Information is delivered in an readable, clear format
Point out overall meaning citing research from your handout. (“According to..) (Robinson 134)
Commentary about societal issues, feminist concerns, economic issues, etc…
Literary devices used to express ideas
Do these devices highlight the above mentioned commentaries?
Points about life that are relevant to body of work, poem
Historical context that perhaps influences the poem, work
A Lost Generation? Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians. Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the "lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
The lost generation was a term coined by Gertrude Stein to describe young American artists (mostly writers)
who rejected American ideals in the 1920s and moved to Paris to live the bohemian lifestyle ( party it up, live for today, because there may be no tomorrow ).
Famous members of the Lost Generation included Stein herself, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.
The Lost Generation thought that Western Civilization was coming to an End…
Why would intellectuals have thought WWI was the end of the superiority of Western Civilization?
The Lost Generation felt betrayed by their leaders, their culture, and their institutions.
They asked themselves “How could all this death and destruction have been allowed to happen?”
They felt helpless, and lost. They despaired for the future. Where once they had trusted, now they did not. It appeared that Good had lost the battle against Evil.
Writers tried to capture the bleak hopelessness of War
T.S. Eliot- The Waste Land (1922)
JRR Tolkien- The Lord Of The Rings (1937-1954)
F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby (1925)
An American novelist
Served in WWI
A Farewell to Arms (1929)
"I know the night is not the same as the day: that all things are different, that the things of the night cannot be explained in the day, because they do not then exist, and the night can be a dreadful time for lonely people once their loneliness has started."
See Also: Literature in the 1920’s
Modern Art- Artists tried to capture new perceptions of reality…
Old styles of art couldn’t express the deep distress caused by WWI.
In many cases, people did not want to remember the war too clearly or too exactly.
WWI changed the way people perceived the world and this was reflected in their art.
“ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917 “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918 “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
During WWI, the founder of surrealism, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used the psychoanalytic methods of Sigmund Freud with soldiers who were shell-shocked.
He sought a way to express the inner workings of the mind, those feelings, experiences, urges and impressions that were separated from logic and reason.
Surrealism is an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams with real life.
Surreal—beyond or above reality
Yves Tanguy, Indefinite Divisibility 1942
How is this painting connected to the idea of Perception?
WOODY ALLEN: That's quite a lovely Jackson Pollock, isn't it?
GIRL IN MUSEUM: Yes it is.
WOODY ALLEN: What does it say to you?
GIRL IN MUSEUM: It restates the negativeness of the universe, the hideous lonely emptiness of existence, nothingness, the predicament of man forced to live in a barren, godless eternity, like a tiny flame flickering in an immense void, with nothing but waste, horror, and degradation, forming a useless bleak straightjacket in a black absurd cosmos. [pause]
WOODY ALLEN: What are you doing Saturday night? GIRL IN MUSEUM: Committing suicide. WOODY ALLEN: What about Friday night? GIRL IN MUSEUM: [leaves silently] "Play It Again, Sam" , Paramount Pictures, 1972;
What words would you use to describe how people are seeing the world and their place in it?
Historical Quotes- A glimpse at changing philosophy (what you think) and ideology (what you believe)
Get a piece of paper and a pen. Set it up like this:
Quote Philosophy Name
There are 8 quotes set out on tables in the room.
With your partner, visit a quote, write it on your paper and talk about what it means.
You will have 3 minutes for each quote .
Make sure you have all the quotes on your paper…
“ Meaning has to be sought out, there is no universal meaning to life. We create our own meaning through life choices and our actions. While there is no moral certainty, we do have agency in that we can make choices.”
“ Love God, your neighbors, your enemies, and yourself. Every individual has worth and at the same time each individual has a responsibility to the whole community. You should live your life according to moral rules.”
“ The realistic portrayal of life is not the purpose of art. Art should capture the inner world of emotion, feeling, and the workings of our imagination and unconscious mind.”
“ Art should capture a realistic portrait of the world. It should show everyday people and the world around us.”
“ The universe is governed by a specific set of laws. The universe was ordered by God the creator.”
“ Much of human behavior is irrational and beyond reason. We are driven by that part of the mind that is unconscious and our unconscious pursues actions determined by our desires.”
“ Every person has the gift of reason and as science uncovers more and more knowledge about the physical world, reason and knowledge will bring about progress. Truths can be revealed through observation and uncovering of evidence.”
