A L P H A   Exactalloy                        ™       Solder preformsfor product and process          improvement
There is an    Exactalloy™    preform in    the right    shape and    size to    improve    your    assembly    operation,...
C O O K S O N               E L E C T R O N I C S                                       Each batch of Exactalloy™ preforms...
There are numerous examples          where the use of Exactalloy™          preforms can optimize one          or both of t...
C O O K S O N                  E L E C T R O N I C SExactalloy™ preform solutions provide a wide range ofadvantages in ele...
Flux-filled and flux-coated lead-free      Reduce or eliminate solder preforms are used by the          wave soldering major...
C O O K S O N                E L E C T R O N I C SSee how Exactalloy™ preforms are providing innovativesolutions in actual...
Using a solder preform to coat    the surface mount contacts    with solder in chip scale    capacitors eliminates dipping...
C O O K S O N                     E L E C T R O N I C S                                                                   ...
Soft Solder Alloys                          Tin/Lead Phase Diagram  ALLOY                          MELTING TEMPERATURE RAN...
C O O K S O N   E L E C T R O N I C S                                   Use these drawings                                ...
The Power Behind The ProcessCookson Electronics Assembly Materials         Cookson Electronics Assembly Materials4100 Sixt...
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Alpha exactalloy Solder preforms for product and process improvement


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There is an Exactalloy™ preform in the rightshape and size to improve your assembly operation, product reliability and quality. Get Technical support from Krayden Regarding Alpha product and its proper application method.

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Alpha exactalloy Solder preforms for product and process improvement

  1. 1. A L P H A Exactalloy ™ Solder preformsfor product and process improvement
  2. 2. There is an Exactalloy™ preform in the right shape and size to improve your assembly operation, product reliability and quality.2
  3. 3. C O O K S O N E L E C T R O N I C S Each batch of Exactalloy™ preforms is carefully examined under magnification to assure compliance with dimensional requirements. Improved quality and performance Cookson Electronics Assembly Materials’ experienced repre- sentatives are ready to work directly with your designersExactalloy™ solder preforms to recommend solder preformsare the ideal solution to high- to provide maximum assemblyvolume, precision-soldering efficiency, product quality, andprocesses in electronic assem- improve your manufacturingblies, sealed lighting, filtered processes.connectors, multiple leadedconnectors, component manu- We can furnish Exactalloy™facturing and the plumbing preforms in discs, rectangles,industry. squares, rings, washers, sleeves and washer arrays (linked A wide range of Cookson Electronics uniqueWhat are preforms? preforms). Your Cookson design choices flux coating process offers two Electronics technical repre- distinct advantages over fluxPreforms are precisely formed sentative can help you specify Exactalloy™ preforms are avail- filled preforms: a flux-coatedpieces of solder, produced in the size and shape to achieve able in sizes from 0.020" to Exactalloy™ preform deliverslarge quantities with very tight the maximum benefit for your 2.00" (squares, discs or washer flux to the area to be solderedtolerances. There are almost soldering process. OD). Thickness can range from when it is needed most — justunlimited combinations of .004" to 0.25". Generally, flux before the solder is melted, anddifferent preform shapes, Custom shapes can also be add-on represents .5% to 2.5% flux-coated solder is protectedsizes, combinations of solder produced to match specific by weight of the preform. from oxidation. Oxide-freealloys and flux delivery systems. applications. Tooling charges solder yields better