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  • 1. Personality, academic qualification, intelligence, hardwork, teamwork Which selection criteria identified in the case do you feel is the most important? Which selection criteria identified in the case do you feel is the least important?
  • 2. Intelligence Is Overrated: What You Really Need To Succeed 261 comments, 226 called-out Comment Now Follow Comments Albert Einstein’s was estimated at 160, Madonna’s is 140, and John F. Kennedy’s was only 119, but as it turns out, your IQ score pales in comparison with your EQ, MQ, and BQ scores when it comes to predicting your success and professional achievement. IQ tests are used as an indicator of logical reasoning ability and technical intelligence. A high IQ is often a prerequisite for rising to the top ranks of business today. It is necessary, but it is not adequate to predict executive competence and corporate success. By itself, a high IQ does not guarantee that you will stand out and rise above everyone else. Research carried out by the Carnegie Institute of Technology shows that 85 percent of your financial success is due to skills in ―human engineering,‖ your personality and ability to communicate, negotiate, and lead. Shockingly, only 15 percent is due to technical knowledge. Additionally, Nobel Prize winning Israeli-American psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, found that people would rather do business with a person they like and trust rather than someone they don’t, even if the likeable person is offering a lower quality product or service at a higher price. With this in mind, instead of exclusively focusing on your conventional intelligence quotient, you should make an investment in strengthening your EQ (Emotional Intelligence), MQ (Moral Intelligence), and BQ (Body Intelligence). These concepts may be elusive and difficult to measure, but their significance is far greater than IQ. 13 images Photos: World's Most Famous Introverts
  • 3. The Five Personalities of Innovators: Which One Are You? Sniderman Forbes Staff Brenna Top Executive Recruiters Agree There Are Only Three True Job Interview Questions George Bradt Contributor Facebook Can Tell You If A Person Is Worth Hiring Kashmir Hill Forbes Staff Emotional Intelligence EQ is the most well known of the three, and in brief it is about: being aware of your own feelings and those of others, regulating these feelings in yourself and others, using emotions that are appropriate to the situation, self-motivation, and building relationships. Top Tip for Improvement: First, become aware of your inner dialogue. It helps to keep a journal of what thoughts fill your mind during the day. Stress can be a huge killer of emotional intelligence, so you also need to develop healthy coping techniques that can effectively and quickly reduce stress in a volatile situation.
  • 4. Moral Intelligence MQ directly follows EQ as it deals with your integrity, responsibility, sympathy, and forgiveness. The way you treat yourself is the way other people will treat you. Keeping commitments, maintaining your integrity, and being honest are crucial to moral intelligence. Top Tip for Improvement: Make fewer excuses and take responsibility for your actions. Avoid little white lies. Show sympathy and communicate respect to others. Practice acceptance and show tolerance of other people’s shortcomings. Forgiveness is not just about how we relate to others; it’s also how you relate to and feel about yourself. Body Intelligence Lastly, there is your BQ, or body intelligence, which reflects what you know about your body, how you feel about it, and take care of it. Your body is constantly telling you things; are you listening to the signals or ignoring them? Are you eating energy-giving or energy-draining foods on a daily basis? Are you getting enough rest? Do you exercise and take care of your body? It may seem like these matters are unrelated to business performance, but your body intelligence absolutely affects your work because it largely determines your feelings, thoughts, selfconfidence, state of mind, and energy level. Top Tip For Improvement: At least once a day, listen to the messages your body is sending you about your health. Actively monitor these signals instead of going on autopilot. Good nutrition, regular exercise, and adequate rest are all key aspects of having a high BQ. Monitoring your weight, practicing moderation with alcohol, and making sure you have down time can dramatically benefit the functioning of your brain and the way you perform at work. What You Really Need To Succeed It doesn’t matter if you did not receive the best academic training from a top university. A person with less education who has fully developed their EQ, MQ, and BQ can be far more successful than a person with an impressive education who falls short in these other categories. Yes, it is certainly good to be an intelligent, rational thinker and have a high IQ; this is an important asset. But you must realize that it is not enough. Your IQ will help you personally, but EQ, MQ, and BQ will benefit everyone around you as well. If you can master the complexities of these unique and often under-rated forms of intelligence, research tells us you will achieve greater success and be regarded as more professionally competent and capable. If personality is stable, does this mean that it does not change? You probably remember how you have changed and evolved as a result of your own life experiences, parenting style and attention you have received in early childhood, successes and failures you experienced over the
