Chapter 11.1: The Structures of the Solar System
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Chapter 11.1: The Structures of the Solar System

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8th Grade Integrated Science Chapter 11 Lesson 1 on the structures of the solar system. This lesson covers objects in out solar system, asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, revolution, and rotation. ...

8th Grade Integrated Science Chapter 11 Lesson 1 on the structures of the solar system. This lesson covers objects in out solar system, asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, revolution, and rotation. There is also in introduction to astronomical units.

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Chapter 11.1: The Structures of the Solar System Chapter 11.1: The Structures of the Solar System Document Transcript

  • Chapter 11 Lesson 1: The Structures of the Solar System – p. 374-380 – page 1 Vocabulary • Asteroid (377) – millions of small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. • Comet (377) – an object made of gas, dust, and ice and moves around the Sun in an oval- shaped orbit • Astronomical Unit (AU) (378) – the average distance from Earth to the Sun – about 150 million km • Period of Revolution (378) – the time it takes and object to travel once around the Sun • Period of Rotation (378) – the time it takes an object to complete one rotation What is the solar system? • When looking at the night sky, you will likely see stars and planets. Sometimes, the first star-like object you see at night is not a star at all. • A few of the tiny lights that you can see are part of our _______________________. • Almost all of the other specks of light are______________. Objects in the Solar System • Ancient observes looking at the night sky saw many stars but only five______________________– Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. • The invention of the _____________________in the 1600s led to the discovery of additional planets and many other space objects. The Sun • The ____________________object in the solar system is the Sun, a star. • Its diameter is about ________________________ km. • Its made mostly of ___________________ gas • Its mass makes up about _______________ percent of the entire ___________ of the solar system • Inside the Sun, a process called nuclear ____________________produces an enormous amount of energy. • Some of the energy is emitted as ___________________ • The Sun also applies ____________________________ forces to objects in the solar system. • Gravitational forces cause the planets and other objects to move around, or_______________, the Sun. Objects That Orbit the Sun • Planets, dwarf planets, _____________________, and comets orbit the Sun. • These ______________ emit light. • Planets • An object is a planet only if it orbits the Sun and has a nearly _______________________ shape. • The mass of a planet must be much _________________ than the total mass of all
  • Chapter 11 Lesson 1: The Structures of the Solar System – p. 374-380 – page 2 other objects whose orbits are close by. • Our solar system has _______________________ objects classified as planets. • Inner Planets and Outer Planets • The four planets closet to the Sun are the ____________________ planets. • _______________________________________________________________________ • These planets are mainly made of ________________________ rocky materials • The four planets farthest from the Sun are called the _____________________ planets • ______________________________________________________________________ • These planets are mainly made of ice and gases such as ________________and___________________. • Because they are much larger than Earth, we also call them ___________________. • Dwarf Planets • A ________________ planet is a spherical object that orbits the Sun. • It is not a ___________________ of another planet and is in a region of the solar system where there are many objects orbiting ________________ it. • Unlike a planet, a dwarf planet does not have more __________________ than objects in nearby orbits • They are made of rock and ice and are much ____________________ than Earth. • They include Ceres, Eris, Pluto, and__________________________. • Asteroids • Millions of small, rocky objects called asteroids orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt between the orbits of _______________ and Jupiter • They range in size from less than a __________________ to several hundred kilometers in length • Unlike planets and dwarf planets, asteroids usually aren’t __________________________ • Comets • A comet is made of________________, dust, and ice and moves around the Sun in an ________________-shaped orbit. • Comets come from the ________________ parts of the solar system. • There might be __________________comets orbiting the Sun. The Astronomical Unit • On Earth we use meters or_____________. • Objects in the solar system, are so far apart that astronomers use a larger distance unit. • An __________________________________________________(AU) is the average distance from Earth to the Sun – about 150 million km.
  • Chapter 11 Lesson 1: The Structures of the Solar System – p. 374-380 – page 3 The Motion of the Planets • Revolution and Rotation • The time it takes an object to travel once around the Sun is its period of ___________________ • Earth’s period of revolution is one__________. • The time it takes an object to complete one rotation is its period of _____________________ • Earth’s period of rotation is one _________ • Planetary Orbits and Speeds • Unlike a ball swinging on the end of a string, planets do not move in ________________ • Instead, a planet’s orbit is an__________________ – a stretched-out circle • Inside an ellipse are two special points, each called a_____________________. • These focus points, or foci, determine the __________________ of the ellipse. • The foci are ___________________ distances from the center of the ellipse. • A planet’s ________________also changes as it orbits the Sun. The ___________________the planet is to the Sun, the ________________________it moves. • This also means that planets farther from the Sun have longer periods of_______________________. • For example, Jupiter is more than 5 times farther from the Sun than_______________. • It takes Jupiter _______________ times longer than Earth to revolve around the Sun.