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Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea
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Law of the sea

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  • Slide 1: Video Source
  • One month after Pardos address, the General Assembly adopted resolution 2340 establishing an Ad Hoc committee to Study the Peaceful Uses of the Sea Bed and Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction . Three years later the General Assembly decided by resolution to convene the third conference on the law of the sea. Source: “Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,” United Nations Diplomatic Conferences, accessed November 29, 2010, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/diplomaticconferences/lawofthesea-1982/lawofthesea-1982.html”“Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe Memorial Fellowship on the Law of the Sea,” Oceans and Law of the Sea, accessed November 29th, 2010, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/technical_assistance/hsa_fellowship/amerasinghe_fellowship.htm.
  • The treaty has 320 articles, set out in seventeen parts, as well as nine annexes. Parts two through eleven concern the different maritime zones; continental shelf, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone, straits used for international navigation, archipelagic waters, the high seas, the international Seabed Area, and special provisions for islands of enclosed and semi-enclosed seas. The remaining sections establish bodies to administer the treaty. “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Montego Bay, 10 December 1982,” Audiovisual Library of International Law - Tullio Treves, accessed November 20th 2010, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/uncls/uncls.html.
  • As was mentioned, the treaty also establishes governing bodies. It is the founding document for three institutions which constitute the ocean management structure; the international Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and the International Seabed Authority discusses earlier. The main body, called the international seabed authority, is responsible for organizing and controlling all resources-related explorations and exploitation activities in non territorial seas.Each member of the Treaty is allowed one representative in The Tribunal, a legislative body which functions as an arbitrator over disputes relating to the terms of the convention. The Tribunal also collects revenues derived from deep seabed mining and determines how they will be distributed.
  • The north south divide was still in full force at the treaties signing and still is to this day.
  • Ministry released a statement opposing any military acts in its exclusive economic zone without permission, days before a joint military exercise between United States and Republic of Korea was to take place on the Yellow Sea. “China Tells US: Turn around USS George Washington,” The Business Insider, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.businessinsider.com/china-us-korea-war-drill-2010-11.
  • Quoted in Satya N. Nandan, An Introduction to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, in ORDER FOR THE OCEANS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 9 (Willy Østreng and Davor Vidas eds., 1999).
  • Source: “Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention andthe related Agreements,” United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea, accessed November 15th, 2010, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm#The%20United%20Nations%20Convention%20on%20the%20Law%20of%20the%20Sea
  • Source: “Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf,” Oceans and Law of the Sea, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/commission_submissions.htm
  • Transcript

    • 1. First Session of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
    • 2. Advanced EconomiesEmerging and developing economies (not least developed) Emerging and developing economies (least developed)
    • 3. President of the Third Conference on the Law of the Sea Mr. Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe Sri Lanka
    • 4. President Ronald Reagan said the treaty provisions “fairlybalance the interests of all states.” He ironically refused tosign the treaty. Another symbolic step towards closing this gap was the implementation of a consensus voting process.
    • 5. Pardo called upon the General Assembly to establish “an effectiveinternational regime over the seabed and ocean floor”Pardo mentioned the need for the following principles:(a) Seabed beyond National Jurisdiction not subject to nation appropriation.(b) Seabed beyond national limits reserved for peaceful purposes.(c) Scientific research and technology regarding deep sea shall be available to all.(d) Resources of the seabed shall serve the interest of Mankind.(e) Deep sea exploration and exploitation shall not harm the marine environment.The basis of his argument was that the ocean and its resources are the“Common heritage of Mankind.”
    • 6. “The United States as a member – and might I add paying member – of the United Nations is entitled to know; First, why did the Maltese Ambassador, Arvid Pardo, make this premature proposal? Second, who put the Maltese Government up to the proposal? Are they, perhaps, the sounding board for the British? Third, and, most of all, why the rush? It is my conviction that there is no rush; There is little reason to set up additional unknowns and additional legal barriers, which will impair and deter investment and exploration in the depths of the sea even before capabilities and resources are developed.”
