• Henry VII (1485-1509)
• Henry VIII (1509-1547)
• Edward VI (1547-1533)
• Mary (1553-1558)
• Elizabeth (1558-1603)
• James I (1603-1625)
• He was not only a King, but also a ruler (=
governor of a country who cures the interests
of the country)
• He improved commerce and the cloth
industry. He built the navy and sponsored
voyages to the New World.
• He was a typical Renaissance Prince, with interests in arts
• He had six wives:
- Catherine of Aragon (divorced = The mother of Mary/The
Protestant Reformation followed the divorce)
- Anne Boleyn (executed = The mother of Elizabeth)
- Jean Seymour (died = The mother of Edward VI)
- Anne of Cleves (divorced)
- Kathryn Howard (executed for infidelity. She was 19, the
King was 49)
- Katherine Parr (widowed = she was a good wife and step-
The Reformation (1)
• Henry VIII’s reign was signed by the Protestant
Reformation. His wife Catherine was too old to
give him a son, and he wanted to divorce her.
• He asked the help of Pope Clement VII, who
refused to annul the marriage.
• Henry’s mistress was pregnant and he wanted
to marry her. He set up the CHURCH OF
ENGLAND and was excommunicated by the
The Reformation (2)
• Henry declared himself “Supreme Head of the
Church” and passed the Act of Supremacy (in
• The Parliament legitimised the Act by
abolishing the religious orders (monks, friars).
Monasteries were dissolved and their riches
• He succeeded his father
when he was only 9. he
supported the Anglican
Church and promoted the
translation of the Bible in
• With the Act of
Uniformity, he enforced
the use of the English
Book of Prayer. The
reading of the Bible
became the central key to
salvation and during the
Queen Mary, Bloody Mary
• She married the
Spanish King Phillip II
and tried to restore the
Catholic religion in
• She earned the
nickname of Bloody
Mary because she
Protestants and burned
them for heresy.
• She died childless.
Elizabeth I (1)
• She became Queen in 1558. She passed the
Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559) and
became supreme Governor of the Church.
• She promoted toleration among Catholics and
Protestants and encouraged the use of the
Book of Common Prayer.
• She reigned for 45 years and became the most
Elizabeth I (2)
• She was brilliant, careful in diplomacy and a
• She defeated the Spanish Armada, expanded
trade and promoted explorations (also using
pirates for her benefit)
• Most of the MP were Puritans (= extremist
Protestants) and she did not have a good
relationship with them. After the 1590s, she
avoided calling Parliament. She preferred small
councils of ministers.
• James VI of Scotland
became James I of
England, Scotland and
• He based his government
on the “divine right” of
Kings. He preferred
working with small
councils rather than with
• He authorised a new
translation o the Bible,
still used today.
• Gun Powder Plot, 5th
During James’s reign...
• Religion was still a crucial
• Puritans were not happy
with James’s government,
because they desired a
• They preferred individual
religion and wanted a
Church not governed by
• In 1620 a group of them,
the Pilgrim Fathers, left
for America and founded
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