Learning, Games, and Gamification - with NOTES (Horizon Report Webinar)

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Slides and Script for a webinar presentation on Games and Gamification for the 2013 Horizon Report for Higher Education (read more here: http://www.nmc.org/publications/2013-horizon-report-higher-ed).

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Learning, Games, and Gamification - with NOTES (Horizon Report Webinar)

  1. 1. LEARNING GAMES GAMIFICATION Ryan Martinez John Martin UW-Madison Games + Learning + Society UW-Madison Academic TechnologyFriday, March 29, 13 1A webinar presentation on Games and Gamification for the 2013 Horizon Report for Higher Education(read more here: http://www.nmc.org/publications/2013-horizon-report-higher-ed).For more information, contact: Ryan Martinez <rmmartinez@gmail.com> or John Martin<regardingjohn@gmail.com>Hi, I’m John(and I’m Ryan)Just to give you an overview of our talk:Ryan will start on the macro level with Gamification with the goal of a general overview ofgamification, some examples, and directions of focus for educators(Then John will jump in and specifically focus on smaller examples and simpler strategies on how to getstarted with integrating games into curriculum.)
  2. 2. GAMIFICATIONFriday, March 29, 13 2Today we’re going to be talking about the impact of games and the concept of gamification from boththe Horizon Report and our own personal interactions with using both in education.Before we begin I would like that throughout the presentation that those who have great examples ofgamified environments that they either feel are great, or not so great, examples, to please post the URLsinto the chatbox. Hopefully we will be able to archive and provide a crowdsourced list at the end of thiswebinar. If you attended the most recent EDUCAUSE meeting in Denver, you’re probably familiar with the ideaof using badges, hence this slide. We’ll talk more about the idea of badges in a bit, but before that weshould probably hit on a definition of gamification.
  3. 3. THE BASICSFriday, March 29, 13 (Deterding, et al. 2011) 3So the relative basics of gamification, and what I believe would be one of the few things that both sides— the PRO camp with theorists such as Jane McGonigal, and the CON camp lead by Ian Bogost — canagree on, and as proposed by Sebastian Deterding is that gamification is the use of game designelements in non-game contexts. So choices that already have consequences get additional elementsworked in to either motivate or demotivate you —
  4. 4. Friday, March 29, 13 THE BASICS 4— eventually changing the way you look at situations and inevitably how you perceive your reality. Orat least modifying things that you already do and adding more incentive.
  5. 5. Friday, March 29, 13 5As I stated earlier, there is no shortage of both academics and school administrators looking discussingthe proper implementation of a gamified experience. These competitions and conferences are just ahandful, and the number increases every single year.Unfortunately, with the massive interest and implementation of gamified environments in learningenvironments, there are a lot of really bad examples. But I would like to show you an example of what Ifeel is a great direction for gamification on a wide scale.
  6. 6. Friday, March 29, 13 6This is the home page to a USC developed gamified environment called Reality Ends Here. Jeff Watson,Simon Wiscombe, Tracy Fullerton helped create this experiment in 2011. The concept was quite simple.
  7. 7. reality.usc.edu/aboutFriday, March 29, 13 7Students from the USC film school could go to the game office to pick up a pack of cards.Each deck was different, and had cards with different properties. Students were encouraged tocollaborate with others in their program to produce an artifact based on a combination of cards, and thensubmit their project to the main office to get points for completion.
  8. 8. reality.usc.edu/aboutFriday, March 29, 13 7Students from the USC film school could go to the game office to pick up a pack of cards.Each deck was different, and had cards with different properties. Students were encouraged tocollaborate with others in their program to produce an artifact based on a combination of cards, and thensubmit their project to the main office to get points for completion.
  9. 9. reality.usc.edu/aboutFriday, March 29, 13 7Students from the USC film school could go to the game office to pick up a pack of cards.Each deck was different, and had cards with different properties. Students were encouraged tocollaborate with others in their program to produce an artifact based on a combination of cards, and thensubmit their project to the main office to get points for completion.