    • 7. Resources of the Sea •Manganese Nodules are irregular potato shaped deposits •World tonnage estimates unknown but Pacific Ocean estimates range between 90 billion and 1.7 trillion of metal ores •Nodules are forming at a rate at or greater than present day consumptionWorld map showing the occurrence of metallic nodules. (Notice the and use.concentrations are primarily in the “deep sea” which the treaty calls “the area”. These resources are under the jurisdiction of the United Nations
    • 8. There are two primary methods for marine mining. •In solution mining involves processing and removing gold, silver and other minerals from sea water. The Germans experimented with in solution mining as a possible source of gold for war reparations. In solution mining is not technically feasible. •Sea-bed miningClick image Mining Cost per ton Seabed to view more on Seabed Land Based Mining Cost per ton Technology and EnvironmentalProtection. $28 $40 - $100
    • 9. Conception of the UNCLOS III1967 - Resolution 2340 (XXII) created Ad Hoc committee to study the Peaceful Uses of the Sea- Bed and Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction – Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe was President of this committee between 1967 and 1970.1968 – Resolution 2467 A (XXIII) establishing the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction1970 – Resolution 2750 (XXV), to convene a third conference on the law of the sea in 1973
    • 10. Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III)) 6th Session UNCLOS III (New 1st Session UNCLOS III (New York, US) York, US) 10th Session UNCLOS III (New 2nd Session UNCLOS III York) (19/3/1981) (Caracas, VE) 11th Session UNCLOS III (New UNCLOS I (Geneva, CH) 3rd Session UNCLOS III York) (Geneva, CH) Adoption of UNCLOS (10/12/1982)1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 5th Session UNCLOS III (New UNCLOS entered into force York, US) (17/9/1976) 22nd UN General Assembly - Arvid Pardo Speech 9th Session UNCLOS III (Geneva, CH) 8th Session UNCLOS III UNCLOS II (17/3/1960) 4th Session UNCLOS III (New (Geneva, CH) York, US) (8/3/1976) 7th Session UNCLOS III (Geneva, CH)
    • 11. Freedom of the SeasThe cannon-shot rule set forth that a nation controlled a territorial sea asfar as a projectile could be fired from a cannon based on shore. In the 18thcentury this range was approximate three nautical miles.
    • 12. The Constitution of the Seas• Part II – Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone• Part III – Straits Used for International Navigation• Part IV – Archipelagic Zone• Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone• Part VI – Continental Shelf• Part VII – High Seas• Part XI – The Area• Part XVI – General Provisions
    • 13. Pause: Something to think about…Joseph Tainter, an anthropologist and historian, theorizes that societalcollapse can simply be understood as a loss of the energy needed tomaintain social complexity. Collapse is thus the sudden loss of socialcomplexity, stratification, internal and external communication andexchange, and productivity.Arnold J. Toynbee argues that collapse occurs because societies thatdevelop great expertise in problem solving become incapable of solvingnew problems by overdeveloping their structures for solving old ones.Einstein said, “Keep it simple stupid.”Is the Law of the Sea Treaty a sustainable solution?
    • 14. LOST and Found Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes 17-4 to Reagan Rejects Law of the send LOST to senate for Sea Treaty (LOST) Clinton revives and revises vote. LOST. Harry S. Truman establishes US jurisdiction over continental shelf - LOST sent to senate for Presidential Proclamation ratification. 2667 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Bush askes senate to ratify Ronald Reagan establishes LOST. No changes were 12 mile territorial sea - made. Presidential Proclamation 5928 LOST retuned to President Ronald Reagan establishes without a vote. 200 mile EEZ - Presidential Proclamation 5030 LOST not yet ratified but Obama supports it.