wetting may apply to custom shapes and joint strength, and canPreforms are commonly formed and sizes. eliminate the formation ofin 63/37 tin/lead solder. Both cold solder joints that canlower melting point and higher have a severe impact on prod-melting point alloys are also uct reliability. Flux coating isavailable. See the Soft Solder limited to preforms at leastAlloys table on page 10 for a .007" (0.18 mm) thick. Thinnerlist of the most common alloys preforms may lose their shapeused to produce Exactalloy™ in the fluxing process. Seepreforms. Some solder alloys chart for available flux options.cannot be used to producesome preform shapes. High Available Flux Typesbismuth alloys, for example, FLUX TYPE INTERNAL EXTERNALcan be very brittle, and cannot RMA (ROL1) yes yeswithstand rolling and stamp- RA (ROM1) no yesing processes required to form NC (ROL0) yes yessome shapes. RSA (ROH1) no yes WS (ORL0) yes noOpposite: Exactalloy™ preforms canbe produced in thousands of shapesand sizes, solving even the most Both X-ray diffraction and wet analysis methods aredifficult soldering design challenge. used to assure that every lot of Exactalloy™ preforms meets or exceeds the metallurgical requirements of the IPC and the customer. 3
  4. 4. There are numerous examples where the use of Exactalloy™ preforms can optimize one or both of the common mass soldering techniques. Eliminate hand soldering The use of preforms can pro- vide a more consistent quality alternative to repetitive hand soldering applications. If core wire is being used to hand solder multiple leaded connec- tors, or to solder a non-planar area in a circuit assembly, preforms often offer a better solution. Exactalloy™ preforms deliver the exact volume of solder required. They can be placed exactly where needed, and multiple solder joints can be reflowed simultaneously using a heat gun, or a reflow oven. Low melting temperature preforms are commonly used to eliminate disturbance of other solder joints already formed on the assembly. High-temperature preforms can be used if the hand soldering assembly is being performed before conventional SMT or wave soldering processes. 10/88/2 (Tin/Lead/Silver) or 96/4 (Tin/Silver) are common choices for this application. See the Soft Solder Alloys table on page 10. Precise control of foil thickness is a critical step in providing the exact volume of solder required. Here, linked arrays are used to eliminate hand soldering on multiple-row connector sets. Preforms also provide more solder volume, eliminating4 inefficient paste-in thru-hole processes.
  5. 5. C O O K S O N E L E C T R O N I C SExactalloy™ preform solutions provide a wide range ofadvantages in electronic circuit assembly applications. Step stenciling Problem: In some SMT assem- blies, larger volumes of solder are required on one or more surface mount pads. Traditional co-planar paste stenciling will not yield the solder volume required. In this case, the process engineer has two choices, neither of which may be acceptable: stencil more paste onto the required pads or use a second dispensing process. The dispensing option is often impossible in fine pitch applications.Paste-in thru-hole next consideration is the diameter of the thru-hole or Solution: Place an Exactalloy™Problem: In an attempt to via. The OD of the Exactalloy™ solder preform segmenteliminate wave soldering, washer must be at least .005" (square or rectangle) into themany assembly processes use greater than the diameter of stenciled paste. Exactalloy™solder paste to solder thru-hole the hole. The limit of the OD preforms are available in tapecomponents. The goal is to is usually the diameter of the and reel packaging. The pre-eliminate wave soldering, and pad surrounding the plated form is sequenced in yoursubsequent thermal stress thru-hole. pick and place process to beresulting from multiple solder positioned prior to placementreflow cycles. Given the ID and the OD, of the SMT component desig- Cookson Electronics can man- nated for that pad.Solder paste is very difficult to ufacture the washer to anystencil over an