Chapter 10.1: Substances and Mixtures

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Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 10 Lesson 1 on substances and mixtures. Understanding pure substances and homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Identifying substances from mixtures.

Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 10 Lesson 1 on substances and mixtures. Understanding pure substances and homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Identifying substances from mixtures.

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures – p. 334-340 – page 1 Vocabulary • Substance (336) – matter that is always made up of the same combination of atoms • Mixture (336) – two or more substances that are physically blended but are not chemically bonded together • Heterogeneous mixture (337) – a mixture in which substances are not evenly mixed • Homogeneous mixture (337) – a mixture in which two or more substances are evenly mixed • Solution (337) – another name for a homogeneous mixture Substances • A _______________is matter that is always made up of the same combination of atom. • There are 2 types of substances – Elements* • *Only made up of ___________atom – Compounds • A compound is matter made of atoms of 2 or more elements ______________ bonded together • Because the ______________________ of elements and compounds do not change, all elements and compounds are substances Mixture • A ___________________is two or more substances that are physically blended but are not chemically bonded together. – *The amount of each substance in a mixture can___________. (Unlike atoms in a compound) Mixtures • Granite o A type of ___________________ o Composition of different rocks • Air o o o o Doesn’t look like a mixture 78% ________________ 21% oxygen 1% other substances
  • 2. Chapter 10 Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures – p. 334-340 – page 2
  • 3. Chapter 10 Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures – p. 334-340 – page 3 2 Types of Mixtures •Heterogeneous Mixture o Heterogeneous = __________________________________ •Homogeneous Mixture – Solutions o Homogeneous = _________________________________________ Heterogeneous Mixture • A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture in which substances are not evenly___________________. – Example: • _____________________is a heterogeneous mixture. It is not evenly mixed. • Often, you can see the different substances and parts of a heterogeneous mixture with _______________________ eyes, but sometimes you need a microscope. – Example: • ___________________ is a heterogeneous mixture. • It looks evenly mixed, but with a ________________________ you can easily see areas with more of one component and less of another. • Heterogeneous mixture can be hard to tell.
  • 4. Chapter 10 Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures – p. 334-340 – page 4 Which of the following diagrams shows a Solution – Homogeneous Mixtures heterogeneous mixture? •Many _________________look evenly mixed even when you view them with a powerful microscope. •These mixtures are ___________________ •A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which two or more substances are ________________________on the atomic level but not bonded together. •The mixture looks evenly mixed because the individual atoms and compounds are too ________________ to see Solution •*Another name for a homogeneous mixture is a______________________________. • Air is a solution. Soda is also a solution. o Heterogeneous mixture can be hard to_____________________.
  • 5. Chapter 10 Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures – p. 334-340 – page 5 How do compounds and mixtures differ? • There are 2 important differences between compounds and mixtures – Substances in a _______________________keep their _______________________because they are not chemically changed • Salt water is a_____________________. You can’t see the salt, but you can taste it in the water. • In contrast, sodium and chlorine bond to form table salt. – Sodium is a soft, opaque, silvery ____________________ – Chlorine is a_____________________, poisonous gas – Salt has none of these _______________________ – Mixtures can be separated • Because substances in mixtures are not bonded, they can be separated using _______________________ methods – For example you can _____________________ the water out of salt water – The physical properties of one substance will _____________________ from the other, so they can be physically separated • In contrast, compounds can only be separated by chemical change that breaks the _________________________ between the elements. – Look at the figure on page 339 Distillation of Salt Water