Autism task force in California has been addressing autism policy and politics, who gets treated, and how…Latinos are diagnosed later and less 6x less likely to receive evidence-based services.
Blacher, palm desert keynote, 2 16-13
UCR Graduate School of Education Lecture Series, UCR Palm Desert1 in 88: Autism in your community and why you should care Jan Blacher, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor Graduate School of Education SEARCHFamily Autism Resource Center University of California, Riverside
Why you should care: There is a pervasive impact of ASD• On educational …all teachers need to learn about autism; all schools need to provide appropriate programs.• On the family ….affects parents & parenting; siblings; extended families.• On society …autism is everywhere; more and more families are affected.• It’s an economic issue…the economic costs of NOT providing early, appropriate treatment and education are far greater than funding early intervention programs.
Autism in the News…..There is an endless supply of magazinearticles, journals, newspaper stories, self-helpbooks, parenting books, and celebrity endorsementsabout autism.
Library of CongressSearch on Autism: 2035 results
Autism in the News 2012………Car Pollution linked to Autism : (Volk, H. 2012 (My Health News Daily) Infant cries help identify autism in infants? (Stephen Sheinkopf of Brown Alpert Medical Schools Women & Infants Hospital in Providence, R.I.; Autism Research 10-2012)
Autism in the News 2012………“Differences in white matter fiber tract development presentfrom 6 to 24 months in infants with Autism.”(Wolff, J.J., Gerig, G. et al. (2012) American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 589-600)A Blood Test for Autism?(By Laura Blue -Time, 2012)
Outline for Tonight• What is autism? Defining Autism• Is it really increasing? Autism by the numbers• What causes autism? Causality• What are we researching? – Impact of Autism on the Family – Schooling: Student-Teacher-Relationships
Disability Disability Percent Change from 2000-2011 Percentage ChangeAutism + 407%(14k– 71.8k)Other Health Impairment +190%(21k -- 61.8k)Emotional Disability +18%(22.3k -- 26.0k)Intellectual Disability +5% (40.7k -- 43.3k)Speech and Language -7%(165.5k -- 164.6k)Specific Learning Disability -17%(349k -- 278.7k)Data from California Department ofEducation – classification of Special Education students by qualifyingcondition-report databases from 2000 to 2011
Ethnicity and Autism in California 34,656 receiving regional center and developmental center services 40.1% White 27.7% Hispanic/ Latino 8.4% Black/ African American 9.1 % Asian/ Pacific Islander .2% American Indian 10.6% Other Autism Spectrum Disorders, Changes in the California Caseload, DDS (2007)
Characteristics of Autism:Cross-Cultural AspectsCONSIDER THIS:To date, we know that autism is an equal- opportunity disorder…(Blacher, 2012)About half of the over 25,000 children in California under age 5 who have autism are Latino….(Zarembro, 2012)Latino children are diagnosed later than Anglo children, often receiving services too little and too late…( Blacher, 2009)
What about a cure?? Cord Blood Miracle Mineral Solution Oxytocin GFCF Diet Hyperbaric Chamber Vaccine eliminationAntifungals Chelation
• Currently there is no “cure” for Autism.• Research-based interventions help individuals with autism function more effectively in their daily activities.• The earlier a child begins intervention the better the developmental outcome. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html
Impact of Autism on Families Autism is part of my child, it’s not everything he is. My child is more than just a diagnosis.S.L.Coelho, The World According to August – One Good Friend
Child Behavior Problems by Diagnosis Group and Age 65CBCL total behavior problems T-score 60 Autism 55 Undifferentiated delays Typically- developing 50 45 age 3 age 4 age 5 Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2005). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.
Mother’s Stress Score by Child Diagnosis Group and Age 30 26FIQ negative impact Autism 22 Undifferentiated delays 18 Typically- developing 14 10 age 3 age 4 age 5 Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., &Blacher, J. (2005). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.
CBCL Total Behavior Problems, by IQ score: Youth with No ASD 70 No ASDTotal Behavior Problems T Score 65 60 55 No ASD 50 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 45 40 IQ < 70 IQ 70-85 IQ 86-100 IQ 101-115 IQ 116+
CBCL Total Behavior Problems, by IQ score: Youth with ASD vs. No ASD 70Total Behavior Problems T Score 65 60 55 ASD No ASD 50 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 45 40 IQ < 70 IQ 70-85 IQ 86-100 IQ 101-115 IQ 116+ Aut vs. No Aut: F = 37.74, p <.001. Aut X IQ interaction: F = 3.86, p = .005 Blacher, J. & Baker, B. L. (2013).
CBCL ADHD Scale by IQ score: Youth with ASD vs. No ASD 10 9 8 CBCL ADHD Scale Sum Score 7 6 5 ASD 4 No ASD 3 2 1 0 IQ < 70 IQ 70-85 IQ 86-100 IQ 101-115 IQ 116+Aut vs. No Aut: F = 35.12, p <.001. IQ: F=2.41, p = .05; Aut X IQ interaction: F = 2.84, p = .03 Blacher, J. & Baker, B. L. (2013).