open hole, and thickness from .004" to a limit Simply sequence the preformdispensing adequate volumes of 110% of the ID. Using this placement prior to the compo-of paste can be just as chal- technique, Exactalloy™ preforms nent requiring the additionallenging. Thick, multiple layer can be engineered to meet or solder volume.boards also make paste in exceed the IPC standard.thru-hole processes more Above left: Cladded discs providedifficult. Per IPC Standard B a simple method of soldering very610, at least 75% of the space large components from the oppositebetween the lead pin and the side of the board.hole must be filled with solder. Top right: Cookson Electronics canSolution: The use of Exactalloy™ package preforms on tape and reelwashers or linked washer for use with common pick andarrays eliminates the inherent place equipment.problems of delivering enoughsolder to meet the IPC standard. Left: Our extensive engineeringThe design of the preform capabilities can turn your ideas intobegins with the inner diameter high-production reality. Bimetallicof the washer. It should be solder sleeves are but one example0.002" to 0.005" larger than of Cookson Electronics’ ability tothe OD of the lead pin. The engineer solder fabrication. 5
  6. 6. Flux-filled and flux-coated lead-free Reduce or eliminate solder preforms are used by the wave soldering major automobile lighting producers to deliver the exact amount of solder, Problem: The primary assembly in exactly the right shape, exactly process used is SMT. There where it is needed. are still one or more thru-hole components on the assembly where the board must be run through the wave to assure a complete solder joint. The second thermal cycle may damage some of the paste joints. Eliminating wave soldering will reduce the cycle time of each assembly. Solution: After the paste has been stenciled, and all of the SMT components have been placed, use a semi-automatic technique to position flux- coated preform solder washers on the thru-hole component leads. This completely elimi- nates the wave soldering step, increasing the production rate and reducing rejects. (See the connector jig schematic, on opposite page.) Sealed beam lighting As the leader in lead (Pb) free soldering, Cookson Electronics has developed several alloys that exceed today’s require- ments for the elimination of lead, which is the trend in this industry. Both flux-coated washers and flux-cored seg- ments are used to automate the placement of solder in sealed beam lighting.6
  7. 7. C O O K S O N E L E C T R O N I C SSee how Exactalloy™ preforms are providing innovativesolutions in actual applications. provide an unlimited number Component TOP VIEW OF FIXTURE of beneficial solutions for the manufacturing connector manufacturer. CROSS SECTION Capacitors OF FIXTURE Pre-Soldered Connectors Preforms are used in both Ø Hole = Ø Washer +0.15mm Length hole = Washer Exactalloy™ preforms can be surface mount and thru-hole thickness +25% Preform washers are automatically placed on con- component manufacturing. dropped into fixture. nector leads, and the resulting Both axial and radial leaded Connector is placed in fixture allowing preforms to attach to connector connector requires no addi- capacitors are manufactured pins. tional paste or thru-hole sol- using solder preforms. A high dering by the connector user. temperature alloy (Sn 95/Ag 5, Your Cookson Electronics Sn 10/Pb 88/Ag2, Sn 5/Pb 85/ technical representative can Sb 10) is typical, to eliminate Hundreds of solder washers can show you several methods of solder reflow when the capaci- be placed automatically by using applying preforms to multiple tor is soldered to the final fixtures. Your Cookson Electronics pin connectors. circuit assembly. High temper- technical representative can helpExactalloy™ preforms deliver ature alloys allow for the use you design a fixture for rapid place-exactly the right amount of Attaching Coaxial Connectors of thermal curing encapsulents ment of flux-coated washers onsolder, in the exact alloy, every Hand soldering can be elimi- as well. multiple-pin