    • 15. LOST and Found Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes 17-4 to Reagan Rejects Law of the send LOST to senate for Sea Treaty (LOST) Clinton revives and revises vote. LOST. Harry S. Truman establishes US jurisdiction over continental shelf - LOST sent to senate for Presidential Proclamation ratification. 2667 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Bush askes senate to ratify Ronald Reagan establishes LOST. No changes were 12 mile territorial sea - made. Presidential Proclamation 5928 Other nations were quick to follow Trumans. Between 1946 and 1950, Argentina, Peru, ChileRonald Reagan establishes extended their and Ecuador LOST retuned to President without a vote. 200 mile EEZ - Presidential rights to a to cover their Humboldt Current fishing grounds. Proclamation 5030 LOST not yet ratified but Obama supports it.
    • 16. LOST and Found Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes 17-4 to Reagan Rejects Law of the send LOST to senate for Extended Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Sea Treaty (LOST) Clinton revives and revises vote. • Nations which have extended continental sheleves may exploit LOST. Harry S. Truman establishes resources beyond 200 nautical miles for 5 years. US jurisdiction over continental shelf - LOST sent to senate for • In the 6 th year the nation must pay 1% of the value of all resources Presidential Proclamation ratification. 2667 produced from the site. 1940 • Rate increase by 1% each year until the twelfth year (max 7%) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 • Revenues are deposited with the ISA and distributed equally for senate to ratify Bush asks Ronald Reagan establishes “the good of Mankind” 12 mile territorial sea - LOST. No changes were made. • The United States France and Australia have the largest exclusive Presidential Proclamation 5928 economic zones in the world. Nations can exploit resources beyond shelf for 5 years Ronald Reagan establishes LOST retuned to President Arvid Pardo was unhappy with 200 mile EEZ - Presidential the treaties provision for without a vote. an EEZ, lamenting that the common heritage white) World Wide Exclusive Economic Zones (in of Mankind Proclamation 5030 has been whittled down to “a few fish as sea weed.” LOST not yet ratified but Obama supports it. Appendix 4
    • 17. “The Area”The Area in blue is considered to be “the commonheritage of Mankind” (Article 136)
    • 18. Ocean Management StructureThe International Seabed Authority has the power totax through • Application fees ($250,000) • Royalties (Annex, Section 8)The Authority may also require technology details fromapplicants which it may then share with applicantsfrom other nations.The treaty creates a business called “theEnterprise”, subsidized by assessments from membernations, the Enterprise competes with nations andbusinesses that wish to mine the seabed. (Article58(2), 170 -173, Annex IV)
    • 19. United States (signed but not ratified) Peru (has not signed) •Other UN conventions are not •Due to a dispute with Chile followed by signees (Human Rights, concerning the boundary between Kyoto Protocol) which puts the US at the maritime zones in the Pacific a distinct disadvantage because Ocean. “*they+ follow the rules.” •Technology transfer (Part XIV, Article 266) a socialist policy. •Limits on territorial sea, economic zone and continental shelf already part internationally accepted marine law. •Unhappy with the reluctance of the •Opponents claimed that the treaty major powers to share their infringes on national sovereignty. advantages and to refrain from the competitiveness that sustains the •Treaty undermines scientific and contrasts and tensions in the world. military intelligence in the deep sea. 38 countries (including the United States, Libya and North Korea) have not yet ratified the Treaty: •North South Division at play
    • 20. According to Part V of the treaty, states may exercise sovereign rights, and jurisdictionon all resource related activities in the exclusive economic zone. Other states mayenjoy innocent passage, freedom of navigation and over-flight, lying of pipes andcables and other internationally lawful uses of the seas.Whether or not America’s passage is considered innocent and whether or not theirpresence is internationally lawful will be up the international Tribunal for the Law ofthe Sea. This Tribunal has the power to settle disputes between member states.Tullio Treves, judge of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, emphasisedthat the UNCLOS was designed to function as the basis of the global ocean order. Itwill be interesting to see how the treaty, which Treves says prefers stability toadaptability, will resolve this situation between China and the United States giventhe US has not ratified the treaty and is therefore not legally bounded by itsprovisions. Only time will tell.