“ Time and space are not constant, perception is relative to one’s experiences, there are no absolute truths.”
Christianity —“Love God, your neighbors, your enemies, and yourself. Every individual has worth and at the same time each individual has a responsibility to the whole community. You should live your life according to moral rules.”
Enlightenment —“Every person has the gift of reason and as science uncovers more and more knowledge about the physical world, reason and knowledge will bring about progress. Truths can be revealed through observation and uncovering of evidence.”
Realism —“Art should capture a realistic portrait of the world. It should show everyday people and the world around us.”
Newtonian Law —“The universe is governed by a specific set of laws. The universe was ordered by God the creator.”
Existentialism —“Meaning has to be sought out, there is no universal meaning to life. We create our own meaning through life choices and our actions. While there is no moral certainty, we do have agency in that we can make choices.”
Freudian thought —“Much of human behavior is irrational and beyond reason. We are driven by that part of the mind that is unconscious and our unconscious pursues actions determined by our desires.”
Surrealism —“The realistic portrayal of life is not the purpose of art. Art should capture the inner world of emotion, feeling, and the workings of our imagination and unconscious mind.”
Theory of Relativity —“Time and space are not constant, perception is relative to one’s experiences, there are no absolute truths.”
Fitzgerald · Hemingway I. Introduction II. F. Scott Fitzgerald III. Ernest Hemingway exit
The First World War tore up the slogan flags into pieces that held high among common moralists.
b. Moreover, Russian Revolution stirred up the hatred towards the current social systems among the youth. No aspect of life in the Twenties has been commented upon and sensationally romanticized than the so-called Revolt of the Younger Generation.
c. The booming of American industry with its gigantic roaring factories, its impersonality, and its large scale aggressiveness, no longer left any room for the code of polite behavior and well-bred morality fashioned in a quiet and less competitive age.
d. And it was during that period that a number of sensitive writers found that since there was little remedy for a country that was blind and deaf to everything save the glint and ring of the dollar, the only way out was to emigrate to Europe. There they began to think of themselves in the words of Gertrude Stein, as the “Lost Generation.”
Although the form and ideas of modern American literature had clearly began to emerge in the first decade of the century, the First World War stands as a great dividing line between the 19th century and contemporary America .
Yet in the years between the two world wars American literature achieved a new diversity and reached its greatest heights.
The publication in 1922 of T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land , the most significant American power of the twentieth century, helped to establish a modern tradition of literature rich learning and all usive thought.
denunciation of American small-town provincialism Main Street , and in the same year Theodore Dreiser began writing his masterpiece of naturalism, An American Tragedy , F. Scott Fitzgerald summarized the experiences and attitudes of the decade in his short stories and in his novel The Great Gatsby .
Earnest Hemingway wrote The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Armes , and
William Faulkner published one of the most influential American novels of the age, The Sun and the Fury. During the twenty years between the two world wars six American writers who did their best and most original work won the Nobel Price for literature.
Its horrors embed themselves like an infectious disease in the minds of the survivors, who, when left to salvage the pieces of their former existences, are brushed into obscurity by the individuals attempting to justify the annihilation of the world that was.
The era following World War I epitomizes the inheritance of tribulation and sorrow for the generation that remains to retrieve some form of happiness - the lost generation .
The Sun Also Rises will maintain a place in history not only for its literary merit, but also for its documentation of what writer Gertrude Stein called the "Lost Generation."
After WWI, many young Americans left their native country, bitter over the war and seeking adventure.
A circle of artistic expatriates appeared-- among them Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, Ezra Pound, and Pablo Picasso. Hemingway and Fitzgerald employed their keen social observation in writing The Sun Also Rises and The Great Gatsby , respectively, widely considered the two masterpieces of Lost Generation fiction.
