Literature-A Latin word “litera” which means letter.This is a body ofliterary productions, either oral, written or visual containingimaginative language thatrealistically portrays thoughts, emotions and experiences ofthe human condition.
2 Major Types of LiteratureI. Prose - “prosa” which means straightforward. It consists written works within the common flow of conversation presented in a straightforward manner. Types of Prose a.Novel This is a long narrative divided into chapters. The events may be taken from true-to-life stories and spans for a long period of time. There are many characters involved.
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b. Short Story This is a narrative involving one ormore characters, one plot and one single impression.Examples:
c. Plays This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes.
d. Legends These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. It provides historical information regarding the culture and views of particular group of people or country. Examples: The Bikol Legend Legend of Pineapple Legend of “Makahiya”
e. Folk tales A traditional narrative, usuallyanonymous, and handed down orally. Example: The adventures of Juan The Hawk and the Hen Fairy Tales
f. Fables (special type of folk tale) These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people. Their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes.Examples: Aesop’s Fables The Lion and the Mouse
g. Myths A traditional sacred story, typicallyrevolving around the activities of godsand heroes, which aim to explain anatural phenomenon or cultural practice.Example: The Story of Cupid and Psyche The Fall of Troy The Myth about Creation - Tagalog
h. Anecdotes These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. “The Moth and the Lamp” – Dr. Jose Rizal The Best Advice I ever Had
i. Essay This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper. Examples: Of Studies – Francis Bacon On Doors – Christopher Morley
j. Biography This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others. Example: Cayetano Arellano – Socorro O. Albert
k. News This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, accidents etc., happening nationally or not.
l. Oration This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience. Examples: “Because of What We Are, and What We Believe” I have A Dream – Martin Luther King
II. Poetry It is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices as to evoke emotional response.A. Narrative Poetry: This form describes important events in life either real or imaginary.
. Epic It is an extended narrative about heroic exploits under supernatural control. It may deal with heroes and gods. The hero/heroine usually has the following characteristics: idealism, courage, wisdom, beauty, endurance, chivalry and justice. Two Kinds of Epic poetry a. Popular or ancient epic – often without a definite author and is of slow growth. b. Modern epic – with a definite author.
Examples: Biag ni Lam-ang Epic
2. Metrical Tales This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or metrical romance. Examples of these are simple idylls or home tales, love tales, or tales of the supernatural or tales written for a strong moral purpose in verse form. “The Lady of Shallot” by Lord Alfred Tennyson
3. Ballads This is considered as the shortest and simplest of the narrative poems. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident. Variations of these are: love ballads, war ballads, sea ballads, humorous, moral, historical, or mythical ballads. Example: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner – Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Ballad of a Mother’s Heart Jose La Villa Tierra The night was dark,For the moon was young,And the Stars were asleep and rare, The clouds were thick, Yet Youth went out, To see his Maiden fair. Dear one, he pleaded as he knelt before her feet in tears. My love is true, Why you have kept me waiting all this years? The maiden looked at him. Unmoved it seemed, And whispered low,
Persistent Youth, You have to prove by deeds, Your love is true. "Theres not a thing I would not do for you, Beloved" said he."Then, go." said she. "To your mother dear, And bring her heart to me. Without another word, Youth left and went to his mother dear. He opened her breast and took her heart! But he did not shed a tear. Then back to his Maiden fair, He run unmindful of the rain. But his feet slipped, And he fell down, And loud, he groaned with pain!
Still in his hand he held the prize,That would win his Maidens hands.But he thought of his mother dear, So kind, so sweet, so fond. And then, he heard a voice! Not from his lips, But all apart! "Get up" it said. "Were you hurt, Child?" It was his mothers heart.
B. Lyric Poetry: Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings to the poet. They are usually short, simple and easy to understand.
Types of Lyric Poetry1.Folksongs (Awiting Bayan) These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope, and sorrow.
2. Sonnets This is a lyric of poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling or an idea. There are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean.
Sonnet: By The Creek By Paul McCann I escaped down to the creek today . I lost my way and wished you would come I sat down on the grass in the sun, In the silence I began to pray . In the water some stepping stones lay where my reflections just had begun . Your presence I felt had overcome, I was not lost and alone that day . I walked away and stood on a stone . In the water I saw the blue sky. You came to me in a quiet place. In reflective prayer Im not alone with the sound of water flowing by, on stepping stones I walk in Gods grace.