  10. 10. reality.usc.edu/aboutFriday, March 29, 13 7Students from the USC film school could go to the game office to pick up a pack of cards.Each deck was different, and had cards with different properties. Students were encouraged tocollaborate with others in their program to produce an artifact based on a combination of cards, and thensubmit their project to the main office to get points for completion.
  11. 11. Friday, March 29, 13 8Here is an example of what the students received. The card on the left is an illustration; the card on theright gets into the game mechanics. The colors on the edges of the cards indicate which others cards youcan pair with. Blue has to go with blue, and so on. The numbers on the right corner are points you canearn depending on how you pair them.
  12. 12. Friday, March 29, 13 9This card configuration was made by a large group. All of these cards and their properties ended upbeing this extreme example.
  13. 13. Friday, March 29, 13 10There are many examples of products from Reality Ends Here; this photoshopped poster was theproduct of all those cards that you saw previously. Which brings me to another issue and what I feel is aprimary concern we educators face with gamification: what motivates players (students) to participatein gamified environments. Motivation or more specfically...
  14. 14. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONFriday, March 29, 13 11two types of motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation
  15. 15. INTRINSICFriday, March 29, 13 12To elaborate a bit more on how to differentiate these two types of motivation. Think of it this way. You,on the left, just took a picture of a child family member. The motivation for you to do that ...
  16. 16. INTRINSICFriday, March 29, 13 13... is happiness you feel inside. There may be no other real reward besides that it made you feel goodmaking the other person happy.
  17. 17. Friday, March 29, 13 14With extrinsic motivation you complete a task because you expect something in return. So If you see onthe slide this looks to be some a chart for a child’s work and behavior. If he or she makes the bed in themorning or reads a book they will receive a star. Five stars will give that person a reward. They’re notnecessarily compelled to do the work because they want to, it’s because they’re gonna get somethingcool for doing the crappy work.
  18. 18. DECI, ET AL. (1999)Friday, March 29, 13 15Edward Deci from the University of Rochester headed up a metaanalysis of 128 studies which dealtwith how extrinsic motivation affected intrinsic motivation. They found extrinsic motivation actuallyDECREASES free will intrinsic motivation. Meaning, those who accomplished goals didn’t do it somuch for their own growth and sense of accomplishment, but for rewards and achievements given byother people to denote an accomplishment took place.
  19. 19. DECI, ET AL. (1999) 128 StudiesFriday, March 29, 13 15Edward Deci from the University of Rochester headed up a metaanalysis of 128 studies which dealtwith how extrinsic motivation affected intrinsic motivation. They found extrinsic motivation actuallyDECREASES free will intrinsic motivation. Meaning, those who accomplished goals didn’t do it somuch for their own growth and sense of accomplishment, but for rewards and achievements given byother people to denote an accomplishment took place.
  20. 20. DECI, ET AL. (1999) 128 Studies Extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivationFriday, March 29, 13 15Edward Deci from the University of Rochester headed up a metaanalysis of 128 studies which dealtwith how extrinsic motivation affected intrinsic motivation. They found extrinsic motivation actuallyDECREASES free will intrinsic motivation. Meaning, those who accomplished goals didn’t do it somuch for their own growth and sense of accomplishment, but for rewards and achievements given byother people to denote an accomplishment took place.
  21. 21. DECI, ET AL. (1999) 128 Studies Extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation Rewards for tasks completed decreased free-will motivationFriday, March 29, 13 15Edward Deci from the University of Rochester headed up a metaanalysis of 128 studies which dealtwith how extrinsic motivation affected intrinsic motivation. They found extrinsic motivation actuallyDECREASES free will intrinsic motivation. Meaning, those who accomplished goals didn’t do it somuch for their own growth and sense of accomplishment, but for rewards and achievements given byother people to denote an accomplishment took place.
