Hybrid Learning Environments  in Higher Education:  Can Transformational Learning Outcomes  Be Achieved? Regina Henry Coho...
Quote <ul><li>“ The illiterate of the 21 st  century will not be those that can’t read and write but rather will be those ...
Research Purpose <ul><ul><li>To understand whether the hybrid instructional setting can empower students to achieve transf...
Research Questions <ul><li>How do adult students perceive the learning experiences in terms of student preparedness for th...
Significance of the Project <ul><li>Instructional design could empower adult learners to direct learning outcomes with pro...
Significance of the Project <ul><li>Student could engage in reflective practices to arrive at new understandings of how th...
Review of the Literature From Distant Learning to Hybrid Learning <ul><li>Kupczynski & Hooper (2006); Morabito (1999) </li...
<ul><li>Buzzetto-More & Sweat-Guy (2006) & Lindsay, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in discourse, reflective practic...
Review of the Literature Transformative Learning <ul><li>Mezirow (2000), King (2005), Cranton (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Review of the Literature Technology Supported Learning Environments <ul><li>Knowlton (n.d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance ...
Methodology   Population and Research Sample <ul><li>Christian university </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two groups </li></ul></ul>...
Methodology     Population <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>69% Caucasian </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Methodology Data Collection <ul><li>Convenience Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intact Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In...
Methodology Analytical Methods <ul><li>Nonparametric test Chi Square </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><u...
Limitations <ul><li>Time  </li></ul><ul><li>Variety in hybrid course designs </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in academic personn...
Research Question #1 Perception of adult learners preparation to use instructional tools <ul><li>Q3  I felt prepared to us...
Research Question #2 Requirements for students to direct their learning in a hybrid course <ul><li>Q6 I was equipped to di...
Research Question #3 Features of the hybrid instructional design <ul><ul><li>Q7  Instructional environment prepared me to ...
Research Question 4: Ways hybrid instructional delivery transform student learning? <ul><li>Survey Q2  ability to engage i...
Hybrid instructional delivery transform student learning 06/02/09
Qualitative Results <ul><li>Attitudes and Perceived learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liked most </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Course encourage dialogue, discussions, and reflections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Felt freer to...
Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Asked for more details on how students directed their own learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I...
Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Impact the course had on the lives of students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It was good to have a ...
DARE Model 06/02/09 Activate Direct Reflect Engage
Findings & Conclusions <ul><li>72% - Prepared to use learning tools. </li></ul><ul><li>78% -  Viewed learning climate diff...
Recommendations <ul><li>Examine data for significant differences between males and females  </li></ul><ul><li>Replication ...
Implications <ul><li>Academy explore ways to improve course design </li></ul><ul><li>Improve adult learning outcomes </li>...
<ul><li>Questions </li></ul>06/02/09
DIRECT 06/02/09
ACTIVATE 06/02/09
REFLECT 06/02/09
ENGAGE 06/02/09
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Tranformational Learning in Hybrid Instructional Environments

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Hybrid learning is an instructional method that can likely support students in attaining active engagement and learning transformations. Course designers can likely support learning transformations when the course is designed in a way to direct students to independently guide their own learning experience. Student learning outcomes are improved when students can apply the course content to real-world settings.

