Look for examples in the book where there were abuses of the Geneva Conventions of 1929 and examples where the American Government followed the Conventions.
What do you think?
Read the “Incarcerating the Japanese American” article
Popeye vs the Japanese
What affect do the anti-Japanese cartoons have on the American psyche? Children?
What do you think about the use of cartoons as a medium to deliver this message?
What affect do you think this had on Japanese-American children?
Military thought, action, attitudes before Pearl Harbor
The class will be divided into two groups- each group will receive an article
Review together- be prepared to discuss
Read three chapters of the book
Finish reading research articles
FBI Agents Allege Abuse of Detainees at Guantanamo Bay By Dan Eggen and R. Jeffrey Smith Washington Post Staff Writers Tuesday, December 21, 2004; Page A01 Detainees at the U.S. military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, were shackled to the floor in fetal positions for more than 24 hours at a time, left without food and water, and allowed to defecate on themselves, an FBI agent who said he witnessed such abuse reported in a memo to supervisors, according to documents released yesterday. In memos over a two-year period that ended in August, FBI agents and officials also said that they witnessed the use of growling dogs at Guantanamo Bay to intimidate detainees -- contrary to previous statements by senior Defense Department officials -- and that one detainee was wrapped in an Israeli flag and bombarded with loud music in an apparent attempt to soften his resistance to interrogation. In addition, several agents contended that military interrogators impersonated FBI agents, suggesting that the ruse was aimed in part at avoiding blame for any subsequent public allegations of abuse, according to memos between FBI officials.
Japanese Internment http://memory.loc.gov/learn/lessons/99/fear/gallery.html
Japanese assets were frozen after the attack on Pearl Harbor, making it difficult for many Japanese Americans to move from the West Coast.
March 2, 1942 Gen. John L. DeWitt issues Public Proclamation No. 1 which creates Military Areas Nos. 1 and 2. Military Area No. 1 includes the western portion of California, Oregon and Washington, and part of Arizona. Military Area No. 2 includes the rest of these states. The proclamation also hints that people might be excluded from Military Area No. 1. (http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html)
March 18, 1942 The president signs Executive Order 9102 establishing the War Relocation Authority (WRA) with Milton Eisenhower as director. It is allocated $5.5 million. ( http:// www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html )
March 21, 1942 The first advance groups of Japanese American "volunteers" arrive at Manzanar, CA. The WRA would take over on June 1 and transform it into a "relocation center." ( http:// www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html )
March 24, 1942 The first Civilian Exclusion Order issued by the Army is issued for the Bainbridge Island area near Seattle. The forty-five families there are given one week to prepare. By the end of October, 108 exclusion orders would be issued, and all Japanese Americans in Military Area No. 1 and the California portion of No. 2 would be incarcerated. ( http:// www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html )
"In the detention centers, families lived in substandard housing, had inadequate nutrition and health care, and had their livelihoods destroyed: many continued to suffer psychologically long after their release" - "Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians"
"In desert camps, the evacuees met severe extremes of temperature. In winter it reached 35 degrees below zero, and summer brought temperatures as high as 115 degrees. Rattlesnakes and desert wildlife added danger to discomfort." - Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. ( http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/camps.html )
Life in Manzanar Photos taken by Ansel Adams (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage)
In 1988, Congress implemented the Civil Liberties Act, apologizing on behalf of the nation for the "grave injustice" done to persons of Japanese ancestry. Congress declared that the internments had been "motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership" and authorized $20,000 payments to Japanese Americans who had suffered injustices during World War II.
Ansel Adam’s Manzanar A photoessay documenting a Japanese-American Internment camp during WWII Legal note: Mr. Adams placed no restrictions on the use of his Manzanar photos.
Tom Kobayashi, who was arrested for curfew violation in Washington State and took his case to the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court upheld his conviction. In 1998, however, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for standing up for his rights and the rights of all Japanese Americans.
Private Margaret Fukuoka, Women’s Army Corps In a strange twist of fate, Nisei were held in camps, but allowed to serve their country in the armed forces.
At some camps, reading material was hard to find. Also, children often disregarded their parents, whose authority was worn down by having government people telling everyone what to do all the time.
The quality of schooling depended on the camp. At some, students had nearly the same kind they would have had at home. But for others, school was a haphazard affair, ill attended by both students and teachers with few materials available to both.
Once settled in, the government allowed the camps to be administered by the Internees. Many worked to help provide food and services to their camps. Still, Soldiers were always present and, in the first year, the internees were not allowed To leave for any reason.
Whenever possible, internees could practice the same trades they would have if they had been free. This practice helped camp life run more smoothly and provided much needed services to all the internees. The internees were not paid nearly what they would have been outside the camp.
Although Buddhist priests were taken prisoner before the mass internment, people in the camps were allowed to worship as they pleased. Some of those taken prisoner were allowed to join their families at internment camps later on.
Internees attend services at a Catholic church on Manzanar.
As much as possible, internees were encouraged to make life “normal”. Here, Internees are singing in a choir.
If you woke up one winter morning in Manzanar, here is what you might see. You would probably be living with your family in one of the buildings shown here.
As seen in this photo, sporting events drew big crowds at Manzanar.
Girls play volleyball at Manzanar. Notice their curly hair. Most had to have permanents in order to look more “American” and less “Japanese.” Besides, very long, straight hair was NOT the style in the 1940’s.
The internees ran their own stores in the camps. Here, a mother is buying toys for her children.
A mother and her two daughters pose outside of a camp barrack. Usually, the barracks were divided so that each family had its own room or set of rooms. The family areas were crowded and families often had to separate to make space. Older boys went to the bachelor barracks, for example.
Non Fiction/ Autobiography Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston Farewell to Manzanar is the true story of a Japanese-American family's confinement in an internment camp during World War II. Jeanne Wakatsuki- Houston was 7 years old when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and created the hysteria that forced 110,000 Japanese Americans from their homes. She remembers the stress of camp life—the stripping away of dignity and privacy, the withering of parental authority, and the divisive pressure to sign loyalty oaths. She also recalls what she took away from Manzanar after it closed—an odd sense of shame and a fierce determination to be accepted as American.