    • 21. BibliographyKurt Waldheim, “Statement by Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim,” (statement presented at the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1st meeting, United Nations Headquarters, New York, December 3, 1973Mr. Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe (Sri Lanka), “Presidential Address” (speech presented at the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1st meeting, United Nations Headquarters, New York, December 3, 1973).Kurt Waldheim, “Statement by Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim,” (statement presented at the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1st meeting, United Nations Headquarters, New York, December 3, 1973Introduction: Perspective on the History of U.S. Non-Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, and on the Prospects for an Early Reversal,” Harry N. Scheiber, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.boalt.org/bjil/docs/Publicist0Scheiber.pdf.Arvid Pardo, “Agenda Item 92” (paper presented at the United Nations General Assembly Twenty-Second Session, United Nations Headquarters, New York, November 1, 1967).United States Congressional Record, Washington, DC, 1967, vol. 113, p.H 12681.Arvid Pardo, “Agenda Item 92” (paper presented at the United Nations General Assembly Twenty-Second Session, United Nations Headquarters, New York, November 1, 1967).John L. Mero, The Mineral Resources of the Sea (Amsterdam, Elseirer Publishing Co., 1965), 127-130).“Polymetallic Nodules,” United Nations Atlas of the Oceans, accessed December 1, 2010, http://www.oceansatlas.org/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND00MzkuMjI4NDY5JjY9ZW4mMzM9bmV3cyZzaG93Q2hpbGRyZW49dHJ1ZSYzNz1 pbmZv#koinfo.John L. Mero, The Mineral Resources of the Sea (Amsterdam, Elseirer Publishing Co., 1965), 127-130).
    • 22. Introduction: Perspective on the History of U.S. Non-Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, and on the Prospects for an Early Reversal,” Harry N. Scheiber, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.boalt.org/bjil/docs/Publicist01 Scheiber.pdf.Proclamation 2667,”The American Presidency Project, accessed November 25, 2010, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/proclamations.php.“ UNCLOS art 76,” United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, The Definition of the Continental Shelf and the Criteria for the Establishment of its Outer Limits, accessed November29, 2010, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/continental_shelf_description.htm.“Proclamation 5928,”The American Presidency Project, accessed November 25, 2010, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/proclamations.php.“UNCLOS art 76,” United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, The Definition of the Continental Shelf and the Criteria for the Establishment of its Outer Limits, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/continental_shelf_description.htm.“Stumbling into the 21st Century,” Centre for War/Peace Studies, accessed November 10, 2010, http://www.cwps.org/old/global56.htm.“Proclamation 5030,”The American Presidency Project, accessed November 25, 2010, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/proclamations.php.United Nations, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay, Jamaica, 1982), Article 2, 23. .“Introduction: Perspectives on the History of U.S. Non-Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, and on the Prospects for an Early Reversal,” Harry N. Scheiber, accessed November 26, 2010, http://www.boalt.org/bjil/docs/Publicist01-scheiber.pdf.“Ratify Law of the Sea,” The PEW Charitable Trusts, accessed November 29, 2010, http://ratifylawofthesea.org/?page_id=312.“Port State Jurisdicition and Article 218 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,” Hom-Sam Bang, accessed December 4, 2010, https://litigation- essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=40+J.+Mar.+L.+%26+Com.+291&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=e7534efc96cefeaac15d4 f8b6ea7801a.“DeMint on Law of the Sea Treaty: Part 1,” SenJimDeMint, accessed November 15, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGr1zJfZhlo.“Law of the Sea Treaty Hurts American Sovereignty,” Ed Meese – Centre for Legal and Judicial Studies, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5Y24goa6o4.• .“Peru takes Child to UN World Court over Maritime Dispute,” UN News Centre, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25314&Cr=ICJ&Cr1.“Chilean Military Exercises Irritate Peru,” The Peruvian Times, accessed December 4, 2010, http://www.peruviantimes.com/chile-military-exercises-irritate-peru/204059“Statement by the delegation of Peru,” UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, accessed December 4, 2010, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/diplomaticconferences/lawofthesea- 1982/docs/vol_XIII/a_conf-62_ws_6.pdf“China Tells US: Turn around USS George Washington,” The Business Insider, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.businessinsider.com/china-us-korea-war-drill-2010-11.“United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Montego Bay, 10 December 1982,” Audiovisual Library of International Law - Tullio Treves, accessed November 20th 2010, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/uncls/uncls.html.Introduction: Perspective on the History of U.S. Non-Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, and on the Prospects for an Early Reversal,” Harry N. Scheiber, accessed November 29, 2010, http://www.boalt.org/bjil/docs/Publicist01-Scheiber.pdf.