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Tranformational Learning in Hybrid Instructional Environments

  1. 1. Hybrid Learning Environments in Higher Education: Can Transformational Learning Outcomes Be Achieved? Regina Henry Cohort 8
  2. 2. Quote <ul><li>“ The illiterate of the 21 st century will not be those that can’t read and write but rather will be those that can’t learn, unlearn, and relearn.” </li></ul><ul><li>~Alvin Toffler </li></ul>06/02/09
  3. 3. Research Purpose <ul><ul><li>To understand whether the hybrid instructional setting can empower students to achieve transformational learning outcomes when the course is designed to encourage independent learning, social interactions, and revised meanings of how the content can be applied in the real-world. </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  4. 4. Research Questions <ul><li>How do adult students perceive the learning experiences in terms of student preparedness for the use of the learning tools? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the requirements needed to equip students to direct their learning experiences in a hybrid course? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the components and features of a hybrid instructional model? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does hybrid instructional delivery transform student learning? </li></ul>06/02/09
  5. 5. Significance of the Project <ul><li>Instructional design could empower adult learners to direct learning outcomes with proper supports from course facilitator. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners could examine course content and ideas of the instructor and peers to be guided to examine their world views. </li></ul>06/02/09
  6. 6. Significance of the Project <ul><li>Student could engage in reflective practices to arrive at new understandings of how the content can be applied in the real-world. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid instructional model could be developed to encourage students to explore current knowledge and purposefully engage in discussions that lead to transformational learning. </li></ul>06/02/09
  7. 7. Review of the Literature From Distant Learning to Hybrid Learning <ul><li>Kupczynski & Hooper (2006); Morabito (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1873, Illinois Wesleyan University offers distant degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1873, Female correspondences courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1881, Bible based correspondence courses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferies, n.d. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional design include fax, e-mail, audio, and video in 1970’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Garnham & Kaleta (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four University of Wisconsin-College campuses introduced hybrid instruction in 1999. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend of class seat time and internet based instruction </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  8. 8. <ul><li>Buzzetto-More & Sweat-Guy (2006) & Lindsay, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in discourse, reflective practices, and course satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Riffell and Sibley (2003 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ indicate design supports engagement and self-motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kritskaya and Dirkx (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning model more likely to support transformative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students explore content, examine and share beliefs, guided to new meaning schemes through dialogue and discussion. </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  9. 9. Review of the Literature Transformative Learning <ul><li>Mezirow (2000), King (2005), Cranton (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of beliefs, reflections, discourse, change in paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King, (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education designed within scope of the student’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mezirow & Associates (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner autonomy, disoriented dilemma, Self-assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of need for change, plan course for change; Implement </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  10. 10. Review of the Literature Technology Supported Learning Environments <ul><li>Knowlton (n.d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance student learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded resources, active role in learning, in depth discussions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Riffell & Sibley (2003), King (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Interaction and course satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More opportunities for everyone to participate, time for reflections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lin, Pluck, & Bichelmeyer (2003), Biggs (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ reported preference for hybrid learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased interaction, supported reflective practices, and self-directed learning </li></ul></ul></ul>06/02/09
  11. 11. Methodology Population and Research Sample <ul><li>Christian university </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second year doctoral students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31% Age: 30 – 39 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% Age: 40 – 49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% Age: 50 – 59 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Age: 20 – 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% Age: 30 – 39 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% Age: 40 – 49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Age: 50 – 59 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Age: 60 – 69 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31% Age: 30 – 39 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% Age: 40 – 49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% Age: 50 – 59 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Group B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Age: 20 – 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% Age: 30 – 39 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% Age: 40 – 49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Age: 50 – 59 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Age: 60 – 69 </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  12. 12. Methodology Population <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>69% Caucasian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% African American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% Caucasian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% African American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profession </li></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46% K-12 Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38% Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>08% Nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>08% Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% K-12 Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% Higher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27% Administration </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  13. 13. Methodology Data Collection <ul><li>Convenience Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intact Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Likert Scale Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 response choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive quantitative data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open-Ended Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-report experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data were synthesized and analyzed to expand on emerging trends </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  14. 14. Methodology Analytical Methods <ul><li>Nonparametric test Chi Square </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t tests </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone or Video Interview </li></ul>06/02/09
  15. 15. Limitations <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Variety in hybrid course designs </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in academic personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions changed </li></ul>06/02/09
  16. 16. Research Question #1 Perception of adult learners preparation to use instructional tools <ul><li>Q3 I felt prepared to use the learning tools </li></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t test </li></ul><ul><li>Group A (M = 2.83 , SD = .94 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group B ( M = 2.64 , SD = .84) </li></ul><ul><li>t (24) = .07, p <.001 </li></ul><ul><li>Q5 My learning was enhanced as a result of this instructional design </li></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t test </li></ul><ul><li>Group A (M = 2.83 , SD = .75 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group B ( M = 2.64 , SD = .68) </li></ul><ul><li>t (23) = -.63, p <.001 </li></ul>06/02/09 No Significant differences were found between the two groups .