This Side of Paradise (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1920)
The Beautiful and Damned (New York: Scribner, 1922)
The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner, 1925)
Tender Is the Night (New York: Scribner, 1934)
The Last Tycoon – originally The Love of the Last Tycoon – (New York: Scribners, published posthumously, 1941)
b. Short Story Collections
Flappers and Philosophers (Short Story Collection, 1920)
Tales of the Jazz Age (Short Story Collection, 1922)
All the Sad Young Men (Short Story Collection, 1926)
3. A brief introduction to his masterpiece, The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby is the best novel of Fitzgerald. As a novel with strong tragic flavor, it keeps in step with the time and its criticism of America society is really penetrating. The novel shows the disillusion of “American Dream” in the 1920s. At that age, it was impossible for Gatsby to succeed. The novel also shows that in the American society of 1920s, the commons were in total depravity. It tells us that there is no way to go from money to love, from material to spirit. In a split world, love could neither make up the split nor replace the value. It is full of realistic meaning even today. exit
The clues of the novel are very clear, while the specific events are mysterious. In it, we can fully enjoy the glamour of art. In addition, the novel is intensely lyrical. With colorful musical elements, the author composed a tragic song, leaving a lot of questions for us to think about. 4. The Jazz Age What repeats frequently in the majority of his books describes the period from 1918-1929, the years between the end of World War I and the start of the Roaring Twenties; ending with the rise of the Great Depression, the traditional values of this age saw great decline while the American exit
stock market soared. The focus of the elements of this age, in some contrast with the Roaring Twenties, in historical and cultural studies, are somewhat different, with a greater emphasis on all Modernism. The age takes its name from jazz music, which saw a tremendous surge in popularity among many segments of society. Among the prominent concerns and trends of the period are the public embrace of technological developments (typically seen as progress)—cars, air travel and the telephone—as well as new modernist trends in social behavior, the arts, and culture. Central developments included Art Deco design and architecture. In addition, many amateur artists began to aspire including Duke Ellington, Picasso, etc. exit
a. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), born in Oak Park, Illinois, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City at the age of seventeen.
b. Before the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. Serving at the front, he was wounded, was decorated by the Italian Government, and spent considerable time in hospitals. After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution.
c. During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926). Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American ambulance officer’s disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter. Hemingway used his experiences as a reporter during the civil war in Spain as the background for his most ambitious novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). d. Among his later works, the most outstanding is the short novel, The Old Man and the Sea (1952), finally brought him onto the stage of the Nobel Prize in 1954. exit
War and influence of war on people, with scenes connected with hunting, bull fighting which demand stamina and courage, and with the question :
how to live with pain
how human being live gracefully under pressure.
4. Hemingway’s hero----code hero Hemingway’s hero is an average man of decidedly masculine tastes, sensitive and intelligent, a man of action, and one of few words. That is an individualist keeping emotions under control, stoic and self-disciplined in a dreadful place. These people are usually spiritual strong, people of certain skills, and most of them encounter death many times. exit
d. simple, conversational, common found, fundamental words
e. simple sentences
f. Iceberg principle: understatement, implied things;1/8 pricinple;
John Steinbeck In the souls of the people the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, Growing heavy for the vintage. ~John Steinbeck
Steinbeck Country The John Steinbeck Center is located in Salinas, CA. Steinbeck left Salinas after the publication of The Grapes Of Wrath. He did not return permanently until his death .
The Grapes of Wrath THE EPIC STORY OF THE JOAD FAMILY'S MIGRATION FROM THE OKLAHOMA DUST BOWL TO THE PROMISED LAND OF CALIFORNIA
Of Mice and Men Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don't belong no place…. With us it ain't like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. We don't have to sit in no bar room blowin' in our jack jus' because we got no place else to go. If them other guys gets in jail they can rot for all anybody gives a damn. But not us. ~George Milton
Historical Background Pathways to information about the historical background of the novel Of Mice and Men. Online Sources John Steinbeck Literary Traveler - explores Steinbeck's life Center for Steinbeck Study - biography Dust Bowl The Drought - PBS Mass Exodus from the Plains - PBS Surviving the Dust Bowl - an eyewitness account Dust Bowl
Historical Background II The Great Depression The Great Depression - main causes The Great Depression - This web page is for the purpose of comparing and contrasting cohorts involving their views of the Great Depression and the effects of it on their growing experience. American Memory The Great Depression ; great for photos The Great Depression - PBS The Great Depression California Gold Rush Sutter's Account of the Discovery of Gold About the Gold Rush - excellent site from PBS The Women - excerpts of diaries
And this I believe: that the free exploring mind of the indvidual human Is the most valuable thing in all the world. And this I would Fight for: the freedom of the mind to take any direction it wishes, Undirected. And this I must fight against: any idea, religion, or Government which limits or destroys the individual. ~ John Steinbeck from: East of Eden