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Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)
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Understanding Activity (with The Little Red Hen)

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In this presentation, I explore the concept of Activity and CHAT (Cultural-Historical Activity Theory) in the context of The Little Red Hen, then apply it to my doctoral research to understand how an …

In this presentation, I explore the concept of Activity and CHAT (Cultural-Historical Activity Theory) in the context of The Little Red Hen, then apply it to my doctoral research to understand how an augmented reality game mediates the cultural models of campers at a traditional woods camp.

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  • 1. Understanding Activity John, looking really really tired.Using CHAT to understand how Theyre setting up some kind of base station here. Theres all sorts of radio gear. If you can get to one an augmented reality game of the nearby peaks, you might be able to intercept a transmission with your Communicator. Ill try tomediates the cultural models of program it to accept them from my end. Do not return to Craig Pond, orcampers at a traditional woods Great Pond mountain -- theyre swarming with Greenies. camp.With the Little Red Hen!
  • 2. Understanding Activity (Goal) Subject Object Process Outcome Feed self. "...the unit of analysis is an activity directed at an object, which motivates activity, giving it a specific direction. (p. 37)."Kaptelinin, V., and Nardi, B. (1997). Activity theory: Basic concepts and applications. In Proceedings of CHI 1997 Electronic Publications: Extended Abstracts, E. Francik and J. Larson, Eds.
  • 3. Activity Theory Subject Object Process Outcome Object: feed self > Activity: get food > Action: find an apple tree with apples > Operations: climb tree, pick apple, eat apple "Activities are composed of goal-directed actions that must be undertaken to fulfill the object. Actions are conscious, and different actions may be undertaken to meet the same goal. Actions are implemented through automatic operations" (p. 37).Kaptelinin, V., and Nardi, B. (1997). Activity theory: Basic concepts and applications. In Proceedings of CHI 1997 Electronic Publications: Extended Abstracts, E. Francik and J. Larson, Eds.
  • 4. Vygotskys Mediational Triangle Tools Subject Object Process Outcome "The first generation, centered around Vygotsky, created the idea of mediation. This idea was crystallized in Vygotsky’s (1978, p. 40) famous triangular model in which the conditioned direct connection between stimulus (S) and response (R) was transcended by ‘a complex, mediated act’ (Figure 1A). Vygotsky’s idea of cultural mediation of actions is commonly expressed as the triad of subject, object, and mediating artifact" (p. 134).Engeströ Y. (2001), ``Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical conception’’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 133-56. m,
  • 5. Sociocultural Activity Triangle Subject Object Process Community "The limitation of the first generation was that the unit of analysis remained individually focused. This was overcome by the second generation, centered around Leont’ev. In his famous example of ‘primeval collective hunt’ (Leont’ev, 1981, pp. 210– 213) Leont’ev explicated the crucial difference between an individual action and a collective activity" (p. 134).Engeströ Y. (2001), ``Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical conception’’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 133-56. m,
  • 6. Engeströms AT Triangle Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome Rules Community Division of Labor "The concept of activity took the paradigm a huge step forward in that it turned the focus on complex interrelations between the individual subject and his or her community" (p. 135).Engeströ Y. (2001), ``Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical conception’’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 133-56. m,
  • 7. Activity Theory and
  • 8. Activity Theory and The Little Red HenOne day as the Little Red Hen was scratching in a field, she found some grains of wheat."This wheat should be planted," she said. "Who will plant these grains of wheat?""Not I," honked the Goose. "Not I," meowed the Cat. "Not I," squealed the Pig."Then I will," said the Little Red Hen. And she did.Soon the wheat grew to be tall and yellow."The wheat is ripe," said the Little Red Hen. "Who will cut the wheat?""Not I," honked the Goose. "Not I," meowed the Cat. "Not I," squealed the Pig."Then I will," said the Little Red Hen. And she did.When the wheat was cut, the Little Red Hen said,"Who will thresh the wheat?""Not I," honked the Goose. "Not I," meowed the Cat. "Not I," squealed the Pig."Then I will," said the Little Red Hen. And she did.When the wheat was threshed, the Little Red Hen said,"Who will take this wheat to the mill?""Not I," honked the Goose. "Not I," meowed the Cat. "Not I," squealed the Pig."Then I will," said the Little Red Hen. And she did.She took the wheat to the mill and had it ground into flour.Then she said, "Who will make this flour into bread?""Not I," honked the Goose. "Not I," meowed the Cat. "Not I," squealed the Pig."Then I will," said the Little Red Hen. And she did.She made and baked the bread. Then she said, "Who will eat this bread?""Oh! I will," honked the Goose. "And I will," meowed the Cat. "And I will," squealed the Pig."No, No!" said the Little Red Hen. "I will do that with my chicks." And she did.Other versions: http://commonsenselogic.blogspot.com/2008/10/little-red-hen-obama-revision.html http://www.conceptualguerilla.com/?q=node/46
  • 9. Reds Activity System Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome feed chicks feed chicks Rules Community Division of Labor If you dont help, If you dont help, you dont eat; you dont eat; unless you unless you are a chick. are a chick. Object: feed chicks Activity: make bread Actions: find wheat, plant wheat, cut wheat, thresh wheat, take to mill, make bread, eat bread Operations: till, water, weed, carry, mix, bake, feed, ask for help, say no, etc.
  • 10. Cats Activity System Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome kill mice kill mice Rules Community Division of Labor Mice are fun to play Mice are fun to play with, and taste good with, and taste good too. too. Object: Eat mice Activity: catch mice Actions: find mice, mortally wound them, play with them, eat them Operations: avoid hen, say no, stalk mice, bite, swat, chew, etc.
