Priority pollutants

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Priority pollutants

  1. 1. Devising a Risk Index for Priority Substances Emissions from WWTP Fiona Regan
  2. 2. Overview
  3. 3. Work Package •  Interpreting PS monitoring data from DCU (Lisa Jones) and CIT: Metals, PAHs, Pesticides, VOCs •  Identifying major sources and risk factors for PS occurrence in WW •  Assessing risk of PS occurrence in catchments, over time •  Understanding sources, prioritising monitoring
  4. 4. Priority Substance Monitoring •  EU WFD: Waters must be of “Good” ecological and chemical status by 2015 •  WFD: 33 PS groups, including 20 PHS, plus 11 potential PS •  PS emissions reduced to background concentrations •  PHS emissions eliminated within 20 years •  2008 EQS Directive: Average annual and maximum acceptable concentrations specified
  5. 5. EQSDirective Potential Priority Substances Priority Hazardous Substances Alachlor Anthracene AMPA Atrazine Brominated diphenylether Bentazon Benzene Cadmium and its compounds Bisphenol-A Chloroalkanes, C10-13 Dicofol Endosulfan EDTA Chlorfenvinpos Hexachlorobenzene Free cyanide Chlorpyrifos (Chlorpyrifos-theyl) Hexachlorobutadiene Glyphosate 1,2-dichloroethane Hexachlorocyclohexane Mercoprop (MCPP) Dichloromethane Mercury and its compounds Musk xylene Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) Nonylphenol Diuron (4-nonylphenol) Fluoranthene Pentachlorobenzene Isoproturon Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Lead and its compounds (Benzo(a)pyrene) Dioxins Napthalene (Benzo(b)fluoranthene) PCB Nickel and its compounds (Benzo(g,h,i)perylene) Octylphenol (Benzo(k)fluoranthene) (Ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) Tributyltin compounds Pentachlorophenol (Tributyltin-cation) Simazine Trichlorobenzenes Trichloromethane (chloroform) Trifluralin (4-(1,1',3,3'-tetramethylbutyl)-phenol) Priority Substances Perflurooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) Quinoxyfen (5,7-dichloro-4(p- fluorophenoxy)quinoline) Pentabromodiphenylether (cogener numbers 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154)
  6. 6. Ireland Monitoring •  SERBD PS screening programmes •  Expert Working Group identified 202 (WFD + 161) candidate substances •  Produced preliminary screening list of 41 PS •  TNO: 47 of the 51 analysed PS found in water •  18 PS in 10% samples, 3 in >50% of the samples – naphthalene, fluoranthene, nickel –  Median concentrations ranged from 0.009 µg L-1 for fluoranthene to 1.4 µg L-1 for Nickel •  Long-term compliance monitoring required
  7. 7. Priority Substances in Wastewater •  Waste water major point-source input to surface waters •  Responsible for localised EQS exceedance? •  Often upstream of drinking water abstraction! •  Can be controlled •  Combined sewer discharges and “high-risk” runoff •  Few data on waste water PS discharges •  Will complement storm water studies, and inform targeted PS monitoring (both WW and SW)
  8. 8. WWTP Removal (to sludge /air) Diffuse sources WasteWater Drainage Storm overflow River Direct sources Final Effluent Surfacewater 1. Source magnitude / type 2. Diffuse loss risk / conditions 3. Surface water - sewer connectivity 5.WWTP removal efficiency 4. Sewer mixing and overflow
  9. 9. Potential High Risk Source Sites (SWRBD) •  Oil and gasworks sites (IPPC, LA) •  (Hazardous) waste disposal/handling sites (EPA, LA) •  Mining sites (IPPC) •  Chemical plants (IPPC, LA) •  Airports, railway depots, dockyards, petroleum import terminals (LA) •  Timber treatment (IPPC, LA) •  Filling stations (LA) •  Building sites (LA) • Past industrial sites • Roads • Industrial estates • Combined drainage areas Connectivity to sewers?
