Transcript of "Chapter 8.3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds"
Chapter 8 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds – p 283-289 – page 1
• Ion (284) – an atom that is no longer electrically neutral because it has lost or gained valence
• Ionic bond (286) – the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic
• Metallic bond (287) – a bond formed when many metal atoms share their pooled valence
When a metal and non-metal bond, they do not ____________ electrons
Instead, one or more valence electrons _____________ from the metal atom to the
After electron transfer, the atoms bond and form a chemically stable compound
• When an atom loses or gains a valence electron, it becomes an_____________.
• An ion is an atom that is no longer electrically neutral because it has lost or gained valence
• Because electrons have a negative charge, losing or gaining an electron changes the overall
________________ of an atom
• An atom that loses valence electrons becomes an ion with a
– Because the number of electrons is now less than the number of
• An atom that gains an electron becomes an ion with a
– Because the number of protons is now less than the number
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Losing Valence Electrons
• Look at Sodium
– Sodium is a metal
– It has an atomic number of _______
• That means 11 protons and 11 electrons
– It is in group 1
• That means it has ____ valence electron
– Therefore, it is _______________
• Metal atoms, such as sodium, become more stable when they lose valence electrons and
form a chemical bond with a nonmetal
• If sodium loses one electron it will have a total of __________ electrons, __________ of
them being valence electrons
– That means it would have the electron configuration of a noble gas.
– It would be chemically ____________________.
Gaining Valence Electrons
Nonmetal atoms can also _________ valence electrons with metal atoms
If a chlorine atom can gain one electron, it will have ______ valence electrons
Look at chlorine
– Chlorine has an atomic number of ___________
• That means 17 protons and 17 electrons
– Its in group 17
• That means __________ valence electrons
– It is chemically unstable
Then, it will have the electron configuration of the noble gas ____________ (Ar).
Chapter 8 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds – p 283-289 – page 3
When sodium loses a valence electron, it becomes a _______________ charged ion.
– This is shown by a plus sign (+)
When a chlorine atom gains a valence electron, it becomes a ______________ charged ion.
– This is shown by a negative sign (-)
Determining an Ion’s Charge
• Once an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes a charged ion.
• For example:
– Nitrogen has 7 electrons and 7 protons
– However, if N gains 3 electrons when forming an ion, the N ion then has 10 electrons
• To determine the charge, _______________the number of electrons in the ion from the
number of protons.
7 protons – 10 electrons = -3 charge
– So, it is a N ion with a -3 charge, shown as N^3Ionic Bonds – Electron Transferring
Metal atoms typically lose valence electrons and __________________ atom typically gain
In an ionic bond, the nonmetal atom _____________ the electrons that the metal atom loses
• In NaCl
– Na loses ___________ valence electron
• Na becomes a positively charged ion
– Cl gains that _________ electron
• Cl becomes a negatively charged ion
– These ions attract each other and form a stable ionic compound.
• The _________________________between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic
compound is an ionic bond.
Usually solid and __________ at room temperature
Relatively ___________ melting and boiling points
Chapter 8 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds – p 283-289 – page 4
Many ionic compounds ___________ in water
Water that contains ionic compounds is a good conductor of electricity.
– This is because the electrical charge can pass from ion to ion in the solution
Comparing Ionic and Covalent Compounds
When nonmetal ions bond to metal ions in an ionic compound, there
are no molecules.
Instead, there is a large collection of ______________charge ions.
All of the ions attract each other and are held together by ionic
Metallic Bonds – Electron Pooling
Metal atoms form compounds with one another by_______________ , or pooling, their
A ________________ bond is a bond formed when many metal atoms share their pooled
In metallic bonds, metal ions lose their valence electrons and become positive ions.
The electrons move from ion to ion.
Valence electrons in metals are not bonded to one atom.
Instead, a “______________________________________” surrounds the positive ion
Properties of Metallic Compounds
• Metals are good conductors of _____________________ energy and electricity
• Because the valence electrons can _______________ from ion to ion, they can easily
conduct electric current.
• Metal ions can slide past one another in the electron sea and move into new positions.
• Metals are __________________because the valence electrons at the surface of the metal
interact with light
Chapter 8 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds – p 283-289 – page 5
Chapter 8 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds – p 283-289 – page 6