PBRPCRio Grande Council of Governments 8 RGCOGSouth East Texas Regional Planning Commission 15 SETRPCSouth Plains Association of Governments 2 SPAGSouth Texas Development Council 19 STDCTexoma Council of Governments 22 TEXOMAWest Central Texas Council of Governments 7 WCTCOG Texas Association of Regional Councilshttp://www.txregionalcouncil.org/display.php?page=regions_map.php 32
    • 27. Michigan Michigan Association of Regionshttp://www.miregions.org/about.html 33
    • 28. Ohio Ohio Association of Regional Councils http://regionalcouncils.org/membersGreater regional pattern can be seen with Ohio Area Agencies on Aging http://www.aaa11.org/findaaa.asp 34
    • 29. Indiana Indiana Association of Regional Councils http://www.iarc.cc/members/council-directory/Indiana MPO Council – MPOs fill center – data regions can be used for balance http://www.indianampo.com/ 35
    • 30. Illinois Illinois Association of Regional Councils http://www.ilarconline.org/Greater regional pattern can be seen with Illinois DOT Regions and Distiricts http://www.dot.state.il.us/idotmap.html 36
    • 31. Wisconsin Association of Wisconsin Regional Planning Commissions (AWRPC) http://www.awrpc.org/Wisconsin Department of Commerce - Regional Planning Commissions http://www.commerce.state.wi.us/bd/BD-RPC-map.html 37
    • 32. Minnesota 1 Northwest Regional Development Commission 2 Headwater Regional Development Commission 3 Arrowhead Regional Development Commission 4 West Central Initiative 5 Development Commission 6E Mid-Minnesota Regional Development Commission 6W Upper Minnesota Valley Regional Development Commission 7E East Central Regional Development Commission 7W Economic Development Region 7W 8 Southwest Regional Development Commission 9 Development Commission 10 Southeast Economic Development & Planning Region 10 - no organization 11 Metropolitan CouncilMap at Minnesota Department of Transportation - Transportation Planning Partners Minnesota Metropolitan and Regional Planning Organizations http://www.dot.state.mn.us/planning/program/MPORDC.html Minnesota Regional Development Commissions http://www.mrdo.org/ 38
    • 33. North Dakota North Dakota Department of Commerce Regional Councils 1 Tri County Regional Development Association 2 Souris Basin Planning Council 3 North Central Planning Council 4 Red River Regional Council 5 Lake Agassiz Regional Council 6 South Central Dakota Regional Council 7 Lewis and Clark Regional Development Council 8 Roosevelt-Custer Regional Councilhttp://www.communityservices.nd.gov/community/block-grant/regional-council/ 39
    • 34. South DakotaSouth Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources - listing and map link http://denr.sd.gov/dfta/wwf/techassistance.aspx#Planning South Dakotas nine tribal governments http://www.sdtribalrelations.com/tribes.asp 40
    • 35. IowaArea 15 Regional Planning CommissionBi-State Regional Commission - BSRCChariton Valley Planning and Development CommissionEast Central Intergovernmental Association - ECIAEast Central Iowa Council of Governments - ECICOGIowa Northland Regional Council of Governments - INRCOGMetropolitan Area Planning Agency - MAPAMIDAS Council of GovernmentsNorth Iowa Area Council of Governments - NIACOGNorthwest Iowa Planning and Development Commission - NWIPDCRegion 6 Planning CommissionRegion XII Council of GovernmentsSiouxland Interstate Metropolitan Planning Council - SIMPCOSoutheast Iowa Regional Planning Commission - SEIRPCSouthern Iowa Council of Governments - SICOGSouthwest Iowa Planning Council - SWIPCOUpper Explorerland Regional Planning Commission – UERPC Iowa Association of Regional Councils http://www.iarcog.com/FindCOG.htm 41
    • 36. NebraskaDevelopment Districts tab at Nebraska Community & School Websites http://www.neded.org/files/assist/neweb.html 42
    • 37. Missouri1 Boonslick Regional Planning Commission2 Bootheel Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission3 East-West Gateway Coordinating Council4 Green Hills Regional Planning Commission5 Harry S Truman Coordinating Council6 Kaysinger Basin Regional Planning Commission7 Lake of the Ozarks Council of Local Governments8 Mark Twain Regional Council of Governments9 Meramec Regional Planning Commission10 Mid-America Regional Council11 Mid-Missouri Regional Planning Commission12 Mo-Kan Regional Council13 Northeast Missouri Regional Planning Commission14 Northwest Missouri Regional Council of Governments15 Ozark Foothills Regional Planning Commission16 Pioneer Trails Regional Planning Commission17 South Central Ozark Council of Governments18 Southeast Missouri Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission19 Southwest Missouri Council of Governments Missouri Association of Councils of Governments http://www.macogonline.org/rpcs.htm 43