    • 23. Photo and Video Credits“Deep Ocean,” Stock Videos, http://www.istockphoto.com/video.“Blood,” Stock Videos, “Deep Ocean,” Stock Videos, http://www.istockphoto.com/video.“First Session,” Audio Visual Library of International Law, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/uncls/uncls_photo.html.“Developing and Developed Nations, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developing_country.“Amerasinghe Address,” Audio Visual Library of International Law (screen print of video), http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/uncls/uncls_photo.html.“Rich and Poor,” Stock Images, Stockimages.com“Enlightened Sea,” Stock Images, stockimages.com.“World map,” Earth Encyclopedia, http://www.eoearth.org/article/United_Nations_Convention_on_Law_of_the_Sea_(UNCLOS),_1982#endnote_137.Manganese Nodule, Google Images, http://www.bgr.bund.de/nn_336668/EN/Themen/MeerPolar/Meeresforschung/Bilder/tiefseebergbau__Mn-Knolle__g__en.html.“Seabed Technology,” International Seabed Authority, http://www.isa.org.jm/files/documents/EN/Brochures/ENG10.pdf“Caracas,” Stock Images, Stockimages.com“Cannon,” tv tropes, http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Canon.“De Mint on the Law of the Sea,” YouTube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGr1zJfZhlo.“Pollution,” World Press, feww.wordpress.com“Taxation,” My Window Izhar Cohen, izharcohen.wordpress.com.“Immigration,” Immigration DNA Testing, immigrationdnatesting.us.“The Area,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Convention_on_the_Law_of_the_Sea.“Marine Boundaries,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Convention_on_the_Law_of_the_Sea.“Space Images,” NASA, http://www.nasa.gov/
    • 24. Appendix 1: UNCLOS III Signatories Developing Countries All Countries 149 Estonia (26 August 2005) 161 Malawi (28 September 2010 ) 1 Fiji (10 December 1982) 160 Chad (14 August 2009) 41 Oman (17 August 1989) 159 Dominican Republic (10 July 2009) 12 Gambia (22 May 1984) 158 Switzerland (1 May 2009) 6 Ghana (7 June 1983) 157 Liberia (25 September 2008) 45 Grenada (25 April 1991) 156 Congo (9 July 2008) 112 Guatemala (11 February 1997) 155 Lesotho (31 May 2007) 59 Guyana (16 November 1993) 154 Morocco (31 May 2007) 104 Haiti (31 July 1996) 153 Republic of Moldova (6 February 2007) 57 Honduras (5 October 1993) 152 Montenegro (23 October 2006) 138 Hungary (5 February 2002) 151 Niue (11 October 2006) 88 Saudi Arabia (24 April 1996) 150 Belarus (30 August 2006) 26 Indonesia (3 February 1986) 149 Estonia (26 August 2005) 22 Iraq (30 July 1985) 148 Burkina Faso (25 January 2005) 4 Jamaica (21 March 1983) 147 Latvia (23 December 2004) 81 Jordan (27 November 1995) 146 Denmark (16 November 2004) 39 Kenya (2 March 1989) 145 Lithuania (12 November 2003) 142 Kiribati (24 February 2003) 144 Canada (7 November 2003) 147 Latvia (23 December 2004) 143 Albania (23 June 2003) 70 Lebanon (5 January 1995) 142 Kiribati (24 February 2003) 155 Lesotho (31 May 2007) 141 Tuvalu (9 December 2002)Double Click on Object for full list (this Double Click on Object for full list (thismust be done outside of presentation must be done outside of presentationmode) mode) Back Back
    • 25. Appendix 2
    • 26. Appendix 3: The Mining ParadoxIs mining beneficial to the economies of developed Nations? Minesdo create jobs, but these jobs are temporary in nature as a minesresources are limited. Tertiary functions such as processing, R&Dand manufacturing are often outsources. In reality, mines createunskilled, low paying jobs. Poor miners cannot afford, do not haveaccess to, or use not the products of their labor. Miners pay lastonly as long as the mines resources. Multinational reinvest theirpaycheck into new ventures. Their wealth creates wealth - at theexpense of the developing nations economy and environment.Failure to reinvest in the source of wealth causes imbalances and isunsustainable. Although sea based mining would temporarily shockthe economy of a mining dependant developing Nation it could besaid that this shock would inevitably occur. Thus sea based miningcould, at least, save these regions from the environmental damagecaused by mining.