  17. 17. Research Question #2 Requirements for students to direct their learning in a hybrid course <ul><li>Q6 I was equipped to direct my learning as a result of this course </li></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t test </li></ul><ul><li>Group A (M = 3.00 , SD = .95 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group B ( M = 3.00 , SD = .55) </li></ul><ul><li>t (24) = 1.00, p <.001 </li></ul><ul><li>Q1 As a result of the hybrid course I view learning experiences differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t test </li></ul><ul><li>Group A (M = 2.67 , SD = .89 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group B ( M = 3.07 , SD = .46) </li></ul><ul><li>t -value was t = 23 = -1.52. </li></ul>06/02/09 No Significant differences were found between the two groups.
  18. 18. Research Question #3 Features of the hybrid instructional design <ul><ul><li>Q7 Instructional environment prepared me to make meaningful connections to the course content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent samples t test </li></ul><ul><li>Group A (M = 2.83 , SD = .94 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Group B ( M = 3.14 , SD = .66) </li></ul><ul><li>No significant differences found between the two groups </li></ul><ul><li>t (24) = -.957, p <.001 </li></ul>06/02/09
  19. 19. Research Question 4: Ways hybrid instructional delivery transform student learning? <ul><li>Survey Q2 ability to engage in active dialogue and discussions with peers in a way that supported integration of real-world views in the hybrid setting </li></ul><ul><li>Q4 Learned new ways to apply my learning in my personal practice </li></ul><ul><li>Q8 Hybrid course encouraged reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Q9 Hybrid course encouraged reconstruction of knowledge </li></ul>06/02/09
  20. 20. Hybrid instructional delivery transform student learning 06/02/09
  21. 21. Qualitative Results <ul><li>Attitudes and Perceived learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liked most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to establish personal voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to reflect and guide learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provoked thought and ability to guide their learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liked Least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missed F2F contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training on technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for successful implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training on technology </li></ul></ul></ul>06/02/09
  22. 22. Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Course encourage dialogue, discussions, and reflections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Felt freer to discuss topics” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Topics challenged the existing paradigms of all students” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In the on-line setting you were given time to think and reflect, conversations are on-going” </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  23. 23. Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Asked for more details on how students directed their own learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I found myself digging deeper into ideas/issues that interested me so my learning seemed very personal.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Instead of passive learning in class and passive listening, engaged at every level of the course.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Disciplined to meet deadlines, paced self, set schedules to engage in chat sessions since meetings were not in class and participation was expected in chat sessions </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  24. 24. Follow-up Interviews <ul><li>Impact the course had on the lives of students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It was good to have a paradigm shift brought about by the exchange of ideas in the course.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Presented professional development on the course topic.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I figured out that I was wrong and I changed my way of thinking.” </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  25. 25. DARE Model 06/02/09 Activate Direct Reflect Engage
  26. 26. Findings & Conclusions <ul><li>72% - Prepared to use learning tools. </li></ul><ul><li>78% - Viewed learning climate differently </li></ul><ul><li>93% - Course encourage dialogue and discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77% - Design supported connections to course content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>83% - applied to personal practice </li></ul><ul><li>88% - Encouraged reflections and reconstruction of knowledge </li></ul>06/02/09
  27. 27. Recommendations <ul><li>Examine data for significant differences between males and females </li></ul><ul><li>Replication study to examine the framework </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of student discussion in course </li></ul>06/02/09
  28. 28. Implications <ul><li>Academy explore ways to improve course design </li></ul><ul><li>Improve adult learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-train students to use technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and establish remote support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan course design with careful thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine resources to appropriately challenge learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the instruction applicable to students life to support transformations. </li></ul></ul>06/02/09
  29. 29. <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>06/02/09
  30. 30. DIRECT 06/02/09
  31. 31. ACTIVATE 06/02/09
  32. 32. REFLECT 06/02/09
  33. 33. ENGAGE 06/02/09

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