    • 38. Kansas Map and History“In 1971, an executive order laid the groundwork for the creation of additional multi- countyregional planning commissions in the state by officially establishing eight planning anddevelopment regions. Since then, some of these regional organizations have disbanded.”Source: pgs. 10 - 11 “Directory of Planning Agencies U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Region 7 - IOWA, KANSAS, MISSOURI, & NEBRASKA - Last Updated: June 2008” http://www.epa.gov/region7/grants_funding/pdf/updated_planning_ag_directory_6_2008.pdf 1 Northwest Kansas Planning and Development Commission 2a North Central Regional Planning Commission 2b Flint Hills Regional Council 3 Data region 4 Mo-Kan Regional Council 5 Mid-America Regional Council 6 Great Plains Development Inc. - Southwest Region 7 South Central Kansas Economic Development District 8 Southeast Kansas Prosperity Foundation Note: Map modified to include Flint Hills Regional Council 44
    • 39. Montana Workforce Regions are based on Montana Association of Counties Districtshttps://jobs.mt.gov/jobs/seeker/search/search.seek?actionButton=searchRegion http://maco.cog.mt.us/Counties/MAPofCounties.htm 45
    • 40. WyomingWyoming Department of Employment, Research & Planning http://doe.state.wy.us/lmi/0406/map.htm Wyoming Economic Development Association – no map http://www.wyomingeda.org/ 46
    • 41. Idaho Economic Development Districts of Idaho, Inc.http://www.growingidaho.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=members.main 1 Panhandle Area Council (PAC) 2 Clearwater Economic Development Association (CEDA) 3 Sage Community Resources, Inc. 4 Region IV Development Association, Inc. (RIVDA) 5 Southeast Idaho Council of Governments (SICOG) 6 East Central Idaho Planning and Development Agency 47
    • 42. Nevada Only multi-county map from NV Energy - a private company http://www.nvenergy.com/economicdevelopment/regional/Nevada districts/regions include parts of counties. Nevada Tourism - Territory map follows:: http://travelnevada.com/nevada-maps.aspx 48
    • 43. Utah Map and links.http://www.governor.state.ut.us/planning/aog/aog.htm 49
    • 44. Colorado Maphttp://dola.colorado.gov/demog/region_profiles.html1 - Northeastern Colorado Association of Local Governments2 - North Front Range Metropolitan Planning Organization3 - Denver Regional Council of Governments4 - Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments5 - East Central Council of Local Governments6 - Southeast Colorado Enterprise7 - Pueblo Area Council of Governments8 - San Luis Valley Development Resources Group, Inc.9 - Economic Development District of SW Colorado, Inc.10 - League for Economic Assistance & Planning, Inc.11 - Associated Governments of Northwest Colorado12 - Northwest Colorado Council of Governments13 - Upper Arkansas Area Council of Governments14 - South Central Council of Governments Links to regionshttp://dola.colorado.gov/dlg/resources/regions.html 50
    • 45. New Mexico PDF brochure with state map at New Mexico Association of Regional Councils http://swnmcog.org/links/newmarc.html Regional Planning Districts/Councils of Governments 1 Northwest New Mexico Council of Governments 2 North Central NM Economic Development District 3 Mid Region Council of Governments 4 Eastern Plains Council of Governments 5 Southwest Council of Governments 6 Southeastern NM Economic Development District 7 South Central Council of Governments Links to regionshttp://cpi.nmdfa.state.nm.us/content.asp?CustComKey=202522&CategoryKey=202553&pn=Pag e&DomName=cpi.nmdfa.state.nm.us 51
    • 46. ArizonaCentral Arizona Association of Governments (CAAG)Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG)Northern Arizona Council of Governments (NACOG)Pima Association of Governments (PAG)South Eastern Arizona Governments Organization (SEAGO)Western Arizona Council of Governments (WACOG) Map and Linkshttp://www.azmag.gov/archive/AZ-COGs/index.asp 52
    • 47. AlaskaMap and links to regions: http://www.dec.state.ak.us/SPAR/perp/permits_new/other_ancla.htm 1. Anchorage Economic Development Corporation 2. Bering Strait Development Council 3. Copper Valley Development Association 4. Fairbanks North Star Borough Economic Development Commission 5. Interior Rivers Resource Conservation & Development Council 6. Kenai Peninsula Economic Development District 7. Lower Kuskokwim Economic Development Council 8. Mat-Su Resource Conservation & Development, Inc. 9. Northwest Arctic Borough Economic Development Commission 10. Prince William Sound Economic Development District 11. Southeast Conference 12. Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference Map and links to regions: http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/ded/dev/ardor/ardor.htm 53
    • 48. Washington Map & links to regionshttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/planning/Regional/ 54