  • 11. Pigs Activity System Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome eat eat Rules Community Division of Labor Eat whats provided Eat whats provided and squeal for more and squeal for more Object: eat Activity: eat Actions: squeal for food, eat, poop, stay cool Operations: till, water, weed, carry, mix, bake, feed, ask for help, say no, etc.
  • 12. Farmers Activity System Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome make money make money Rules Community Division of Labor Eat whats provided Eat whats provided and squeal for more and squeal for more Object: make money Activity: run a farm Actions: grow crops, raise livestock, keep vermin away, etc. Operations: plant grain to feed livestock, butcher, sell, etc.
  • 13. Examining activity Look for contradictions, tensions, conflicts, breakdowns Engestrom_2001_ExpansiveLearningEngeströ Y. (2001), ``Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical conception’’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 133-56. m,
  • 14. Overlapping activity Look for contradictions, tensions, conflicts, breakdowns Where to find? Where to find? Is overlapping activity (or "common object") Primary: within a component Primary: within a component farming? Secondary: between components Secondary: between components e rs oth d Tertiary: between activity systems Tertiary: between activity systems at an dC en g an H i e.g. between "making bread," "catching e, P e en s mice," "eating gruel," and "running a farm" oo tw .G . be e.g e. gEngeströ Y. (2001), ``Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical conception’’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 133-56. m,
  • 15. Dissertation Focus Instruments Subject Object Process Outcome Rules Community Division of LaborChapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: Research SummaryChapter 3: The Cultural Models of FMLChapter 4: ARGH and FMLs Cultural ModelsChapter 5: ARGH and IdentityChapter 6: ARGH and Motivation
  • 16. Chapter 3: The Cultural Models of FML Gear = Traditional Models Camper Camper "Go camping" Trip "Go camping" "Mooser" "Mooser" Cultural Cultural Flying Moose Flying Moose Communitarianism Communitarianism Models Models Chapter 3 (Cultural Models of FML) uses the Activity Theory concept of Historicity to consider the continuity and breakdown of cultural models at a traditional New England camp for boys between 1921-2008, and raises questions on how and why the cultural models have evolved. Interviews and identity artifacts of recent campers are compared with historical camp artifacts in order to better understand how the cultural models have developed.Engeström, Y. (2001) "Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization," Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), pp. 133-156.
  • 17. Activity at Flying Moose "Big A" Activity = TripsTrips are the very heart of Flying Moose, and I doubt if any other camp has a tripprogram that exactly duplicates ours. The program revolves around what I call TheMagic Formula. Stated in its briefest terms, The Magic Formula provides that every boygo on a four day camping trip every week he is at Flying Moose. Actions = skill developmentAs soon as the camp gathers each summer, we carefully look the group over. We notethe growth that has taken place in the returning campers; and likewise we try to find outwhat skills and abilities the new campers bring with them, and we work hard thoseopening days on canoeing skills, axe work, swimming, first aid, and woods safety.While we are in the process of working on those skills, we can not help but notice whichcampers get along best with which other campers. They are forming groups, and we areforming groups; and those groups will eventually be the groups of the first weeks trips.
  • 18. The "big A" Activity of Flying Moose Gear = Traditional Models Camper Camper "Go camping" Trip "Go camping" "Mooser" "Mooser" Cultural Cultural Flying Moose Flying Moose Communitarianism Communitarianism Models Models
  • 19. Chapters 4-6: ARGH Mediation Small "a" activity of an Augmented Reality Mystery Trip Instruments Instruments Subject Subject Object Object Outcome OutcomeRulesRules Division of Labor Division of Labor Community Community
  • 20. Chapter 4: ARGH and Motivation GPS GPS = Traditional Models = Introduced with ARGH Roles "Save Camp!" Trips "Mooser" Game Game Flying Moose Flying Moose Communitarianism Communitarianism Narrative NarrativeChapter 4 (ARGH and Motivation) focuses on how the narrative of TheMystery Trip mediated the object-oriented actions of the traditional trip andthus significantly changed the structure of the Activity System. Theaddition of fantasy narrative transformed the motivating Object from hikingto gameplay. This encouraged campers to ‘work playfully’ on a hiking tripand fostered deeper connections to the communities and cultures. TheGPS hardware also played a significant part in closely tying the hike to acultural narrative that was meaningful to the participants.
  • 21. Chapter 5: ARGH and Identity GPS = Traditional Models = Introduced with ARGH Camper vs Roles Camper vs Roles 0 0 "Save Camp!" Trip "Save Camp!" "Mooser" "Mooser" Game Game Flying Moose Flying Moose Communitarianism Communitarianism Narrative NarrativeChapter 5 (ARGH and Identity) examines how the The Mystery Tripreframed a hiking activity for participants by providing roles or identities forthem to play. These roles helped enrich participants’ level of interactionwith place. It encouraged and fortified participants collaboration andconnection to each other within teams, and placed those teams within adeeper community context of the rest of the camp, and it further situatedthe camping trip and trip group within a historical understanding of itsculture of place.
  • 22. Chapter 6: ARGH and FMLs Cultural Models vs Map, Compass, Trailsvs GPS = Traditional Models Map, Compass, Trails GPS = Introduced with ARGH "Go camping" "Go camping" vs Camper vs Roles Camper vs Roles vs Trip "Mooser" "Save camp!" "Save camp!"Cultural vs GameCultural vs Game Flying Moose Flying Moose Squads, Trip roles Squads, Trip rolesModels Narrative Models Narrative Chapter 6 (ARGH and FMLs Cultural Models) builds off of chapters 3 through 5 in considering the tensions and contradictions between the activity of the Mystery Trip (with GPS technology) and traditional cultural models of Flying Moose Lodge.
  • 23. Focus of Chapters

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