In what ways can Participatory and Appreciative Action and Reflection (PAAR) enhance workplace learning? New questions, different conversations, better action. by Professor (dr.) Tony Ghaye Director Reflective Learning-UK
Film : Notting Hill - “The Last Brownie” (see below for video clip)
THE DEFICIT CHALLENGE If we feel we can change the question, we have a chance to change the conversation. Change this & we have an opportunity to improve the action.
The Elevation of Positive Emotions through PAAR Appreciating the positive in ourselves, in our work, lives and communities does not simply reflect success and good health, it can also produce success and good health.
PAAR (Ghaye et al 2008) is a style of research that requires a particular frame of mind. It has 5 dimensions. Space Participation Appreciation Action Reflection
SPACE( physical and psycho-social ) Question: How far do the spaces you create for participation constructively challenge, support or reproduce existing experiences, actions, structures and meanings? Space making (the ‘where’ of physical space) Space taking (occupying space by right/invitation) Space shaping (the ‘rules of the game’)
Participation (as a potentially transformative process) Participation-as-practicelocated at the heart of ‘community’ development(Ledwith & Springett, 2010) Participation as (potentially) empowering (Cooke & Kothari, 2001) Participation as democracy (creating spaces where people can argue, disagree, discuss, decide & learn – Tandon 2008) Participation as social justice (at the interface of domination and liberation – political nature of everyday life- Griffiths, 2003)
Appreciation (and using our appreciative intelligence – Thatchekery & Metzker, 2006) Appreciation as re-framing(shifting the balance from deficit-based to strengths-based discourses – Rath & Conchie 2008) Appreciating the positive (and using this to broaden and build – Fredrickson, 2010, Marchi & Ghaye, 2010) Appreciation as generative (building a better future from aspects of the positive present – Bushe 2007)
Action (as an intervention to improve) 1st generation: Action Research (AR - eg. Lewin, Argyris) What is the practical problem I need to address in my work? 2nd generation: Participatory Action Research (PAR – Fals-Border & Rahman) What can we do together to change the situation here? 3rd generation: Participatory and Appreciative Action Research (Cooperrider et al) How can we build and sustain a better future by working more ethically from aspects of the positive present?
Reflection (that is strengths-based - Ghaye et al 2008) Reflection as a kind of thinking(Dewey 1933) Reflective practice as knowing through and in the actions of our work practices (Schön 1983) Reflective inquiry as a critical interrogation of the social and political contexts of learning (Freire 1970) Reflective learning as enhancing human flourishing(Ghaye 2010)
PAAR and HUMAN FLOURISHING The challenges to human flourishing are cynicism & negativity. We need OPTIMISM & POSITIVITY to combat this.
THE PURPOSES OF PAAR – in -PRACTICE … the best in the present situation … what needs to be amplified or changed to make things (even) better PAAR to … … what needs to be done, by whom & with what effects … opportunities for people to be the best they can be, to achieve their goals.
PAAR – in – PRACTICE (using the power of the positive question)
Ethics Empowerment Appreciation Participation Space Space-making, space-taking & space-shaping Valuing people & things Working with ethical conflicts & dilemmas Researchable aspects of PAAR-in-PRACTICE Influencing decision-making Having the courage to act to improve things
Example of PAAR - in – PRACTICE The Reflect-OR Project 2008-2010 Funded by the EU Commission: A Leonardo da Vinci Project The challengeBetween 2008-2010 to determine how far the effectiveness of job guidance counsellors in Italy, Switzerland and Bulgaria can be enhanced through the transfer of innovation from a previous project, of a work-based learning process of reflection-with-action. The project’s aim Using the participatory and appreciative action and reflection (PAAR) methodology, to enable job guidance counsellors to become more empowered to improve their work and their workplace, thus offering better work-related support services and contributing to the European strategy for improving employability in a knowledge-based society. Website: http://www.ref-or.eu
Strengths-based Activity - ASSET MAPPING What do you like most about yourself? What is a real STRENGTH of yours? When you are at your best you …
TEAM STRENGTHENING Team Building Team Working Team Strengthening Team Learning People Purpose Values Roles Responsibilities Performance Reflection Resilience Agility Assets Diversity Influence
Strengths-based Activity - TEAM STRENGTHENING One person I would like to invite into my/the group is ….. The value this person brings is …. And in which way? So how would this strengthening make your team meetings/processes create more energy than they take away?
PAAR … and strengths-building(from Cooperrider, 2008) Outward into local community and global society
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