3. Elegy This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death. Angie No one knows what really happened to her all they know that she was good and dead some people say it was foul play some people say it was something wrong in her head but then I began to have these weird dreams about her some beautiful some horrible,but how do we know whats real and whats a fantasy when Angies not here to tell.
4. Ode This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.
Ode to Sir Lucius Gray and Sir H. Morison Ben Jonson (1572-1637) It is not growing like a tree In bulk, doth make man better be; standing long an Oak, three hundred yea To fall a log at last, dry, bald, and sear. A Lily of a day Is fairer far, in May Although it fall and die that night; It was the plant and flower of light. n small proportions we just beauties seeAnd in short measure, life may perfect be
5. Psalms This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life.
Psalm 23 A psalm of David. 1 The LORD is my shepherd, I lack nothing. 2 He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, 3 he refreshes my soul. He guides me along the right paths for his name’s sake. 4 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. 5 You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.6 Surely your goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever.
6. Awit (Song) These have the measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria. Example: Florante at Laura(Francisco Balagtas) O pagsintang labis ng kapangyarihan, Sampung mag-aama’y iyong nasasaklaw; Pag ikaw ang nasok sa puso ninuman, Hahamakin ang lahat masunod ka lamang!
7. Corridos These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic)and recited to a martial beat. The songs are often about oppressions, daily life of peasants, and other socially important information.
Ibong Adarna Sagot sa Panalangin Diyos nga’y di natutulog at ang tao’y sinusubok; ang salari’y sinusunog! ang banal ay kinukupkop!
C. Dramatic Poetry: This is an emotional piece of literature which includes a story which is recited or sung. Soliloquy and dramatic monologues are the main instruments of this form of poetry.
.Comedy This word comes from the Greek term “Komos” meaning festivity or revelry. This form usually is light and written with a purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.
Daddy Fell into the Pond a poem by Alfred Noyes Everyone grumbled. The sky was grey. We had nothing to do and nothing to say. We were nearing the end of a dismal day,And then there seemed to be nothing beyond, Then Daddy fell into the pond!And everyones face grew merry and bright,And Timothy danced for sheer delight."Give me the camera, quick, oh quick!Hes crawling out of the duckweed!" Click!
Then the gardener suddenly slapped his knee, And doubled up, shaking silently,And the ducks all quacked as if they were daft, And it sounded as if the old drake laughed. Oh, there wasnt a thing that didnt respond When Daddy Fell into the pond!
2. Melodrama This is usually seen in musical play with the opera. Today, this is related to tragedy just as the farce to comedy. It arouses immediate and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal character.
Annabel LeeIt was many and many a year ago,In a kingdom by the sea,That a maiden there lived whom you may knowBy the name of ANNABEL LEE;And this maiden she lived with no other thoughtThan to love and be loved by me.I was a child and she was a child,In this kingdom by the sea;But we loved with a love that was more than love-I and my Annabel Lee;With a love that the winged seraphs of heavenCoveted her and me.
3. Tragedy This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy. Examples: Romeo and Juliet Hamlet
4. Farce This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines; situations are too ridiculous to be true; the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd.
5. Social Poems This form is either purely comic or tragic and its pictures the life of today. it may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions.
Literary Compositions that have influenced the World. 1. The Bible or the Sacred Writings: This has become the basis of Christianity originating From Palestine and Greece. 2. Koran: The Muslim Bible originating from Arabia. 3. The Iliad and the Odyssey: These have been the source of myths and legends of Greece. They were written by Homer. 4. The Mahabharata: The longest epic of the world. It contains the history of religion in India.
5. Canterbury Tales: It depicts the religion and customs of the English in the early days. This originated from England and was written by Chaucer.6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe of the U.S. This depicted the sad fate of slaves; this became the basis of democracy later on.7. The Divine Comedy: (by Dante of Italy) This shows the religion and customs of early Italians.
8. El Cid Compeador: This shows the cultural characteristics of the Spaniards and their national history.9. The Songs of Rolando: This includes Doce Pares and Roncesvalles of France. It tells about the Golden Age of Christianity in France10. The Book of the Dead: This includes the Cult of Iris and the mythology and theology of Egypt.
11. The Book of the Days: This was written by Confucius of China.12. One Thousand and One Nights or the Arabian Nights: From Arabia and Persia (Iran). It shows the ways of governments, of industries and of the society of the Arabs and Persians.