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Chapter 19.1: Land Biomes
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Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 19 Lesson 1 on land biomes. This lesson covers basic characteristics of the 7 major land biomes: deserts, grasslands, temperate deciduous forest, temperate …

Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 19 Lesson 1 on land biomes. This lesson covers basic characteristics of the 7 major land biomes: deserts, grasslands, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rainforest, tropical rainforest, taiga, and tundra. The objective is that students should be able to recall defining characteristics of each biome and identify a biome by temperature and precipitation.

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  • 1. Chapter 19 Lesson 1 – p682-689 LAND BIOMES
  • 2. Vocabulary  Biome – a geographic area on Earth that contains ecosystems with similar biotic and abiotic features  Desert – biomes that receive very little rain  Grassland – biomes are areas where grasses are the dominate plants  Temperate – Regions of Earth between the tropics and the polar circles  Taiga – forest biomes consisting mostly of cone- bearing evergreen trees  Tundra – biome that is cold, dry, and treeless
  • 3. Land Ecosystems and Biomes  The living or once-living parts of an environment are the biotic parts  The nonliving parts that the living pasts need to survive are the abiotic parts  An ecosystem includes an environments:  Biotic factors  Abiotic factors  *Cultural factors
  • 4. Land Ecosystems  Earth’s continents have many different ecosystems, from deserts to rainforests.  Scientists have classified similar ecosystems in large geographic areas called biomes  Biomes are geographic areas on Earth that contain ecosystems with similar biotic and abiotic factors.  Earth has 7 major land biomes with similar climates and organisms
  • 5. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Deserts • Grasslands • Tropical RainForests • Temperate RainForests • DeciduousForest • Taiga • Tundra
  • 6.  Deserts are biomes that receive very little rain. They are on nearly every continent and are Earth’s driest ecosystems. • Deserts are hot during the day and cold at night • However in Antarctica the deserts remain cold all year. • Rain drains away quickly because of thin, porous soil. Large patches of ground are bare. The Seven Major Land Biomes Deserts
  • 7. Temperature v. Precipitation
  • 8. The Seven MajorLand Biomes  Biodiversity  Animals include lizards, vats, woodpeckers, and snakes. Most animals avoid activity during the hottest parts of the day Deserts
  • 9. The Seven Major Land Biomes  Biodiversity  Plants include spiny cactus and thorny shrubs. Shallow roots absorb water quickly. Deserts
  • 10. The Seven Major Land Biomes  Biodiversity  Some plants have accordion-like stems that expand and store water  Small leaves or spines reduce the loss of water Deserts
  • 11. The Seven MajorLand Biomes  Human Impact  Overuse of water resources  Because plant grow slowly, impact to desert plants can take a long time to recover Deserts
  • 12. The Seven MajorLand Biomes  Human Impact  Overuse of water resources  Because plant grow slowly, impact to desert plants can take a long time to recover Deserts
  • 13. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Grassland biomes are areas where grasses are the dominant plants. • Also called prairies, savannas, and meadows. • Grassland are the world’s “breadbaskets.” • Wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, plus other cereal crops are grown here • Grasslands have wet and dry seasons • Deep, fertile soil supports plant growth • Grass roots form a thick mass, called sod, which helps soil absorb and hold water during periods of drought Grasslands
  • 14. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Biodiversity • Trees grow along streams and rivers • Large herbivores graze here • African savannas and Australian grasslands are home to many different animals. Grasslands
  • 15. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Human Impact • Over cultivation reduces wild habitats • Over hunting Grasslands
  • 16. The Seven Major Land Biomes • The forests that grow near the equator are called tropical rain forests. These forests receive large amounts of rain and have dense growths of tall, leafy trees. • Weather is warm and wet year-round • Soil is shallow and easily washed away • <1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor • Half of Earth’s species live in tropical rain forests. Mostly in the upper canopy. Tropical Rainforest
  • 17. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Biodiversity • Few plants live on the dark forest floor • Vines climb tall trees • Mosses, ferns, and orchids live on branches. • Insects make up the largest group of tropical animals • Many larger animals such as snakes, monkeys, and jaguars Tropical Rainforest
  • 18. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Human Impact • People have cleared more than 50% of Earth’s tropical rain forests for lumber, farms, and ranches • Poor soil does not support rapid growth of new trees in cleared areas • Some organizations are working to encourage people to use less wood harvested from rain forests Tropical Rainforest
  • 19. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Regions of Earth between the tropics and the polar circles are temperate regions. • Distinct seasons • Mild climates • Temperate rain forests are moist ecosystems mostly in coastal areas • Winters are mild and rainy • Summers are cool and foggy • Soil is rich and moist Temperate Rainforest
  • 20. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Biodiversity • Mainly very tall trees such as spruce, hemlock, cedar, fir, and redwoods • Fungi, ferns, mosses, vines, and small flowering plants grow on the floor • Many animals including butterflies, mosquitoes, frogs, owls, eagles, deer, elk, and bears Temperate Rainforest
  • 21. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Human Impact • Over logging • Rich soil allows cut forests to grow back quickly • Tree farms help provide lumber without destroying habitats Temperate Rainforest
  • 22. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Temperate deciduous forests grow in temperate regions where winter and summer climates have more variation than those in temperate rain forests • These are the most common in the US • Most of the trees are deciduous, meaning they lose their leaves during fall • Winter temperatures are below freezing and snowy • Summers are hot and humid • Soil is rich in nutrients and supports a large amount of diverse plant growth Temperate Deciduous Forest
  • 23. The Seven MajorLand Biomes • Biodiversity • Most plants stop growing during winter and begin again in spring • Animals include snakes, ants, raccoons, foxes • Some animals hibernate, like chipmunks and bats • Many animals migrate, like butterflies and birds Temperate Deciduous Forest
  • 24. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Human impact • Over the past several hundred years, humans have cleared thousands of acres of Earth’s deciduous forests for farms and cities • Today, much of the clearing has stopped and some forests have regrown Temperate Deciduous Forest
  • 25. The Seven Major Land Biomes • A taiga is a forest biome consisting mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees • They exist only in the Northern Hemisphere • It occupies more space on Earth’s continents than any other biome. • Winters are long, cold, and snowy • Summers are short, warm, and moist • Soil is thin and acidic Taiga
  • 26. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Biodiversity • Evergreen trees, such as spruce, pine, and fir, are thin and shed snow easily • Animals include cold-adapted species like mice, owls, moose, and bears • Abundant insects attract migrating birds in the summer Taiga
  • 27. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Human Impact • Over logging also known as tree harvesting Taiga
  • 28. The Seven Major Land Biomes • A tundra biome is cold, dry, and treeless • Most tundra is south of the North Pole, but also exists in mountainous areas at high altitudes • Winters are long and freezing • Summer are short and cool • Growing seasons is on 50-60 days • Permafrost – a layer of permanently frozen soil – prevents deep root growth Tundra
  • 29. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Biodiversity • Plants include shallow-rooted mosses, lichen, and grasses • Many animals hibernate or migrate south for the winter • A few animals, like lemmings, live there year round Tundra
  • 30. The Seven Major Land Biomes • Human Impact • Drilling for oil and gas can interrupt migration patterns Tundra