Negative Impact of Youth on the Family with co-morbid ADHD 35 30Negative Impact on Family 25 20 No ADHD 15 ADHD 10 5 0 TD ID ASD Highly significant and independent effects of status and ADHD Blacher, J. & Baker, B. L. (2013).
Impact on SchoolingIt’s no longer a question of WHETHER a public school teacher will encounter a child with autism…. It’s a question of WHEN
What do you remember most about your earliest relationships with your teachers?“We didn’t get along; my desk was in the coatroommost of the year!”“I was in love with my kindergarten teacher.”“I didn’t know my letters and Mrs. Fletcher made mefeel bad about myself.”“My first grade teacher was very pretty; that was theonly year my father went to PTA meetings!”“Kindergarten made me love school.”
The Transition to School as a Crucial Developmental PeriodKindergarten places new demands on children’s academic skills, social skills, behavior, and self-regulationNearly half (48%) of children were found to be under- prepared for kindergartenTypes of behaviors lacking: following directions, working independently, working in groups, communicatingTeachers of children with ID may also be more stressed and engage in more behavior struggles
Student Teacher Relationship Score at Age 6Pianta, R. C. (2001). The Student–Teacher Relationship Scale. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Conflict DD > TD Dependency DD > TD Closeness TD > DD Total score p< .001 Eisenhower, A. B., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2007).
Student-teacher relationship total score, by status groupStudent Teacher Relationship Total Child age in years Blacher, J., Baker, B. L., & Eisenhower, A. S. (2010). Status F = 10.73 p = .001 American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Time F = 0.06 ns Disabilities S x T F = 0.03 ns
Student Teacher Relationship Score at Age 6STRsare lower when children have Developmental DelaysHOWEVER – this is not because of the cognitive/IQ delayChildren with DD have higher Behavior Problems and lowerSocial Skills than children with TD -- and it is these domains thataffect the STRS.STRS Conflict is predicted by child Behavior ProblemsSTRS Closeness is predicted by child Social SkillsWhen these are considered, cognitive delay does not matter
Distribution of STRS total scores for the three groups
Ongoing Study at SEARCH… Do You Have a Child with Autism? • The SEARCH family autism resource center at UC Riverside (UCR) is looking forSuccessful Transition in the Early School children with autism to participate in a Years for Children with Autism research studyYour child may be eligible if he/she• Is between the ages of 4-7 • Funded by the Institute for Educational• Is diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorder Sciences, R324A110086Participation involves• Questionnaires, interviews, and gold standard • Dr. Jan Blacher, Principal psychological assessments (including ADOS and ADI-R) Investigator, Graduate School of Education• 3 visits to UCR over 18 months UC Riverside, IRB approval #HS 11-010• Parents and teachersParticipants Receive• $150.00 for three collection points• Assessment report at first visit For more information call SEARCH:951-827-3849• Parent-child DVD at second visit• Developmental summary at third visit
Conclusions: Why should you care?1** From 1990 to 2006, autism increased 600-700% in California. * That means that you will all encounter someone on the spectrum at some point – maybe even someone in your family.2** Appropriate, early, intensive behavioral intervention can reduce life-long dependency on families and society in about 50% of children on the spectrum. *
Conclusions: Why should you care?3** The lifelong cost of autism to society, estimated even 10 years ago, was 3.1 million per person. Just the 25,000 Latino children under age 5 in California could potentially cost 77.5 million dollar4** There are economic savings for all of us. Up to 50% of children on the autism spectrum can potentially attend regular classes in public schools, become college educated – maybe even at UCR --, get a job and pay taxes. Hertz-Picciotto I., Delwiche L. (2009). The continuing rise in autism and the role of age at diagnosis. Epidemiology 20(1):84-90.
The SEARCH TeamDoctoral Student Fellows: Coordinators: – Lauren Berkovits Barbara Caplan, UCLA – Erin Knight Naomi Rodas, UCR – Regan Linn Josh Wilson, UMass-Boston – Amanda McClure * – Marina Murphy – Leigh Ann Tipton Collaborators: – Sasha Zeedyk Abbey Eisenhower, Ph.D., UMass-Post-Doctoral Fellow: Boston Liz Laugeson, Psy.D., UCLA-The – Shana Cohen, Ph.D. Help Group Autism Research Alliance
Thanks to our private donors, funders, sponsors National Institute of Health (HD34879-1459) Institute for Education Sciences (R324A110086) UCRiverside Graduate School of Education, Vernon-Eady Funds SEARCH Family Autism Resource Center First 5 of Riverside & San Bernardino The Help Group-UCLA Autism Research Alliance
Contact Information for SEARCHWebsite: http://searchcenter.ucr.edu/Facebook:Dr. Jan BlacherGraduate School of Education951.firstname.lastname@example.org