  • 5. course of your life, and other life events. In fact, personality does change over long periods of time. For example, we tend to become more socially dominant, more conscientious (organized and dependable), and more emotionally stable between the ages of 20 and 40, whereas openness to new experiences tends to decline as we age.[31] In other words, even though we treat personality as relatively stable, change occurs. Moreover, even in childhood, our personality matters, and it has lasting consequences for us. For example, studies show that part of our career success and job satisfaction later in life can be explained by our childhood personality.[32] Is our behavior in organizations dependent on our personality? To some extent, yes, and to some extent, no. While we will discuss the effects of personality for employee behavior, you must remember that the relationships we describe are modest correlations. For example, having a sociable and outgoing personality may encourage people to seek friends and prefer social situations. This does not mean that their personality will immediately affect their work behavior. At work, we have a job to do and a role to perform. Therefore, our behavior may be more strongly affected by what is expected of us, as opposed to how we want to behave. Especially in jobs that involve a lot of autonomy, or freedom, personality tends to exert a strong influence on work behavior,[33]something to consider when engaging in Organizing activities such as job design or enrichment. Big Five Personality Traits How many personality traits are there? How do we even know? In every language, there are many words describing a person’s personality. In fact, in the English language, more than 15,000 words describing personality have been identified. When researchers analyzed the traits describing personality characteristics, they realized that many different words were actually pointing to a single dimension of personality. When these words were grouped, five dimensions seemed to emerge, and these explain much of the variation in our personalities.[34] These five are not necessarily the only traits out there. There are other, specific traits that represent other dimensions not captured by the Big Five. Still, understanding them gives us a good start for describing personality. Figure 2.4. The Big Five Personality Traits
  • 6. As you can see, the Big Five dimensions are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Neuroticism—if you put the initials together, you get the acronym OCEAN. Everyone has some degree of each of these traits; it is the unique configuration of how high a person rates on some traits and how low on others that produces the individual quality we call personality. Openness is the degree to which a person is curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas. People high in openness seem to thrive in situations that require flexibility and learning new things. They are highly motivated to learn new skills, and they do well in training settings.[35] They also have an advantage when they enter into a new organization. Their openmindedness leads them to seek a lot of information and feedback about how they are doing and to build relationships, which leads to quicker adjustment to the new job.[36] When given support, they tend to be creative.[37] Open people are highly adaptable to change, and teams that experience unforeseen changes in their tasks do well if they are populated with people high in openness.[38] Compared with people low in openness, they are also more likely to start their own business.[39] The potential downside is that they may also be prone to becoming more easily bored or impatient with routine. Conscientiousness refers to the degree to which a person is organized, systematic, punctual, achievement-oriented, and dependable. Conscientiousness is the one personality trait that uniformly predicts how high a person’s performance will be across a variety of occupations and jobs.[40] In fact, conscientiousness is the trait most desired by recruiters, and highly conscientious applicants tend to succeed in interviews.[41] Once they are hired, conscientious people not only tend to perform well, but they also have higher levels of motivation to perform, lower levels of turnover, lower levels of absenteeism, and higher levels of safety performance at work.[42] One’s conscientiousness is related to career success and career satisfaction over time.[43] Finally, it seems that conscientiousness is a valuable trait for entrepreneurs. Highly conscientious people are more likely to start their own business compared with those who are not conscientious, and their firms have longer survival rates.[44] A potential downside is that highly conscientious individuals can be detail-oriented rather than seeing the big picture.
