Chapter 11.2


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Chapter 11.2

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Lesson 2: The Inner Planets – p 382-387 – page 1 Vocabulary  Terrestrial planet (383) – planets closest to the Sun, made of rock and metal, and have solid outer layers  Greenhouse effect (385) – occurs when a planet’s atmosphere traps solar energy and causes the surface temperature to increase Planets Made of Rock o The inner planets –_____________________________________________________– are also called terrestrial planets. o _____________________ planets are the planets closet to the Sun, are made of rock and metal, and have solid outer layers. Mercury • Facts o The _____________ planet; closest to the Sun o No______________________________  The strength of a planet’s gravity depends on the planet’s_______________.  Because Mercury’s mass is so______________, its gravity is not strong enough to hold onto an atmosphere o No atmosphere = no __________________ o Temperatures:  _____________ on the side facing away from the Sun  _____________ on the side facing the Sun • Mercury’s Surface o Many impact__________________, depressions formed by collisions with objects from space o High cliff and smooth plains from ancient volcanoes o Without an atmosphere, almost no ____________________occurs on Mercury’s surface  As a result, features that formed billions of years ago have changed very little. • Mercury’s Structure o Like all inner planets, Mercury has a core made of ___________and _____________. o Surrounding the core is a layer called the___________________. o The crust is a thin, rocky layer above the mantle. o Mercury’s ______________core might have been formed by a collision with a large object during Mercury’s formation. Venus • Facts o 2nd planet from the Sun o About the same size as ___________________ o It rotates so slowly that its period of ____________________is longer than its period of_____________________.
  2. 2. Chapter 11 Lesson 2: The Inner Planets – p 382-387 – page 2  One is longer than one year o Venus rotates east to________________, unlike most planets • Venus’s Atmosphere o The atmosphere of Venus is about 97% _________________ o It is so dense that the atmospheric pressure on Venus is about ___________________times greater than on Earth o Venus has no water on its surface. o It is covered by a thick layer of clouds made of __________________ • The Greenhouse Effect on Venus o With an average temperature of about 460°C, Venus is the ____________________ planet in our solar system. o The high temperature are caused by the ____________________________ effect  The greenhouse effect occurs when a planet’s atmosphere traps ________________ energy and causes the surface temperature to increase. o Without the greenhouse effect Venus would be about 450°C cooler! • Venus’s Structure and Surface o Venus’s internal structure is similar to Earth’s. o Radar images show that more than 80% of Venus’s surface is covered by solidified _____________. Concept Check • How are the inner planets similar? • Why is Venus hotter than Mercury? Earth • Facts o The third planet from the Sun o Unlike Mercury and Venus, Earth has a________________. • Earth’s Atmosphere o A mixture of gases and a small amount of water vapor make up most of Earth’s atmosphere o They produce a ________________________ effect that increases Earth’s average surface temperature o This effect and Earth’s distance from the Sun warm Earth enough for large bodies of water to exist. o Earth’s protective atmosphere, the presence of liquid water, and the planet’s moderate temperature range support a variety of life • Earth’s Structure o Earth has a solid inner core surrounded by a _____________________ outer core
  3. 3. Chapter 11 Lesson 2: The Inner Planets – p 382-387 – page 3 o The mantle surrounds the liquid outer core. o Above the mantle is Earth’s___________________. o It’s broken into large pieces, called_______________________, that constantly slide past, away from, or into each other Mars • Facts o 4th planet from the Sun o _______________________the size of Earth o Two very small and irregularly shaped ______________________ o Water on Mars is mainly trapped in the polar ice caps and a small amount in found as liquid vapor  However, little evidence of liquid water or life has been found • Mar’s Atmosphere o 95% carbon dioxide o Temperatures: -125°C – _____________ o Dust storms that last for months • Mar’s Surface o Reddish due to ___________ _____________ in the soil (rust) o Enormous canyons o Largest ________________________ in the solar system o Polar ice caps made of frozen carbon dioxide and ice