  22. 22. You have to find game design that resonates with what you are trying to do and brings out its essence; mental context. Business travellers (sic) care about status, but if you were at Toys R Us and the cashier announced you were now a ‘platinum level toy buyer’ you’d be embarrassed; pleasure is contextual. ~ Jesse Schell, 2011Friday, March 29, 13 16Assessment without purpose (in the eye of the user) is a large oppositional issues in gamification.Because of the talk Schell was invited back to debate social gaming/gamification with Zynga’s chiefgame developer Brian Reynolds. Schell did not discuss the definition of gamification so much as hewanted to go into greater detail about the concept of pleasure. Essentially that if you get pleasure out ofsomething, that is when you will do the action, play the game, etc. But what Schell gets andunfortunately a lot of game and educational game designers do not is that the pleasure is contextual. Ifwe really enjoy doing something it’s not necessarily for the extrinsic reward like what is offered as thecarrot in many gamified environments.(A lovely look at a Gamification Dystopia in Schell’s DICE talk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nka-_Mhp7f0)
  23. 23. Friday, March 29, 13 17There was an episode of Family Guy where he and Quagmire are at a party, Quagmire asks Peter if hewants play drink the beer, Peter obliges and drinks the beer asking what he wins. “Another beer!”responds Quagmire, and Peter responds “Oh I’m going for the high score”.This illustrates the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that Schell talks about. It’s the pleasure of drinkingthat really drives Peter ... he was going to play drink the beer anyway because it makes him happy.Same for the episode that parodies Willa Wonka when Peter is trying to find the golden ticket for a tourof the Pawtucket Patriot factory. He just really likes drinking.
  24. 24. More specifically, gamification is marketing bullshit, invented by consultants as a means to capture the wild, coveted beast that is videogames and to domesticate it for use in the grey, hopeless wasteland of big business, where bullshit already reigns anyway. ~ Ian Bogost, 2012Friday, March 29, 13 18Ian Bogost is a games researcher who strongly believes that gamification and the implementation of itup to this point is questionable. He thinks gamification is just a corporate ploy to attract more people totheir product with additional bells and whistles.He proposes that we use the term “exploitationware” as a more correct definition of what exactly theseapplications and games are doing in regard to our consumer and life choices.
  25. 25. Friday, March 29, 13 19As an example of this marketing, or games as propaganda, IDF Ranks, a game sponsored by the IsraeliDefense Force, is a social media project where players were rewarded through Facebook or Twitterwhen they redistributed news posted by the IDF to as they state ‘let the world know what’s really goingon in Israel’.
  26. 26. Friday, March 29, 13 20In IDF Ranks, when the user logs into their Facebook or Twitter account, their activity, their likes,shares, retweets and comments earn points that advance them through IDF ranks. Retweeting somethingfive times is a badge, ‘learning the truth about Hamas’ through the IDF earns a badge, as is learningmore about recent rocket attacks between Israel and Palestine.
  27. 27. Friday, March 29, 13 20In IDF Ranks, when the user logs into their Facebook or Twitter account, their activity, their likes,shares, retweets and comments earn points that advance them through IDF ranks. Retweeting somethingfive times is a badge, ‘learning the truth about Hamas’ through the IDF earns a badge, as is learningmore about recent rocket attacks between Israel and Palestine.
  28. 28. Friday, March 29, 13 20In IDF Ranks, when the user logs into their Facebook or Twitter account, their activity, their likes,shares, retweets and comments earn points that advance them through IDF ranks. Retweeting somethingfive times is a badge, ‘learning the truth about Hamas’ through the IDF earns a badge, as is learningmore about recent rocket attacks between Israel and Palestine.
