The Monarchs Henry VII (1485-1509) Henry VIII (1509-1547) Edward VI (1547-1533) Mary (1553-1558) Elizabeth (1558-1603) James I (1603-1625) TUDORS 1485-1603 STUART 1603-1714
Henry VII He was not only a King, but also a ruler (= governor of a country who cures the interests of the country) He improved commerce and the cloth industry. He built the navy and sponsored voyages to the New World.
Henry VIII He was a typical Renaissance Prince, with interests in arts and music. He had six wives:
Catherine of Aragon (divorced = The mother of Mary/The Protestant Reformation followed the divorce)
Anne Boleyn (executed = The mother of Elizabeth)
Jean Seymour (died = The mother of Edward VI)
Anne of Cleves (divorced)
Kathryn Howard (executed for infidelity. She was 19, the King was 49)
Katherine Parr (widowed = she was a good wife and step-mother)
The Reformation (1) Henry VIII’s reign was signed by the Protestant Reformation. His wife Catherine was too old to give him a son, and he wanted to divorce her. He asked the help of Pope Clement VII, who refused to annul the marriage. Henry’s mistress was pregnant and he wanted to marry her. He set up the CHURCH OF ENGLAND and was excommunicated by the Pope.
The Reformation (2) Henry declared himself “Supreme Head of the Church” and passed the Act of Supremacy (in 1534). The Parliament legitimised the Act by abolishing the religious orders (monks, friars). Monasteries were dissolved and their riches confiscated.
Edward VI He succeeded his father when he was only 9. he supported the Anglican Church and promoted the translation of the Bible in English. With the Act of Uniformity, he enforced the use of the English Book of Prayer. The reading of the Bible became the central key to salvation and during the mass.
Queen Mary, Bloody Mary She married the Spanish King Phillip II and tried to restore the Catholic religion in England. She earned the nickname of Bloody Mary because she persecuted the Protestants and burned them for heresy. She died childless.
Elizabeth I (1) She became Queen in 1558. She passed the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559) and became supreme Governor of the Church. She promoted toleration among Catholics and Protestants and encouraged the use of the Book of Common Prayer. She reigned for 45 years and became the most popular ruler.
Elizabeth I (2) She was brilliant, careful in diplomacy and a shrewd ruler. She defeated the Spanish Armada, expanded trade and promoted explorations (also using pirates for her benefit) Most of the MP were Puritans (= extremist Protestants) and she did not have a good relationship with them. After the 1590s, she avoided calling Parliament. She preferred small councils of ministers.
James I James VI of Scotland became James I of England, Scotland and Ireland. He based his government on the “divine right” of Kings. He preferred working with small councils rather than with Parliament. He authorised a new translation o the Bible, still used today. Gun Powder Plot, 5th November 1605
During James’s reign... Religion was still a crucial issue/problem. Puritans were not happy with James’s government, because they desired a simpler church. They preferred individual religion and wanted a Church not governed by bishops. In 1620 a group of them, the Pilgrim Fathers, left for America and founded New Plymouth.