  10. 10. Pesticides: High Risk Landuse •  Sports grounds (Incl golf courses) •  Parks and open urban areas •  Intensive animal rearing (IPPC) •  Intensive tillage (potatoes) (CORINE) •  Forestry (Coillte spray data) •  Intensive grassland (CORINE)
  11. 11. Source intensity Connectivity Households Commercial Industry Roads-traffic Contaminatedsites Point sources, continuous input, baseline loading and concentrations Diffuse sources, periodic input, peak loading and concentrations
  12. 12. WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Study Approach WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Industry dominated, no final treatment: possible to ID industry input WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Monthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periodsMonthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periods WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Monthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periods WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Monthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periods WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine WWTP Treatment Agglom. PE Plant PE 2007 compliance Receiving waters Ballincollig, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Freshwater-R Bandon, Cork Secondary 6,200 8,000 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Charleville, Cork Secondary 7,500 6,415 F (sample no.s) Freshwater-R Clonakilty, Cork Secondary 15,000 15,000 F (TSS) Estuarine Fermoy, Cork Secondary, NR 12,960 12,960 P Freshwater-R Mallow, Cork Secondary, NR 12,000 12,000 P Freshwater-R Ringaskiddy, Cork None 12,000 97,556 F (no 2nd treatment) Estuarine Rosscarbery, Cork Primary 2,500 2,500 NA Coastal Ringsend, Dublin Secondary 2,870,000 1,640,000 F (BOD, COD, TSS) Estuarine Swords, Dublin Secondary, NR 50,000 60,000 F (BOD, TSS) Estuarine Monthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periodsMonthly sampling, plus intensive summer + winter sampling periods
  13. 13. Study Approach cont… Ten catchments, range of sizes, physical characteristics, industrial contributions, treatment levels 1.  Collate data on potential sources (e.g. industry) and risk factors (e.g. combined drainage) for each catchment 2.  Compile literature data on source magnitudes and WWTP removal efficiencies 3.  Look for associations between meterological or physico- chem parameters and PS concs / loads 4.  Devise risk index for high PS in effluent (across catchments, over time): compare with mon data
  14. 14. Case-study Ringsend SWORDS WWTP
  15. 15. Licensed industry License n Risk IPPC-Chemicals 27 Ms, PAH, VOC IPPC- Food & Drink 4 IPPC- Metals 4 Ms, PAH, VOC IPPC-Minerals, Fibre, Glass 3 PAH, VOC IPPC-Power Stations 5 PAH, VOC IPPC-Surface Coatings 17 PAH, VOC IPPC-Wood Paper Textiles 6 PAH, VOC EPA-Hazardous Waste 13 Ms, VOC, PAH EPA-Integrated Waste Management 4 Ms, VOC, PAH EPA-Landfill 2 Ms, VOC, PAH EPA-Materials Recovery Facility 4 Ms, VOC, PAH EPA-Waste Transfer Facility 15 Ms, VOC, PAH License n Risk LA-Airport 2 PAH, VOC LA-Chemical 13 Ms, PAH, VOC LA-College 9 VOC LA-Construction 28 Ms, PAH LA-Dentist 1 Ms LA-Electronics 1 Ms, VOC LA-Filling Station 67 M, PAH, VOC LA Food & Drink 63 LA-Garage 33 PAH, VOC LA-Gym 7 LA-Haulage Depot 51 M, PAH, VOC LA-Hotel 3 LA-Hospital 19 VOC LA-Hairdresser 1 VOC LA-Laundry 5 M, PAH, VOC LA-Metal 10 Ms, PAH, VOC LA-Oil Distribution 1 PAH, VOC LA-Office 6 LA-Printers 16 VOC LA-Retail 25 LA-Sport 6 Pest LA-Washing (Outdoors)4 Ms, PAH LA-Waste 6 Ms, PAH, VOC Other 10 Separate direct vs diffuse inputs? Data from EPA, DCC, SDCC, FCC. Awaiting DLRCC…
  16. 16. Other risk factors •  Traffic volume or road area •  Intensive agriculture and forestry in / near catchment •  Local authority pesticide application •  Extent of combined drainage •  Temporal –  meteorological (heavy rainfall after dry period) –  traffic volume patterns (stats) Data from Met Eireann and NRA require update and processing. Awaiting CC pest app data…
