presentation 02 ARNIS JUNIAR (TEKNIK ARSITEKTUR) MOSES MUDA (TEKNIK ELEKTRO) ADI SUPRIADI(TEKNIK ELEKTRO) HAZDIKA (TEKNIK SIPIL) TAUFIK MUNANDAR (TEKNIK SIPIL) DONY SAPUTRA(TEKNIK MESIN) M. THEO.MUNANDAR (TEKNIK ELEKTRO) our presentation
Speech 03Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: “ Im going to the cinema ", he said.
IN Speech 04 Indirect speech is also called as reported speech because it is used by a person to report someone’s speech in his/her own words. For example: He said he was going to the cinema.
Speech 06GRAMMAR GRANNY TELLS YOU THE RULES !!
07 WINTER Check the tense of the reporting verb todecide whether the corresponding tenses Templatewill change or not.When reporting speech, the tense usuallychanges. This is because when we usereported speech, we are usually talkingabout a time in the past (because obviouslythe person who spoke originally spoke in thepast). The verbs, therefore, usually have tobe in the past too.
08If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. Example: He says he is unwell.
09When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the Direct Speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses.
Direct speech Indirect speechPast simple Past perfectShe said, "I taught She said she had taughtonline yesterday.“ online yesterday.Past continuous Past perfectShe said, "I was continuousteaching earlier." She said she had beenPast perfect teaching earlier.She said, "The Past perfectlesson had already NO CHANGEstarted when hearrived."
Direct speech Indirect speechPast simple Past perfectShe said, "I taught She said she hadonline yesterday.“ taught onlinePast continuous yesterday.She said, "I was Past perfectteaching earlier." continuousPast perfect She said she hadShe said, "The lesson been teaching earlier.had already started Past perfectwhen he arrived." NO CHANGE
12 WINTER TemplateWords expressing nearness intime or place are generallychanged into words expressingdistance in case of both rule 2and rule 3.
Direct speech Indirect speechthis (evening) that (evening)today That daythese (days) those (days)now then(a week) ago (a week) beforelast weekend the previoushere weekend therenext (week) the following (week)tomorrow the next/following day
Questions 14 The Indirect Speech is introduced by verbs such as asked, enquired, questioned etc. When the question is not introduced by an interrogative word, the reporting verb is followed by whether or if.
14In reporting commands and requests, theIndirect Speech is introduced by someverb expressing command or request, andthe imperative mood is changed into theInfinitive.George told him, “Pay attention to what IHe told me, “wait for me !”say”.He told told tohim to pay attention to whatGeorge me wait for him.She told me, “don’t cheat anymore !”he said.She told me not to cheat anymore.