  29. 29. Ultimately, the real reward of seeing friends more often and breaking outside your routine has nothing to do with virtual badges or social life points or online bragging rights. The real rewards are all the positive emotions you are feeling, like discovery and adventure; the new experiences you’re having...and the social connections you’re strengthening by being around people you like more often. Foursquare doesn’t replace these rewards. Instead, it draws your attention to them. ~ Jane McGonigal, 2011Friday, March 29, 13 21Jane McGonigal, on the other hand, would not deny some negative implementations of gamification, butoffers a much more positive spin to what Bogost proposes. Her feelings are that there are very powerfulmotivations in games that can be harnessed to improve the world.(Jane’s TED Talk about this is here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM)
  30. 30. Friday, March 29, 13 22McGonigal’s idea is to try to use games for the betterment. According to her she “believes that many ofus become the best version of ourselves” when we are in these game worlds. She and her group, theInstitute for the Future based on Palo Alto, have developed collaborate gamified environments withcooperation from the World Bank and other major groups. One of her newest games, Superbetter, wasdesigned for people to take proactive steps to a better lifestyle, being rewarded along the way.
  31. 31. Friday, March 29, 13 23But even though McGonigal’s view is very different from Bogost’s, she also acknowledges thedifficulties in gamifying environments where the player does not want to participate. The game willonly work, if you want to play.
  32. 32. http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=2251015Friday, March 29, 13 24That is the biggest problem with the early implementation of game layers to real world environments, isthat we have rushed to shoehorn in these types of play into our work and education.
  33. 33. http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=2251015Friday, March 29, 13 25A not-so-distant Garner report found that up to 80 percent of gamified environments will fail because ofpoor design. Whether that be people abusing the system or simply not caring enough to play are majorquestions, and just one of many reasons why while gamification is an interesting proposal to advancetraining and education, we cannot see it as a panacea.
  34. 34. Side effects of design Deterding, 2010Friday, March 29, 13 26Sebastian Deterding is a PhD researcher at the graduate school of the Research Center for Media andCommunication, Hamburg University.In his talk “Pawned: Gamification and its Discontents,” Deterding speaks of the perils of unintendedkinks in the gamification design. One example was a game sponsored by BMW to support their line offuel efficient cars. They challenged people to use as little fuel as possible and then record it for aleaderboard in their area. People were really taken with the challenge. Anyone know what happenswhen you stop at a red light? (PAUSE) What does idling do? (PAUSE) It uses gas. So what uses lessgas? (PAUSE) When you just keep going. So drivers starting practicing unsafe driving habits like notstopping at red lights in order to be the better, more efficient fuel driver.These are side effects of design and some of the perils of gamification according to deterding. Simplyslapping on game layers to real world environments does not make it better.
  35. 35. They are glorified report cards that turn games into work and life into play, and users into pawns rather than players ... What I’m saying is they’re not necessarily playful at the moment. Deterding, 2010Friday, March 29, 13 27
  36. 36. How might we preserve the point in being pointless? Deterding, 2010Friday, March 29, 13 28Both Schell, McGonigal, Bogost, and Deterding acknowledge that game spaces can be powerfulmotivators if not for playfulness, corporate advertising, or health and critical thinking. As such there isbubbling up another conversation
  37. 37. Friday, March 29, 13 29What steps and design techniques can we use in the near and distant future that will make our gamefullayers in work and school less like blue and gold stars.
  38. 38. Friday, March 29, 13 30And more like actual play?I’m going to turn things over to my colleague John Martin right now, but please feel free to postfollowup inquiries from my presentation in the chat box. I will answer the best I can in chat, or laterthrough my twitter feed, @ryanmmartinez. Thank you, and here is John...
  39. 39. GAMESFriday, March 29, 13 31“Thanks Ryan! So let’s downshift a bit from the larger topic of gamification to the smaller topic ofeasier places to start. I’d love to hear from you all, so please share your favorite examples of games thatteach (and what they teach, if it’s not evident in the title), or ideas that you might have that you’ve nottried; that someone else may have — let’s get a conversation going on the side...”Where Gamification is the process of adding game elements to an existing structure — and in education,we tend to think of that something as an entire course — we can also look to games to help teach thespecific content.For that matter, we can also start smaller by gamifying any single component in a course, whethercontent-focused or administrative focused. Or we can just include any already-created game in thecurriculum if it can address what we want it to; OR, if your students see a connection, even if we don’t!The top row are augmented reality games that John has been involved in creating. The second row isfrom game jams we’ve held as part of classes for high school and college students. The third row arescience games created by colleagues in GLS, and the last two rows are some of the games our friends atFilament games have been making.