  • 7. Figure 2.5. Studies show that there is a relationship between being extraverted and effectiveness as a salesperson. Extraversion is the degree to which a person is outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoys socializing. One of the established findings is that they tend to be effective in jobs involving sales.[45] Moreover, they tend to be effective as managers and they demonstrate inspirational leadership behaviors.[46] extraverts do well in social situations, and, as a result, they tend to be effective in job interviews. Part of this success comes from preparation, as they are likely to use their social network to prepare for the interview.[47] extraverts have an easier time than introverts do when adjusting to a new job. They actively seek information and feedback and build effective
  • 8. relationships, which helps them adjust.[48] Interestingly, extraverts are also found to be happier at work, which may be because of the relationships they build with the people around them and their easier adjustment to a new job.[49] However, they do not necessarily perform well in all jobs; jobs depriving them of social interaction may be a poor fit. Moreover, they are not necessarily model employees. For example, they tend to have higher levels of absenteeism at work, potentially because they may miss work to hang out with or attend to the needs of their friends.[50] Agreeableness is the degree to which a person is affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm. In other words, people who are high in agreeableness are likeable people who get along with others. Not surprisingly, agreeable people help others at work consistently; this helping behavior does not depend on their good mood.[51] They are also less likely to retaliate when other people treat them unfairly.[52] This may reflect their ability to show empathy and to give people the benefit of the doubt. Agreeable people may be a valuable addition to their teams and may be effective leaders because they create a fair environment when they are in leadership positions.[53] At the other end of the spectrum, people low in agreeableness are less likely to show these positive behaviors. Moreover, people who are disagreeable are shown to quit their jobs unexpectedly, perhaps in response to a conflict with a boss or a peer.[54] If agreeable people are so nice, does this mean that we should only look for agreeable people when hiring? You might expect some jobs to require a low level of agreeableness. Think about it: When hiring a lawyer, would you prefer a kind and gentle person or someone who can stand up to an opponent? People high in agreeableness are also less likely to engage in constructive and change-oriented communication.[55] Disagreeing with the status quo may create conflict, and agreeable people may avoid creating such conflict, missing an opportunity for constructive change. Neuroticism refers to the degree to which a person is anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody. It is perhaps the only Big Five dimension where scoring high is undesirable. Neurotic people have a tendency to have emotional adjustment problems and habitually experience stress and depression. People very high in Neuroticism experience a number of problems at work. For example, they have trouble forming and maintaining relationships and are less likely to be someone people go to for advice and friendship.[56] They tend to be habitually unhappy in their jobs and report high intentions to leave, but they do not necessarily actually leave their jobs.[57] Being high in Neuroticism seems to be harmful to one’s career, as these employees have lower levels of career success (measured with income and occupational status achieved in one’s career). Finally, if they achieve managerial jobs, they tend to create an unfair climate at work.[58] In contrast, people who are low on Neuroticism—those who have a positive affective disposition—tend to experience positive moods more often than negative moods. They tend to be more satisfied with their jobs and more committed to their companies.[59] This is not surprising, as people who habitually see the glass as half full will notice the good things in their work environment while those with the opposite character will find more things to complain about. Whether these people are more successful in finding jobs and companies that will make them happy, build better relationships at work that increase their satisfaction and commitment, or simply see their environment as more positive, it seems that low Neuroticism is a strong advantage in the workplace.
  • 9. Teamwork From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Teamwork is "work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole" .[1] In a business setting accounting techniques may be used to provide financial measures of the benefits of teamwork which are useful for justifying the concept.[2] Teamwork is increasingly advocated by health care policy makers as a means of assuring quality and safety in the delivery of services; a committee of the Institute of Medicine recommended in 2000 that patient safety programs "establish interdisciplinary team training programs for providers that incorporate proven methods of team training, such as simulation."[3] In health care, a systematic concept analysis in 2008 concluded teamwork to be "a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care."[4] Elsewhere teamwork is defined as "those behaviours that facilitate effective team member interaction," with "team" defined as "a group of two or more individuals who perform some work related task, interact with one another dynamically, have a shared past, have a foreseeable shared future, and share a common fate."[5] Another definition for teamwork proposed in 2008 is "the interdependent components of performance required to effectively coordinate the performance of multiple individuals"; as such, teamwork is "nested within" the broader concept of team performance which also includes individual-level taskwork.[6] A 2012 review of the academic literature found that the word "teamwork" has been used "as a catchall to refer to a number of behavioral processes and emergent states."[7] Contents 1 Teamwork processes 2 Training to improve teamwork 3 Benefits of Teamwork o 3.1 Things to Avoid 4 References 5 Further reading Teamwork processes Researchers have identified 10 teamwork processes that fall into three categories:[8][9] Transition processes (between periods of action)