  17. 17. Ringsend effluent 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 Flow (m3 day-1) PercentageinfluentTSSremoved Routine operating variability (random?) Process failure: Non predictable risk factor Capacity excedence? Risk Factor? On average, less efficient at higher flows: Risk factor Stats…
  18. 18. 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 Rainfall (mm day-1) Flow(m3day-1) High non-meteo variability Above 800,000 m3 = rain R2 = 0.55 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 Rainfall (mm day-1) Flow(m3day-1) High non-meteo variability Above 600,000 m3 = rain Rain, next-day flow More data and analysis required. New parameter (e.g. daily-flow increase vs rainfall?) Same-day rain and flow
  19. 19. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 Rainfall (mm day-1) TSSload(tonnesday-1) Rain, next day TSS total load Rainfall threshold for TSS and PAH loss risk? More data and analysis required…
  20. 20. Owenahincha agglomeration
  21. 21. PAH Loading Risk Index 1.  Discharge from licensed high-risk industry 2.  Frequency of contaminated sites 3.  Traffic volume 4.  Combined drains x (2 + 3) (+ urban, - rural ?) 5.  Normalised according to popn Effluent PAH conc Risk Index 1.  Loading Index x: i.  Meteorological conditions ii.  WWTP removal efficiency 2.  Normalised acc to flow per popn
  22. 22. Work Plan •  Complete industrial point source database –  Distinguish IPPC direct from diffuse inputs? •  Literature search for magnitude of PS emissions from various sources •  Find data on past industrial sites? •  Collate NRA traffic volume data for each catchment •  Obtain and collate pesticide use data from CCs •  Obtain Met Eireann data to Nov and compare with Ringsend / Swords effluent PS concs •  Obtain flow and physico-chem data from Swords and Cork WWTPs •  Literature search for WWTP PS removal efficiencies
  23. 23. Work Overview…. •  A review was used to identify the major factors leading to Priority Pollutant (PP) loading from WWTPs, integrated and conceptualised in a basic conceptual model. •  Available data sources were identified for the major PP loading risk factors. Then, through a combination of quantitative data collation (e.g. number of discharge licences issued to different types of operations) and qualitative risk assessment (risk ranking), risk databases were compiled for major sources.
  24. 24. ….Work Overview •  Databases were compiled for Local Authority and EPA licensed discharges, and agglomeration traffic. Results from these databases were integrated into a simple risk model for agglomeration PP loading, combined with basic WWTP (e.g. capacity and treatment level) and agglomeration (e.g. population and area) data, and finally expressed as elevated risk in a national context following normalisation procedures.
  25. 25. Work Overview •  Collate available literature and statistical data that could be used to inform targeted PP monitoring strategies. •  Focus on readily-available data relevant to major PP risk factors identified by conceptual modelling, and develop appropriate indicators. •  Indicators are applied to ten WWTP agglomerations currently being monitored to predict the relative risk of elevated PP loading to receiving waters across agglomerations and over time.
  26. 26. List of WWTP •  Cork –  Ballincollig –  Bandon –  Charleville –  Clonakilty –  Fermoy –  Mallow –  Ringaskiddy –  Rosscarbery •  Dublin –  Ringsend –  Swords
  27. 27. Collated Data •  Basic information on WWTPs and the agglomerations they serve in Ireland is provided in documentation submitted to the EPA in application for Urban Wastewater Discharge Licences (http://www.epa.ie).
  28. 28. From EPA Urban Waste Water Report
  29. 29. •  Removal factors applied to WWTPs in dry- and wet- weather flow conditions, based on removal efficiencies derived from Seriki et al. (2008) and load factors (agglomeration PE divided by WWTP PE capacity). Seriki K., Gasperi J., Castillo L., Scholes L., Eriksson E., Revitt M., Meinhold J., Atanasova N. (2008) Priority pollutants behaviour in end of pipe wastewater treatment plants. In Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants (ScorePP)
  30. 30. •  WWTP load factors were calculated as a ratio of agglomeration PE loading to WWTP PE capacity.