  40. 40. WHERE TO START?Friday, March 29, 13 32Your students have a life outside the classroom, right? And in that life, many of them play video gamesthat cost millions of dollars and tens of thousands of hours to create. How can we compete with that?Well, it’s really hard.
  41. 41. Friday, March 29, 13 33There’s some success (relative success) by simply adding sound effects and badges and levels to whatyou’re already doing; some call this “chocolate-covered broccoli”. What many in the Games + Learning+ Society research group instead look at, is the learning that takes place in (and outside of)professionally-created games. The GLS conference — bringing together folks fromthe games industry,games scholars, and educators — is a good place to start, as there are sessions on all sorts of games andgamification topics.
  42. 42. Friday, March 29, 13 34Or, if you can’t come to Madison in June, but want more on videogames and learning sign up for theMOOC taught by GLS scholars Kurt and Constance. Ryan and I are doing instructional design for it. Itshould be good.But here’s the thing about MAKING educational video games — it’s hard and expensive to make goodones. So for the next few minutes let’s focus on first steps.
  43. 43. HINT: Systemize — think in game language http://gamingmatter.com/GM/Commentary/Entries/2013/1/10_Trying_out_a_Multi-player_Classroom.htmlFriday, March 29, 13 35First, start thinking about learning from the perspective of game players. My colleague Seann Dikkers,at the University of Ohio has been experimenting with bringing gaming elements into the curriculum.What he did was simply change the paradigm of the course structure from one where you start with an“A” and maintain it, to one where you start with nothing, and have to earn your way through levels.There’s more about it here: http://gamingmatter.com/GM/Commentary/Entries/2013/1/10_Trying_out_a_Multi-player_Classroom.html
  44. 44. HINT: Harness students — prompt peer interaction Side quests Easter Eggs • First to turn in a project early • First to organize a social event not related to course work • First to publish a project to a larger audience • First to achieve level 10 • First to authentically amaze me with • First to change or modify an awesomeness assignment for something far more difficult to complete. • First to gather & lead a group in class • First to make me laugh • First to be recruited to a group because they had a discrete skill needed • First to make the class laugh during meeting times • First to visit my office • Any/All submissions of course work • First to lead a class meeting online that to a conference or journal accepted wasn’t required for class for presentation • First to publicly praise another student • Any/All that knock a class leader off (or student work) as inspiring them to the leader board after week seven try something new.Friday, March 29, 13 36He also started to harness student-to-student interactions. Students are better at entertaining each otherthan you are; social interactions are far more rich and vibrant and emergent than anything you can writeinto your game. Instead of tightly controlling the game (and “cheating”), let things emerge.
  45. 45. HINT: Keep it “open” — let them play their game Acting Killers Achievers harrass, heckle, hack, win, challenge, create, cheat, taunt, tease compare, show offPlayer World give, express, comment, explore, view, rate, share, greet, like, tease curate, vote, review Socializers Explorers Interacting Bartle (1996) http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htmFriday, March 29, 13 37We’ve heard much about badges lately, and they seem to work for some people (Achievers), so it’s hardfor me to dismiss their potential. Personally, I am not very motivated by badges, etc. I like to play gamesthat let me play them my way (I’m an Explorer).So, if and when you build a game, be sure to create multiple ways to engage in it. If you make it asolitary task about collecting points or badges, you’ve alienated many of your players.