  • 10. o o o Mission analysis Goal specification Strategy formulation Action processes (when the team attempts to accomplish its goals and objectives) o Monitoring progress toward goals o Systems monitoring o Team monitoring and backup behavior o Coordination Interpersonal processes (present in both action periods and transition periods) o Conflict management o Motivation and confidence building o Affect management Researchers have confirmed that performing teamwork works better when you are with a close person.[citation needed] This is due to a chemical called serotonin( 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) which helps an individual to communicate better and think more positively which. Serotonin is produced when an individual is in a situation where he/she is in comfortable environment. Sometime it just doesn't workWhat does this mean? Training to improve teamwork As in a 2008 review, "team training promotes teamwork and enhances team performance."[6] In specific, a 2008 meta-analysis of 45 published and unpublished studies concluded that team training is "useful for improving cognitive outcomes, affective outcomes, teamwork processes, and performance outcomes." 0h DiazGranados, Cameron Klein, C. Shawn Burke, Kevin C. Stagl, Gerald F. Goodwin, and Stanley M. Halpin.[10] Benefits of Teamwork Problems solving: A single brain can’t bounce different ideas off of each other. Each team member has a responsibility to contribute equally and offer their unique perspective on a problem to arrive at the best possible solution. Teamwork can lead to better decisions, products, or services. The quality of teamwork may be measured by analyzing the following six components of collaboration among team members: communication, coordination, balance of member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion.[11] In one study, teamwork quality as measured in this manner correlated with team performance in the areas of effectiveness (i.e., producing high quality work) and efficiency (i.e., meeting schedules and budgets).[11] A 2008 meta-analysis also found a relationship between teamwork and team effectiveness.[9] Accomplish tasks faster: A single person taking on multiple tasks will not be able to perform at a same pace as a team can. When people work together they can complete tasks faster by dividing the work to people of different abilities and knowledge. Healthy competition: A healthy competition in groups can be used to motivate individuals and help the team excel. Developing Relationships: A team that continues to work together will eventually develop an increased level of bonding. This can help people avoid unnecessary conflicts since they have become well acquainted with each other through team work. Team members’ ratings of their satisfaction with a team is correlated with the level of teamwork processes present.[9]
  • 11. Everyone has unique qualities: Every team member can offer their unique knowledge and ability to help improve other team members. Through teamwork the sharing of these qualities will allow team members to be more productive in the future. In healthcare: teamwork is associated with increased patient safety.[12] Things to Avoid Teamwork may have an "unintended effect of fermenting hostility toward the managerial goal of making the teams fully self-managing."[2] In one case study of a clothing manufacturer, a switch from production line work (with bonuses given for individual performance) to teamwork (in which an individual's earnings depended on team performance) caused workers to resent having to monitor each other.[2] There is a potential of "social loafing" (i.e., an individual's doing less work in a team than what he/she would normally do working individually).[13] In order to minimize social loafing, management can make individual performance more visible while in a team setting. This can be done by forming smaller teams, specializing specific tasks to certain individuals, and measuring individual performance. Social loafing can also be reduced by increasing employee motivation, by selecting employees who have previously shown themselves to be motivated, and increasing job enrichment.[13] In experiments conducted in the 1990s, an increase in group cohesiveness appeared to decrease social loafing.[14][15] Many occupations require a certain level of education in order for someone to be eligible to work in that profession. Employers usually include the educational requirements for a job in job postings and in job descriptions. The following is a list of the classifications based on the level of education typically needed to work in an occupation. In some cases, when applying for jobs, work experience may be substituted for some educational requirements. Does academic qualification ensure success? Does Academic Qualification Ensure Success? Grades,they are just another way to describe ones intellect. However,is this true? School and Education is important,it provides a foundation for everyday skills, more specific to primary education. How many people will actually learn to read, write and communicate without education? Education is the act or process of imparting and/or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning, judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life (dictionary). Academic qualifications are the degrees, diplomas, certificates, professional titles and so forth that an individual has acquired whether by full-time study, part-time study or private study, whether discussed in the home country or abroad and whether consulted by educational authorities, special examining bodies or professional bodies(OECD). The 'history of education' is about the
  • 12. development of systematic methods of teaching and learning. Presumably, every generation since the beginning of human existence somehow passed on its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. In my opinion academic qualification does not ensure success in life. Academic Qualification ensures success in life by getting a good job and getting paid well. Academic qualifications displays that a person has the basics in learning. If their basic grounding in Math, Science and Language is strong, then one can get success in life because mastering these subjects allows a person to calculate, to innovate and to communicate. These essentials for success cannot be learned without professional help like in schools and colleges. In order to prove that someone has acquired this knowledge, one is tested. If a persons learning is satisfactory, then they are given a certificate to indicate their.. Academic Qualification is of Little Practical Benefit in the Real World” Posted: October 7, 2011 in Uncategorized 0 Academic qualification is important to a person who has the knowledge to aim a great position in the company. Each graduate must have a high standard and great experience to enhance their skills to aim a great job. The benefits of an academic course could be right for you, if you want a qualification that shows you’ve achieved a certain educational standard. Traditional academic qualifications you can get from school demonstrate a certain level of analytical and critical skill. These are important skills needed in most jobs. Most of the graduates have a high quality of education to attain their skills in getting a high position in the company. The advantages of academic qualification it helps the graduates to get a better position in what kind of job that they have graduated. And it easily for them to make their live easily and possible to be success. The disadvantages of academic qualification in our generation is that most of the graduates and has completed their academic requirements. Many of them are jobless and they don’t have a great position in the company. But some people that have a low standard of education have a chance to be a successful people because they are responsible enough to be a great person.