  31. 31. •  WWTP risk factor = 1-removal fraction (e.g. 80% PAH removal for standard secondary treatment in Dry Weather Flow = 0.2) •  For CY, because secondary treatment capacity limited to approx half average agglomeration PE, DWF risk factor based on average of Primary and Secondary treatment •  For Wet Weather Flow, risk factors assume primary treatment removal efficiencies
  32. 32. •  For WWTPs working in excess of or close to capacity, WWF removal factors were based on the assumption that overall removal efficiencies under high loading conditions were equivalent to primary treatment removal efficiencies. Removal factors were inversed into Effluent Factors (EF) for direct multiplication with loading factors.
  33. 33. •  Industrial installations performing listed activities above specified thresholds are licensed under the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. Licence conditions and annual reports on emissions from these installations are made publicly available by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  34. 34. •  The level of information provided on PP emissions varies across installations, and for the initial purposes of our risk-based model we define risk factors for each installation according to activity class, refined based on some installation-specific information provided in licences (whether or not discharge to sewers, and surface water management).
  35. 35. Risk Scale
  36. 36. •  ‘Typical’ loading risk factors for each major PP group, applied to installations in each IPPC and Waste activity class. •  Loading risk factors applied to individual installations may vary within activity groups, depending on licence information regarding processes, sewer discharge, and surface water management.
  37. 37. Licensed Risk
  38. 38. Licensed Risk
  39. 39. •  Traffic-induced loading to WWTP (PAH, VOCs, HMs) should be largely proportional to traffic volume within agglomeration combined drainage areas, as measured by Vehicle km Travelled (VKT).
  40. 40. •  Relevant available statistics are traffic flow on national roads in the vicinty of study agglomerations (NRA, 2009), total VKT for different vehicle types (CSO, 2009) and national VKT for six major road types (National Primary, National Secondary, Regional, Local Primary, Local Secondary, Local Tertiary)
  41. 41. Road type National VKT (M km a-1 )a Agglomeration VKM calculation Length restriction Sewer input Nat. Prim. (10,665) NA Nat. Sec. (3,865) NA Regional 9,051 0.10 x (Popag / Popnat) Loc. Prim 4,621 0.25 x (Popag / Popnat) Loc. Sec 2,187 0.75 x (Popag / Popnat) Loc. Ter 784 1.00 x (Popag / Popnat) National road VKM travelled not used in calculations a Cars only. NRA data for 2002 (NRA, 2001) extrapolated to 2009 based on CSO national VKM in 2009 (presentation ref) LocaltrafficThrough traffic 2008 NRA traffic flow x road length in agglomeration Peripheral or central road? Sum local < 2 x agglomerat ion length Estimated percentage area under combined foul-storm drainage
  42. 42. Ballincollig •  DWF •  Heavy rainfall •  PE/development
  43. 43. Ringaskiddy
  44. 44. Bandon
  45. 45. Charleville •  Designed for a PE of up to 15,000 •  The PE and DWF are based on measured foul flows from 1973 •  Incoming flow can be divided evenly between two oxidation ditches –  Only one oxidation ditch in use –  PE ~ 7,000
  46. 46. Clonakilty •  Designed for a PE of 5,333 •  Increased loading during summer of up to 15,000 PE •  At present two oxidation ditches •  Application for increased storage capacity not yet implemented •  Hydraulic load of 6 DWF
  47. 47. Mallow •  Two treatment systems; 50 – 50 split between new and old plant •  Contract out for private operation and maintenance contract –  Could be in place before the end of the year
  48. 48. Rosscarberry/Owenahincha •  Proposed works may now not take place •  Discharge from chemical toilets and mobile homes?
  49. 49. Fermoy •  Designed for a PE of 20,000 •  System was upgraded, licence states that 40 % of flow meant to go to old plant
  50. 50. Ringsend
  51. 51. Swords
  52. 52. Further Work •  Meteorological data will need to be used to derive a temporal component to this risk factor.
  53. 53. Acknowledgements This project is funded by the EPA as part of the Science, Technology, Research and Innovation for the Environment (STRIVE) Programme 2007–2013. This programme is financed by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007–2013. It is administered on behalf of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government by the Environmental Protection Agency, which has the statutory function of co-ordinating and promoting environmental research.

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