Exampl equoting,paraphrasing and summarizing

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Exampl equoting,paraphrasing and summarizing

  1. 1. Research Unit Quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing The epidemiology of SIDS has changed with the substantial fall in the mortality attributable to the decreased prevalence of infants sleepingprone.4 The winter excess of deaths has largely gone. Prone sleeping position has also been shown to be more dangerous in the presence of excessclothing and bedding, all-night room heating, and infection. 5 In New Zealand the previous excess of deaths in the colder regions has also disappeared. Recent reports have shown that the increased risk of SIDS with co-sleeping applies predominantly to infants whose mothers smoke cigarettes.2,6 Infants of mothers who smoke in pregnancy have deficient hypoxic arousal responses. 7 Their arousal responses to thermal stress might also beblunted. Anthropologists have suggested that a sensory-rich environment, which includes sharing the same bedroom and co-sleeping, might lower therisk of SIDS.8 Low SIDS mortality rates in Asia and the Pacific Islands, where it is common for infants to share rooms or beds, provides support for thisview. However, further analyses show that in the Pacific Island community bedsharing increases the risk of SIDS among infants of mothers who smoke.These findings are an example of the ecological fallacy whereby a correlation between variables based on group (ecological) characteristics may notnecessarily be reproduced between variables based on individual characteristics.The main concern about recommending that infants should not be taken to bed with the parent relates to a possible detrimental effect onbreastfeeding. Bedsharing is associated with breastfeeding, partly because breastfeeding encourages bedsharing.9 However, a recent study has shownthat routinely bedsharing infants breastfed three times longer during the night than did infants who routinely slept separately. 10 Thus breastfeedingpromotes bedsharing, which in itself facilitates breastfeeding. Although there are many good reasons for encouraging breastfeeding, the protectiveeffect of breastfeeding against SIDS is modest. The recommendation that infants should not bedshare, at lease with mothers who smoke, should be included in the “Back to sleep” (sleepingnon-prone) campaign. This recommendation needs to be promoted with sensitivity. It does not prohibit the mother from breastfeeding or comfortingthe child in bed, but when the mother is about to sleep the infant should be returned to the cot. Although this is a small group at risk, the magnitude ofthe risk is large for infants of mothers who smoke, and the potential number of infants saved is substantial.Mitchell, E. A. (1996). Co-sleeping and sudden infant death syndrome. The Lancet, 348, 1466.In-text citation(Mitchell, 1996)
  2. 2. Research Unit Quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing Unfamiliar words Quote “full course meal” Paraphrase- buffet Summarize- Chicken nuggetThe epidemiology of SIDS has Epi/dem/io/logy- Mitchell reports that, “The Mitchell reports that the Mitchell reports that thechanged with the substantial The scientific study of the epidemiology of SIDS has scientific study of SIDS study of SIDSfall in the mortality causes, distribution, and changed with the has changed has changedattributable to the decreased control of disease in substantial due to the due to the significant dropprevalence of infants populations. fall in the mortality significant decrease of infant deathssleeping prone.4 Sub/stan/tial- attributable to the in infant deaths due to fewer Of ample or considerable decreased due to infantsThe winter excess of deaths amount, quantity, size, prevalence of infants fewer infants sleeping prone (pg. 1466).has largely gone. etc.: a substantial sum of sleeping prone” (pg. 1466). sleeping prone (pg. 1466). money. Mort/al/ity- The relative frequency of deaths in a specific population; death rate. Attribut/able- To regard as resulting from a specified cause; consider as caused by something indicated (usually followed by to ): She attributed his bad temper to ill health. Pre/val/ence- The condition of being prevalent, or widespread: the prevalence of AIDS in developing countries. Prefix meaningSub- under, below, from, secretly, instead ofMort- mortal, deathEpi- upon, close to, over, after, altered
  3. 3. Research Unit Quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing Unfamiliar words Quote “full course meal” Paraphrase- buffet Summarize- Chicken nuggetProne sleeping position has also Presence Mitchell states that, “Prone Mitchell states that, prone Mitchell states that infants who sleep onbeen shown to be more immediate vicinity; sleeping position has also sleeping position has been their stomachs are in greater danger in adangerous in the presence of proximity: in the presence of been shown to be more shown to be unsafe in an area heated sleeping area that containsexcess clothing witnesses dangerous in the presence of that contains extra clothing, and excess material and while experiencingand bedding, excess clothing bedding within a heated room an illness (pg. 1466).all-night room heating, and bedding, and when the infant has anand infection. 5 all-night room heating, infection (pg. 1466). and infection” (pg. 1466).In New Zealand the previous Previous- Mitchell states, “In New Mitchell indicates that prior The number of deaths has diminished inexcess of deaths in the colder coming or occurring before Zealand the previous excess of excessive deaths in New colder areas of New Zealand (Mitchell,regions has also disappeared. something else; prior deaths in the colder regions Zealand in colder areas has also pg. 1466). has also disappeared” disappeared (pg. 1466). regions- (pg. 1466). the vast or indefinite entirety of a space or areaRecent reports have shown that Predominantly- Mitchell states, “Recentthe increased risk of SIDS with for the most part; mostly; reports have shown that theco-sleeping applies mainly increased risk of SIDS with co-predominantly to infants whose sleeping appliesmothers smoke cigarettes. 2,6 predominantly to infants whose mothers smoke cigarettes” (pg. 1466).Infants of mothers who smoke in Deficient- Mitchell states, “Infants ofpregnancy have deficient insufficient; inadequate mothers who smoke inhypoxic arousal responses. 7 pregnancy have deficient arousal- hypoxic arousal responses” to awaken; wake up: (pg. 1466).Their arousal responses to Blunted- Mitchell states, “Their arousalthermal stress might also be slow in perception or responses to thermal stressblunted. understanding might also be blunted” (pg. 1466). Research Unit
  4. 4. Quoting, paraphrasing, summarizingHomework 1. Read the following research article excerpt 2. Pick three sentences (same or different) 3. Write a- a. Quote- for your chosen sentence b. Paraphrase- for your chosen sentence c. Summary - for your chosen sentence 4. Write your in-text citation following your quote, paraphrase and summary Anthropologists have suggested that a sensory-rich environment, which includes sharing the same bedroom and co-sleeping, mightlower the risk of SIDS.8 Low SIDS mortality rates in Asia and the Pacific Islands, where it is common for infants to share rooms or beds,provides support for this view. However, further analyses show that in the Pacific Island community bedsharing increases the risk of SIDSamong infants of mothers who smoke. These findings are an example of the ecological fallacy whereby a correlation between variablesbased on group (ecological) characteristics may not necessarily be reproduced between variables based on individual characteristics. The main concern about recommending that infants should not be taken to bed with the parent relates to a possible detrimentaleffect on breastfeeding. Bedsharing is associated with breastfeeding, partly because breastfeeding encourages bedsharing. 9 However, arecent study has shown that routinely bedsharing infants breastfed three times longer during the night than did infants who routinely sleptseparately. 10 Thus breastfeeding promotes bedsharing, which in itself facilitates breastfeeding. Although there are many good reasons forencouraging breastfeeding, the protective effect of breastfeeding against SIDS is modest. The recommendation that infants should not bedshare, at lease with mothers who smoke, should be included in the “Back to sleep”(sleeping non-prone) campaign. This recommendation needs to be promoted with sensitivity. It does not prohibit the mother frombreastfeeding or comforting the child in bed, but when the mother is about to sleep the infant should be returned to the cot. Although thisis a small group at risk, the magnitude of the risk is large for infants of mothers who smoke, and the potential number of infants saved issubstantial.QuoteParaphraseSummarize

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