    • 27. Appendix 4: Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on theLimits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Date of Presentation Subcommission Recommendation Submission by [State] submission to the CLCS* established s adopted on 1 Russian Federation 20-Dec-01 See CLCS/32 See CLCS/32 27-Jun-02 2 Brazil 17-May-04 See CLCS/32 See CLCS/32 04-Apr-07 3 Australia 15-Nov-04 See CLCS/44 See CLCS/44 09-Apr-08 4 Ireland - Porcupine Abyssal Plain 25-May-05 See CLCS/48 See CLCS/48 05-Apr-07 5 New Zealand 19-Apr-06 See CLCS/52 See CLCS/52 22-Aug-08 Joint submission by France, Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - 6 19-May-06 See CLCS/52 See CLCS/52 24-Mar-09 in the area of the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay 7 Norway - in the North East Atlantic and the Arctic 27-Nov-06 See CLCS/54 See CLCS/54 27-Mar-09 8 France - in respect of the areas of French Guiana and New Caledonia 22-May-07 See CLCS/56 See CLCS/56 02-Sep-09 9 Mexico - in respect of the western polygon in the Gulf of Mexico 13-Dec-07 See CLCS/58 See CLCS/58 31-Mar-0910 Barbados 08-May-08 See CLCS/60 See CLCS/62 15-Apr-1011 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Ascension Island 09-May-08 See CLCS/60 See CLCS/62 15-Apr-1012 Indonesia - North West of Sumatra Island 16-Jun-08 See CLCS/62 See CLCS/6213 Japan 12-Nov-08 See CLCS/62 See CLCS/64 Joint submission by the Republic of Mauritius and the Republic of Seychelles - in the region of the14 01-Dec-08 See CLCS/62 See CLCS/66 Mascarene Plateau15 Suriname 05-Dec-08 See CLCS/64 See CLCS/6616 Myanmar 16-Dec-08 See CLCS/6417 France - areas of the French Antilles and the Kerguelen Islands 05-Feb-09 See CLCS/66 See CLCS/6818 Yemen - in respect of south east of Socotra Island 20-Mar-09 See CLCS/6819 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - in respect of Hatton Rockall Area 31-Mar-09 See CLCS/64 Double click on the graph then hyperlink to individual agreements by selecting country name (in red).
    • 28. Appendix 5: Seabed Technology Double Click Document
    • 29. Appendix 6: Manganese Nodules Back
    • 30. Appendix: 7 More on the ISAThe International Seabed Authority has the power totax through • Application fees ($250,000) • Royalties (Annex, Section 8)The Authority may also require technology details fromapplicants which it may then share with applicantsfrom other nations.The treaty creates a business called “theEnterprise”, subsidized by assessments from membernations, the Enterprise competes with nations andbusinesses that wish to mine the seabed. (Article58(2), 170 -173, Annex IV)

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