assemblies.time. Consistent, reproducible nated as a high volume methodsoldering is the real benefit to of soldering coaxial connectors Soldering lead frames tothe lighting industry. to cable ends. Several unique ceramic capacitor bodies with solutions have been developed flux-coated Exactalloy™ pre-Connectors by Cookson Electronics for forms can eliminate problems attaching solder sleeves to bare associated with the use ofFiltered and Shielded wire ends. Coaxial connectors solder paste. Preforms alsoConnectors can be slid over the preform offer the additional advantagesExactalloy™ preform washers ring, followed by induction of delivering reproducibleare made in both a single alloy, reflow of the solder. Flux- volume, eliminating fluxand in laminated layers of a coated sleeves make this residue, increasing productionbase metal and solder. A typical process highly efficient and speed and producing fasterapplication is attaching a ferrite reproducible. reflow cycle times.EMI shield to a connector pin.The pin is suspended in themiddle of the ferrite tube by Automatic placement of preformsthe unmelted base metal. The is often the key in reaping thesolder layers on either side of efficiency offered by automaticthe base metal form the solder soldering. In this application, ajoint. Similar technology is bowl feeder dispenses flux-coatedused to produce RFI shielded washers for subsequent placementconnector leads. Cookson and reflow.Electronics’ lead-free alloysand flux-coating processes 7
  8. 8. Using a solder preform to coat the surface mount contacts with solder in chip scale capacitors eliminates dipping heat-sensitive ceramics into high melting point solder baths. Thyristors Exactalloy™ preforms are the ideal metal to metal, and metal to diode joining material. High temperature alloys are used to eliminate solder reflow during the coating and curing of epoxy encapsulents. Flux-coated Exactalloy™ preforms (discs, rectangles or squares) are ideal for this application. Rectifiers Diode attachment with the suitable preform alloy choice makes high volume production possible.8
  9. 9. C O O K S O N E L E C T R O N I C S Precise solder shapes can be used as counterweights in analog instruments. Total Quality Management Our is the driving force in the design and manufacture of ISO 9001 Cookson Electronics precision Exactalloy™ preforms. Cookson Electronics has earned ISO certified 9001 certification for its Exactalloy™ production facili-Optoelectronics tin/lead/silver alloys, stampedIndium-based alloys afford into horseshoe-shaped pre- forms, are used in automotive quality ties. Comprehensive quality controls include SPC (statisti- cal process control), non-excellent ductility, gold scav-enging resistance, and low rheostats and other hybrid circuits to prevent catastrophic program, destructive tests and random sample analysis.temperature soldering (where failures from excess heat.needed) in this rapidly evolv-ing market. Indium’s ductility along with All incoming metals are exam- Plumbing ined by spectrographic analysisallows for soldering materialwith large differences in their Lead-free Exactalloy™ preform extensive and all alloy materials are analyzed for content and puritycoefficient of thermal expansion. rings and washers are used toCookson Electronics’ technicalservice personnel will help solder internal plumbing joints, and to automate the joining tool making prior to in-house molten state processing. Cookson Electronics unique post-alloying batchyou specify the best alloy andpreform to improve your of brass, copper, bronze and tin plate materials. Cookson capabilities analysis is used to identify preforms by date, time, andapplication. Electronics has several IAPMO certified alloys for use in these have made materials used in manufactur- ing. All materials, includingHybrid Circuits applications. Washers up to fluxes, are examined usingSolder based fuses are used 2" in diameter are available. Larger rings can also be pro- Cookson emission spectrography, X-ray defraction, gas chromatography,to protect high temperature duced flux-coated, flux-filledcircuits. Tin/lead and or plain. Electronics atomic absorption and classical wet chemistry techniques. the first The physical characteristics of precision preforms, including choice of dimensions, weight and uni- formity, are checked meticu- lously to ensure conformance solder with customer specifications and Cookson Electronics’ rigid preform in-house standards. users.Connector manufacturers can attachExactalloy™ preform sets, providingcustomers with ready-to-solderassemblies. 9