    • 49. Oregon Map and links to regions http://www.oedd.org/members.htmCascades West Economic Development DistrictCCD Business Development CorporationCentral Oregon Intergovernmental CouncilColumbia-Pacific Economic Development DistrictGreater Eastern Oregon Development CorporationMid-Columbia Economic Development DistrictMid-Willamette Valley Council of GovernmentsSouth Central Oregon Economic Development DistrictNortheast Oregon Economic Development DistrictSouth Oregon Regional Economic Development, Inc.Portland Regional Partners/Portland-Vancouver Economic Development District 55
    • 50. California Map of California MPOs and RTPAs PDF http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/orip/list/agencies.htmlDirectory of Californias Councils of Government (COGs) online http://www.calpin.ca.gov/directory/cog.php 56
    • Map next page Map p. 48 – “California Planners 2011 Book of Lists” – PDFhttp://www.opr.ca.gov/index.php?a=planning/publications.html#pubs-C California Association of Councils of Governments - CALCOG http://www.calcog.org/members/members.html 57
    • 51. Hawaii Counties Map - Census http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/maps/hawaii_map.html County Linkshttp://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/library/county-info 58
    • Multi-Regional Analysis How do geo-codes enable region-building for analysis? Examples follow for the Mid-Atlantic Region where Regional Council geography is the Unit of Analysis. State Codes are: 5140-08 New Jersey, 5140-09 Pennsylvania, 5140-10 Delaware, 5140-11 Maryland, 5140-12 District of Columbia, 5140-13 Virginia and 5140-14 West Virginia.Counties and, in the case of Virginia, Cities were geo-coded to existing regional council regions.Where a multi-jurisdictional region did not exist, a Data Region was created. The alignment of data from alphabetic FIPS to aggregation by regions follows forCharles City County located near Richmond, Virginia. The table below shows the County in itsalphabetic position. 59
    • Here the County appears in relationship to the other localities of the Richmond RegionalPlanning District Commission sorted using its region number 15. This enabled creation of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Areas map which was usedfor the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Roundtables which were first organized in 2005 and arenow maintained by the Regional and Intergovernmental Planning Division of the AmericanPlanning Association. Mid-Atlantic population growth for the period 2000-2005 is shown by region in the mapsbelow for Net Population Change and Percent Population Change. Boundaries are shown for theMulti-State combinations of Sub-State regions in the Mid-Atlantic. 60
    • The perspective given by the regions, which, for the most part have regional planning anddevelopment organizations, is one that could not be seen via County or MSA geography.Compared to the MSA geography, the regional council geography is a basis for local governmentcoordination of land use planning and regional services. This land use analysis compares Dwelling Unit densities by region. Loss of countryside – viewshed? Region land area less Federal and State Lands – including Urban Areas 61
    • Overall density in 2005 drops when Urban areas pulled out – with time series one could see better the sprawls as build out occurs.The purpose of this paper is to: (1) present this effort to researchers and practitioners, (2) to findpeople who may be interested in this project for analysis of other multi-jurisdictional regions instate or multi-state geographies and to increase visibility of regional council geography andorganizations in the U.S. As geo-political regions, they can also be used as regional communitiesto be taken into account for redistricting for State Houses and Congressional Districts.The geo-codes can be used for compilation of topics using tags for geography and subject asshown at http://delicious.com/I.see.regions.work and Regional Community Development Newshttp://regional-communities.blogspot.com/ 62
    • 01. Maine02. New Hampshire03. Vermont04. Massachusetts05. Rhode Island6. Connecticut07. New York08. New Jersey09. Pennsylvania10. Delaware11. Maryland12. District of Columbia13. Virginia14. West Virginia15. North Carolina16. South Carolina17. Georgia18. Florida19. Kentucky20. Tennessee21. Alabama22. Mississippi23. Louisiana24. Arkansas25. Oklahoma26. Texas27. Michigan28. Ohio29. Indiana30. Illinois31. Wisconsin32. Minnesota33. North Dakota34. South Dakota35. Iowa36. Nebraska37. Missouri38. Kansas39. Montana40. Wyoming41. Idaho42. Nevada43. Utah44. Colorado45. New Mexico 63
    • 46. Arizona47. Alaska48. Washington49. Oregon50. California51. Hawaii 64