  46. 46. Title: Can Quantum- Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Journal: Physical Review Impact Factor: Times Cited: 5521 Article Age: 1935 Citations in article: 0 ATTACK: DEFENSE: INITIATIVE:Friday, March 29, 13 38Here’s a simple “Magic-style” game we’re developing to teach Science Literature research, where youbuild your deck with articles, using the Journal’s Impact Factor (among other things) to figure outvalues. Then you play them against other players’ articles. (this card is not complete)
  47. 47. HINT: Dip your broccoli — at least they’re eatingFriday, March 29, 13 39Here’s a shot and screenshot from a Sustainability game we just finished using ARIS. 120 studentswalked through six campus buildings to see and interact with sustainability themes. They had roles andgoals, and collected items, and were prompted to interact with each other — and it was alright. It wasn’ta fantastic game, BUT it was 1) PLAYFUL, and 2) it SITUATED THEM in an authentic environmentwith real issues, and 3) it got them thinking at a very low level about some of the issues. Mostimportantly, they had a group experience with all the themes of the class that the instructor can referback to as she covers them more in depth througout the semester.This one took several hundred TA hours to create a 2.5 hour game experience.(For more on ARIS, see http://arisgames.org/)
  48. 48. HINT: Dip your broccoli — (at least they’re eating)Friday, March 29, 13 40Here’s a similar one done last Fall in ARIS (arisgames.org) for a Folklore class, where 80 studentsgeotagged their campus with 1) a significant place; 2) a story (inteview); and 3) two examples of folkart (grafitti). That alone made it a wonderfully-emergent and personal game, but the social genius of itwas that the instructor had them visit two places that others had tagged, and comment on the Folklorethemes and class statuses that were tagged (e.g. what did freshmen tag vs seniors).Was it fun? sort of; it was more frustrating than fun due to technical difficulties of uploading video withbad cell covereage, but it WAS very engaging, and the engagement helped them get through thefrustration.This one took ~4 hours to create a 3-week game experience.
  49. 49. HINT: Start small — iterate on successesFriday, March 29, 13 41So start simple and slow! Start by making one week or theme, or one over-arching theme for thesemester into an extra-credit game or game-based assignment. Don’t make it voluntary, but make thestakes REALLY LOW!Build off the successes and expand to larger chunks.
  50. 50. HINT: Manage expectations — Set the bar low Consult the command: tome of wisdom! INVENTORY Tome of Wisdom Sword of GrammarFriday, March 29, 13 42If you shoot too high, be aware that your awesome game that you’ve spent 2 years and all your grantfunding to build WILL SUCK. I have personally built many terrible games that felt good to me. I waswrong because although, in and of themselves, instructor-created games may be wonderfullyeducational —
  51. 51. HINT: Manage expectations — Set the bar lowFriday, March 29, 13 43... relative to what your students are playing, the graphics are terrible, the worlds are tiny, the ways toplay them are limited, the algorithms are off, they look like educational games — and your students willjudge you harshly.
  52. 52. HINT: Have them lead — Set the bar lowFriday, March 29, 13 44Instead, have them make games. The games will actually be worse than yours (which will make you feelsmart!), but they’ll enjoy making them, they’ll engage in critical thinking by integrating courseconcepts, and they’ll enjoy sharing them with the other students — and it’s better than a final paper.
  53. 53. Friday, March 29, 13 45This “Chutes and Ladders” variation uses the TV show “The Wire” to start a discussion about Achievingthe American Dream. First of all, it raises the question of whether it’s all about luck by rolling a 6-sideddie to get to the top row. But then notice that when you get to the top row, you have to roll a 7 to win —there’s actually no way to win. The game is then over, but now the discussion really gets heated! — thisis a teacher’s dream!
  54. 54. Friday, March 29, 13 46At the K-12 level, Minecraft is being used to teach all sorts of things; it’s a creative, collaborative openenvironment that can be harnessed by higher education as well. See this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI0BN5AWOe8(How might this connect with Maker-bots? See this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klQ7bb8bBsQ)
  55. 55. DISCUSS?Friday, March 29, 13 47Speaking of discussion, we’re probably at a point where you may have some questions... so let’s end ithere.Other links:https://kerbalspaceprogram.com/ vs. Cool-It (video: http://engage.doit.wisc.edu/sims_games/roundtwo/application_videos/pfotenhauer.wmv )http://engage.doit.wisc.edu/games-showcase/cool-it.phphttp://engage.wisc.edu/games-showcase/

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