  10. 10. Soft Solder Alloys Tin/Lead Phase Diagram ALLOY MELTING TEMPERATURE RANGE °F °C TIN/LEAD 63Sn/37Pb 361 183 WETTING RECO MMEND URING ED ALLOY TEMPERATURE D 60Sn/40Pb 361-379 183-190 50Sn/50Pb 361-421 183-216 40Sn/60Pb 361-460 183-238 10Sn/90Pb 514-576 268-299 5Sn/95Pb 581-594 305-312 SILVER BEARING 62Sn/36Pb/2Ag 355 179 96.5Sn/3.5Ag 430 221 95Sn/5Ag 430-473 221-245 10Sn/88Pb/2Ag 514-517 268-299 5Sn/92.5Pb/2.5Ag 92.5Pb/2.5Ag/5 In 549-565 572 287-296 300 Standard 97.5Pb/2.5Ag 579 304 Dimensional Tolerances 1Sn/97.5Pb/1.5Ag 588 309 DIMENSION TOLERANCE SAC 305 Diameter ±0.002” (±0.051mm) 96.5Sn/3Ag/.5Cu 422 217 Length and Width ±0.005” (±0.127mm) TIN/ANTIMONY Thickness Up to 0.005” (0.127mm) ±0.0005 in (±0.0127mm) 100Sn 450 232 0.006 to 0.010” (0.152 to 0.254mm) ±10% of thickness 95Sn/5Sb 450-464 232-240 Greater than 0.010” (0.254mm) ±15% of thickness 99Sn/1Sb 453 234 Thickness (flux-filled) LOW-TEMPERATURE Up to 0.010” (0.254mm) ±0.0015” (0.0381mm) 0.011 to 0.030” (0.279 to 0.762mm) ±15% of thickness 16Sn/32Pb/52Bi 204 96 Greater than 0.030” (0.762mm) ±10% of thickness but 48Sn/52In 244 118 not less than 0.0045” 50Sn/40Pb/10Bi 248-332 120-167 (0.1143mm) 43Sn/43Pb/14Bi 291-32 144-163 Horizontal Burr 0.005” (0.127mm) maximum 37.5Sn/37.5Pb/25In 274-358 134-181 Vertical Burr 50Sn/32Pb/18Cd 293 145 Up to 0.010” (0.254mm) 0.003” (0.0762mm) maximum Greater than 0.010” (0.254mm) 3% but not to exceed 3Ag/97In 295 146 0.005” (0.127mm) 15Pb/5Ag/80In 298-300 148-149 GOLD BEARING 20Sn/80Au 536 28010
  11. 11. C O O K S O N E L E C T R O N I C S Use these drawings to help specify Exactalloy™ solder preformsODMin = .020” (0.508mm) The size ranges indicatedMax = 3.00” (76.2mm) on these drawings representID the dimensions in whichMin = .008” (0.203mm) Exactalloy™ solder preformsMax = OD – .010” (0.254mm) are available. For informationT (Thickness) on preforms outside of theseMin = .002” (0.0508mm) dimensions to meet yourMax = .110” (2.794mm) specific application needs, please contact your Cookson Electronics Sales Representative at 1-800-289-3797. You may also fax drawings to us at:S (Side) 1-814-944-8094, or contactMin = .020” (0.508mm) us on our web site at:Max = 2.30” (58.42mm) www.alphametals.comT (Thickness)Min = .002” (0.0508mm)Max = .200” (5.08mm) Cookson Electronics Assembly Materials is a member of Cookson Electronics. The power behind the process.D (Diameter) As a member of CooksonMin = .020” (0.508mm) Electronics, Cookson ElectronicsMax = 2.10” (53.34mm) Assembly Materials sharesT (Thickness) Cookson’s goal: To create totalMin = .001” (0.0254mm) process solutions that willMax = .200” (5.08mm) power our customers to greater productivity. We are committed to optimizing every element of our customers’ production capabilities by providingOD advanced process development,Min = .057” (1.4478mm) comprehensive consultingMax = 1.05” (26.67mm) and world-class training. OurID people aim to deliver realMin = .049” (1.2446mm) results. To share their know-Max = 1.024” (26.01mm) ledge in ways that improveH (Height) performance and productivity,Min = .024” (0.61mm)Max = .472” (11.99mm) and help our customers achieve their goals. Cookson Electronics. The Power Behind The Process. 11
  12. 12. The Power Behind The ProcessCookson Electronics Assembly Materials Cookson Electronics Assembly Materials4100 Sixth Avenue Energiestraat 21Altoona, PA 16602 USA 1411 AR NaardenOrder Hotline 800-289-3797 ext. 1685 Telephone +31 35 695-5411Technical Services Hotline 814-941-1690 Fax +31 35 694-8451www.alphametals.com www.alphametals.com©2002 Cookson Electronics Assembly Materials