  • 13. For me, as a student academic qualification is the key to success. Each one of us must have the ability to make our life a success. You must have a high grades and have a experience so that you can achieve your goal to have a better person and a great job someday. Therefore, I conclude that being a hard working and desperate person can lead you to success. And if you have knowledge and have a good experience it is possible that you can have a high position in the job. Academic qualification is directly and strongly linked with the "knowledge". If we look at the world history it is very much obvious that ruling the world has always been attached with the knowledge possessed by a nation at that time. For example if, at present, America is a superpower and every one feels proud to get educated from there it is a recognition to their knowledge, which is a reflection of academic qualifications and achievements attained by the American people. Likewise when Muslims were in power, it was also due to their knowledge in different fields. In short, we can say that academic qualification is a token or way of being recognized as a source of knowledge which leads to the commanding position in the world. Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because... Whether one is proposing marriage, applying for a job or looking for a new business partner, the fir... Whether one is proposing marriage, applying for a job or looking for a new business partner, the first thing people ask is, 'what do you do?' In other words they judge you by your academic qualifications. No bio-data résumé or curriculum vitae is acceptable without the inclusion of education qualifications. Therefore it is an unannounced rule of both the corporate world and the social world that a man's acquisition of academic qualifications is a giant leap towards opportunities in every walk of life. Success never depends upon grades. If success and opportunities were measured by grades then the corporate world and potential marriage partners would not ask for biodata in résumés, where other qualifications are also mentioned. Nor would they interview the prospects in order to find out what they are like as people, rather they would give a blind appointment to the people with the best paper qualifications. So qualifications alone are never enough, success depends upon physical characteristics, personality, and a willingness to work hard. Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because...
  • 14. Academic qualifications ensure you have the basics in learning. If your basic grounding in Maths, Sc... Academic qualifications ensure you have the basics in learning. If your basic grounding in Maths, Science and Languages is strong, you can get success in life because mastering these subjects allows you to calculate, to innovate and to communicate. These essentials for success cannot be learned without professional help – in schools and colleges. And in order to prove that someone has acquired this knowledge, they are tested. If their learning is satisfactory, then they are given a certificate to indicate their competence – an academic qualification. Success is not getting a grade or a degree, if that was it then why aren't all the graduates from Harvard, Oxford or Cambridge uniformly successful? The rule of success is hard work and destiny of course. If a student of engineering gets good grades but he is not practically effective in relationship-buildings and solving crises or proper planning, even though he may be successful in getting a job but it will not lead him far. On the way he is sure to fade out. Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because... There may be a few people like Bill Gates and others who have made it, in spite of their drop-out ba... There may be a few people like Bill Gates and others who have made it, in spite of their drop-out background and lack of academic qualifications, but can this be generalized? Should I tell my child to leave schooling because if Bill Gates can do it they can also do it? A few exceptions cannot be taken as a general rule. And even for those few high-profile people who have made it without academic qualifications, let’s ask a simple question - if you look at a global directory of successful people you might find a few hundred like Bill Gates, but what about those millions of doctors, engineers, IT professionals, lawyers, and advocates who rely upon their formal education? Can you run a country without them? And could even Bill Gates have prospered without the skills of these IT professionals and engineers? If you look into a directory of successful people who are doctors, engineers and IT professionals, then you will notice that many of them dream to be employed by people like Bill Gates or Richard Branson, who are prosperous despite not having college degrees. In other words, prosperity does not depend upon academic qualifications but upon opportunities provided by entrepreneurs who may not be necessarily be highly educated. Successful entrepreneurs even benefit from not having academic qualifications, because going to college and taking examinations forces people to learn and think like millions of other graduates. This actually makes it less likely that they will come up with the truly mould-breaking insights and ―disruptive‖ ideas on which successful innovations and new business models are built. Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because...
