4. tiny particles of pulverized volcanic rock and glass
5. a seismic wave that causes particles in the ground to move up and down in a rolling motion; it is the most damaging
7. Volcanoes that are not associated with plate boundaries
9. fossilized carbon outline of an organism or part of an organism
10. the location on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake’s focus
13. a liquid’s resistance to flow
15. the preserved remains or evidence of ancient living things
16. a break in Earth’s lithosphere where one block of rock moves toward, away from, or past another
17. the impression in a rock left by an ancient organism
19. the idea that conditions and organisms on Earth change in quick, violent events
21. a principle that states that geologic processes that occur today are similar to those that have occurred in the past
22. Molten rock that erupts onto Earth’s surface
23. the principle that in undisturbed rock layers, the oldest rocks are on the bottom.
25. a graphical illustration of seismic waves
26. energy that travels as vibrations on and in Earth
27. matching rocks and fossils from separate locations.
30. a fossil copy of an organism made when a mold of the organism is filled with sediment of mineral deposits
31. Fossil Fossils that represent species that existed on Earth for a short length of time, were abundant, and inhabited many locations.
32. These waves originate where rocks first move along the fault, at a location inside Earth
1. scientists who study fossils
2. a vent in Earth’s crust through which melted – or molten – rock flows
3. piece of an older rock that becomes part of a new rock.
6. a surface where rock has eroded away, producing a break, or gap, in the rock record.
8. a volcano common along divergent plate boundaries and ocean hot spots, these volcanoes are large with gentle slopes of basaltic lavas
11. the vibrations in the ground that result from movement along breaks in Earth’s lithosphere
12. a seismic wave that causes particles to move up and down at right angles relative to the direction the wave travels
14. an instrument that measures and records ground motion and can be used to determine the distance seismic waves travel
17. Molten rock below Earth’s crust
18. scientists that study earthquakes
19. a volcano with large, steep sides that result from explosive eruptions of andesitic and rhyolitic lava and ash along convergent plate boundaries
20. a seismic wave that causes particles in the ground to move in a push-pull motion similar to a coiled spring; it is the fastest wave
24. the preserved evidence of the activity of an organism
28. the age of rocks and geologic features compared with other rocks and features nearby.
29. small, steep-sided volcanoes that erupt gas-rich, basaltic lava