  • 15. We spend ten years of schooling and several more years of our precious life in college, and then one... We spend ten years of schooling and several more years of our precious life in college, and then one fine morning someone comes and says that this is not required for success. When asked for proof, they say 'look at Bill Gates!' But success isn’t a just matter of building a huge firm from scratch and making billions of dollars – by that definition, only a tiny number of people in the world could be considered successful. No, success is about making the most of your talents and abilities, and that requires dedication and study in academic institutions that will stretch you intellectually. Unfortunately the materialistic world has changed the concept of success. It has become a ratrace where every student chases grades and therefore the entire perception of success and prosperity has changed. Rather than studying to reach our full potential, we do it because we think it is necessary for a successful career. So we spend ten years in school and a few more years of our precious life in college to get educated, then more time is passed in hunting for jobs. Even after that we may find ourselves in the wrong profession and lacking job satisfaction. And then recession comes along, when we are told that our wealth has been blown away by the foolishness of expensive fat-salaried CEOs. Now comes a time when we go to work with a constant fear of losing the job we don’t enjoy. Is this the correct understanding of prosperity? So now the definition of success is changed. If you are able to save your job then you are successful! Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because... An academic education gives people a rounded experience of life, with opportunities to meet people f... An academic education gives people a rounded experience of life, with opportunities to meet people from a wide range of backgrounds and to consider the importance in life of values and culture. These are necessary things required to label a person successful in all aspects of life. More broadly, widespread further education makes us a civilized nation. It uplifts our morals and ethics by exposing us to the great thinkers of the past. It makes us aware of our rights and liberties, and helps entrench a liberal democracy with active citizens and a lively media. Can academic qualification stop us from becoming a civilization of drunkards, rapists and warmongers, marked by broken families, domestic violence and crime? If you look at countries where the largest number of people have higher academic qualifications, they are the ones most affected by social breakdown. And would you call the conduct of the US wars on Iraq and Afghanistan a successful example of the superiority of the US economy and society? In fact true success is shown in having the moral courage to speak out against atrocities and injustice, showing generosity towards the poor, and respecting our parents. These are characteristics which are found in people from all social and educational backgrounds, but often absent in many
  • 16. educated Americans and Europeans, in spite of the universities they have been to and the grades they have achieved. Academic qualification ensures success in life? Yes because... No because... Academic qualifications may not be enough on their own to ensure success, but they indicate that the... Academic qualifications may not be enough on their own to ensure success, but they indicate that their possessor has got what it takes. Imagine a new world order in education, where people don't study but join their business or look for jobs straight from school, with no qualifications to prove their worth. How would employers choose between them? Academic grades are important, because in order to gain good exam grades or a degree, students have to work hard, master demanding skills and learn a great deal of specialist knowledge. These are valuable attributes for success in any field of endeavour, which is why employers value academic qualifications. Simply getting into a good college indicates to a future employer that the student is out of the ordinary. Often academic qualifications have no real relevance to the jobs graduates are employed to do. A few decades ago employers in areas such as banking, engineering, management and government service recruited people straight from school at the age of 15 or 16, training them on the job and promoting them to higher levels of responsibility according to their ability. Today none of these jobs has changed very much, but all now require applicants have a university degree. Why has this changed? One reason is that the upper and middle classes are trying to protect their own jobs – demanding new recruits have expensive academic qualifications excludes many talented young people from poorer backgrounds. Debates > Academic qualification ensures success in life? This is Google's cache of For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). Human intelligence
  • 17. Abilities, traits and constructs Abstract thought Communication Creativity Emotional intelligence g factor Intelligence quotient Knowledge Learning Memory Problem solving Reaction time Reasoning Understanding Visual processing Models and theories Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory Fluid and crystallized intelligence Theory of multiple intelligences Three stratum theory Triarchic theory of intelligence PASS theory of intelligence
  • 18. Fields of study Cognitive epidemiology Evolution of human intelligence Psychometrics Heritability of IQ Impact of health on intelligence Environment and intelligence Neuroscience and intelligence Race and intelligence Religiosity and intelligence v t e Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problem solving.